Abstract

We propose a poly vinylidene fluoride (PVDF)-clad graded index plastic optical fiber (GI POF) which exhibits excellent mechanical strength and low bending loss property. A main concern of PVDF-clad GI POFs is the bandwidth degradation due to its specific waveguide structure compared to the conventional poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA)-based GI POF. We design the index profile of PVDF-clad GI POFs to maintain high bandwidth under a restricted mode launch condition. However, when mode coupling exists in PVDF-clad GI POFs, the bandwidth can be degraded. Hence, for high bandwidth performance, we investigate a way to reduce the mode coupling in PVDF-clad GI POFs. We find that the fiber numerical aperture (NA) is a key factor in controlling the mode coupling. By adjusting the NA of the GI core region to be as high as 0.17, bandwidth higher than 2 GHz for 100 m distance is achieved by the PVDF-clad GI POF. In addition, the propagating mode properties of the optimized PVDF-clad GI POF are investigated, particularly when the fiber is statically bent, because such a fiber bending can enhance mode coupling. We find that the high bandwidth performance is maintained in the PVDF-clad GI POF, even under severe bending conditions if the GI core region has an NA of 0.17.

© 2007 IEEE

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  1. J. Goudeau, G. Widawski, M. Rossbach, B. Bareel, R. Helvenstein, L. Huff, "GI POF for Gb ethernet links," Proc. 13th Int. Plastic Optical Fibre Conf. (2004) pp. 76-81.
  2. A. M. J. Koonen, H. van den Boom, L. Bakker, J. Zeng, G. D. Khoe, "Integration of services in short-range multimode polymer optical fibre networks by exploiting the higher-order fibre passbands," Proc. 13th Int. Plastic Optical Fibre Conf. (2004) pp. 90-97.
  3. T. Ishigure, E. Nihei, S. Yamazaki, K. Kobayashi, Y. Koike, "2.5 Gb/s 100 m data transmission using graded-index polymer optical fiber and high-speed laser diode at 650 nm wavelength," Electron. Lett. 31, 467-468 (1995).
  4. T. Ishigure, S. Tanaka, E. Kobayashi, Y. Koike, "Accurate refractive index profiling in a graded-index plastic optical fiber exceeding gigabit transmission rates," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 1449-1556 (2002).
  5. Y. Nakamura, Y. Mizushima, M. Satou, M. Katoh, Y. Ohashi, "The development of graded-index plastic optical fiber (LUMISTAR) and high speed optical transmission system," Fuji Film Res. Dev. 64-68 (2005) (in Japanese).
  6. A. Tanaka, H. Sawada, Y. Kojima, "Application of poly (vinylidene fluoride) and poly methyl methacrylate) blends to optical material," Polymer J. 22, 463-467 (1990).
  7. Modern Fluoropolymers West Essex (Wiley, 1997).
  8. M. Sato, T. Ishigure, Y. Koike, "Thermally stable high-bandwidth graded-index polymer optical fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 952-958 (2000).
  9. D. G. Cunningham, W. G. Lane, Gigabit Ethernet Networking (Macmillan, 1999).
  10. K. Ohdoko, T. Ishigure, Y. Koike, "Propagating mode analysis and design of waveguide parameters of GI POF for very short-reach network use," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 79-81 (2005).
  11. T. Ishigure, K. Ohdoko, Y. Ishiyama, Y. Koike, "Mode-coupling control and new index profile of GI POF for very-short-reach networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 4155-4168 (2005).
  12. S. Junger, M. Schrader, A. Ploetz, W. Tschekalinskij, N. Weber, "High linearity CATV transmission with GI-POF and SI-POF," Proc. 13th Int. Plastic Optical Fibre Conf. (2004) pp. 106-112.
  13. T. Ishigure, M. Sato, A. Kondo, Y. Koike, "High-bandwidth graded-index polymer optical fiber with high-temperature stability," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 1443-1448 (2002).
  14. T. Ishigure, M. Hirai, M. Sato, Y. Koike, "Graded-index plastic optical fiber with high mechanical properties enabling easy network installations. I," J. Appl. Poym. Sci. 91, 404-409 (2004).
  15. T. Ishigure, M. Hirai, M. Sato, Y. Koike, "Graded-index plastic optical fiber with high mechanical properties enabling easy network installations. II," J. Appl. Poym. Sci. 91, 410-416 (2004).
  16. Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Koike, "Determination of the refractive-index profile of light-focusing rods: accuracy of a method using Interphako interference microscopy," Appl. Opt. 19, 2866-2872 (1980).
  17. D. Gloge, E. A. J. Marcatili, "Multimode theory of graded-core fibers," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 1563-1578 (1973).
  18. T. Ishigure, M. Kano, Y. Koike, "Which is a more serious factor to the bandwidth of GI POF: differential mode attenuation or mode coupling?," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 959-966 (2000).
  19. K. Makino, T. Ishigure, Y. Koike, "Waveguide parameter design of graded-index plastic optical fibers for bending-loss reduction," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, (2006).

2006 (1)

K. Makino, T. Ishigure, Y. Koike, "Waveguide parameter design of graded-index plastic optical fibers for bending-loss reduction," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, (2006).

2005 (3)

Y. Nakamura, Y. Mizushima, M. Satou, M. Katoh, Y. Ohashi, "The development of graded-index plastic optical fiber (LUMISTAR) and high speed optical transmission system," Fuji Film Res. Dev. 64-68 (2005) (in Japanese).

K. Ohdoko, T. Ishigure, Y. Koike, "Propagating mode analysis and design of waveguide parameters of GI POF for very short-reach network use," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 79-81 (2005).

T. Ishigure, K. Ohdoko, Y. Ishiyama, Y. Koike, "Mode-coupling control and new index profile of GI POF for very-short-reach networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 4155-4168 (2005).

2004 (2)

T. Ishigure, M. Hirai, M. Sato, Y. Koike, "Graded-index plastic optical fiber with high mechanical properties enabling easy network installations. I," J. Appl. Poym. Sci. 91, 404-409 (2004).

T. Ishigure, M. Hirai, M. Sato, Y. Koike, "Graded-index plastic optical fiber with high mechanical properties enabling easy network installations. II," J. Appl. Poym. Sci. 91, 410-416 (2004).

2002 (2)

T. Ishigure, M. Sato, A. Kondo, Y. Koike, "High-bandwidth graded-index polymer optical fiber with high-temperature stability," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 1443-1448 (2002).

T. Ishigure, S. Tanaka, E. Kobayashi, Y. Koike, "Accurate refractive index profiling in a graded-index plastic optical fiber exceeding gigabit transmission rates," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 1449-1556 (2002).

2000 (2)

M. Sato, T. Ishigure, Y. Koike, "Thermally stable high-bandwidth graded-index polymer optical fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 952-958 (2000).

T. Ishigure, M. Kano, Y. Koike, "Which is a more serious factor to the bandwidth of GI POF: differential mode attenuation or mode coupling?," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 959-966 (2000).

1995 (1)

T. Ishigure, E. Nihei, S. Yamazaki, K. Kobayashi, Y. Koike, "2.5 Gb/s 100 m data transmission using graded-index polymer optical fiber and high-speed laser diode at 650 nm wavelength," Electron. Lett. 31, 467-468 (1995).

1990 (1)

A. Tanaka, H. Sawada, Y. Kojima, "Application of poly (vinylidene fluoride) and poly methyl methacrylate) blends to optical material," Polymer J. 22, 463-467 (1990).

1980 (1)

1973 (1)

D. Gloge, E. A. J. Marcatili, "Multimode theory of graded-core fibers," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 1563-1578 (1973).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

D. Gloge, E. A. J. Marcatili, "Multimode theory of graded-core fibers," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 1563-1578 (1973).

Electron. Lett. (1)

T. Ishigure, E. Nihei, S. Yamazaki, K. Kobayashi, Y. Koike, "2.5 Gb/s 100 m data transmission using graded-index polymer optical fiber and high-speed laser diode at 650 nm wavelength," Electron. Lett. 31, 467-468 (1995).

Fuji Film Res. Dev. (1)

Y. Nakamura, Y. Mizushima, M. Satou, M. Katoh, Y. Ohashi, "The development of graded-index plastic optical fiber (LUMISTAR) and high speed optical transmission system," Fuji Film Res. Dev. 64-68 (2005) (in Japanese).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

K. Ohdoko, T. Ishigure, Y. Koike, "Propagating mode analysis and design of waveguide parameters of GI POF for very short-reach network use," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 79-81 (2005).

J. Appl. Poym. Sci. (1)

T. Ishigure, M. Hirai, M. Sato, Y. Koike, "Graded-index plastic optical fiber with high mechanical properties enabling easy network installations. II," J. Appl. Poym. Sci. 91, 410-416 (2004).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

T. Ishigure, M. Kano, Y. Koike, "Which is a more serious factor to the bandwidth of GI POF: differential mode attenuation or mode coupling?," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 959-966 (2000).

T. Ishigure, S. Tanaka, E. Kobayashi, Y. Koike, "Accurate refractive index profiling in a graded-index plastic optical fiber exceeding gigabit transmission rates," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 1449-1556 (2002).

J. Appl. Poym. Sci. (1)

T. Ishigure, M. Hirai, M. Sato, Y. Koike, "Graded-index plastic optical fiber with high mechanical properties enabling easy network installations. I," J. Appl. Poym. Sci. 91, 404-409 (2004).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

K. Makino, T. Ishigure, Y. Koike, "Waveguide parameter design of graded-index plastic optical fibers for bending-loss reduction," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, (2006).

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

T. Ishigure, M. Sato, A. Kondo, Y. Koike, "High-bandwidth graded-index polymer optical fiber with high-temperature stability," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 1443-1448 (2002).

T. Ishigure, K. Ohdoko, Y. Ishiyama, Y. Koike, "Mode-coupling control and new index profile of GI POF for very-short-reach networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 4155-4168 (2005).

M. Sato, T. Ishigure, Y. Koike, "Thermally stable high-bandwidth graded-index polymer optical fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 952-958 (2000).

Polymer J. (1)

A. Tanaka, H. Sawada, Y. Kojima, "Application of poly (vinylidene fluoride) and poly methyl methacrylate) blends to optical material," Polymer J. 22, 463-467 (1990).

Other (5)

Modern Fluoropolymers West Essex (Wiley, 1997).

D. G. Cunningham, W. G. Lane, Gigabit Ethernet Networking (Macmillan, 1999).

J. Goudeau, G. Widawski, M. Rossbach, B. Bareel, R. Helvenstein, L. Huff, "GI POF for Gb ethernet links," Proc. 13th Int. Plastic Optical Fibre Conf. (2004) pp. 76-81.

A. M. J. Koonen, H. van den Boom, L. Bakker, J. Zeng, G. D. Khoe, "Integration of services in short-range multimode polymer optical fibre networks by exploiting the higher-order fibre passbands," Proc. 13th Int. Plastic Optical Fibre Conf. (2004) pp. 90-97.

S. Junger, M. Schrader, A. Ploetz, W. Tschekalinskij, N. Weber, "High linearity CATV transmission with GI-POF and SI-POF," Proc. 13th Int. Plastic Optical Fibre Conf. (2004) pp. 106-112.

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