Abstract

In this paper, an investigation of the tuning characteristics of electrically tunable long-period gratings (LPGs) is presented. A precise four-layer model is used to quantitatively analyze the tuning potential of the gratings, and experimental data are provided to support the analysis. The four-layer model includes a silica core layer with an inscribed LPG, a thin silica cladding layer (\sim 40\ µm), an ultrathin (\sim 50 nm) high refractive index indium-tin dioxide (ITO) inner electrode layer, and a tunable electrooptic (E-O) polymer layer. It has been found that the inner electrode layer, made of high refractive index ITO, can be modeled as a high refractive index overlay and causes the forward-propagating modes in the thin silica cladding to reorganize as the ambient refractive index changes. This reorganization effect can lead to a significant increase (ten plus fold) in the tuning range of LPG tunable filters. Moreover, the required specifications of the tunable polymer layer are quantitatively analyzed. Finally, the required characteristics of the E-O polymer is realized by using a nanocomposite ferroelectric relaxor poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene-chlorofluoroethylene) terpolymer.

© 2006 IEEE

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  1. N. Grote and H. Venghaus, Fiber Optic Communication Devices, Berlin: Germany: Springer-Verlag, 2001, ch. 7.
  2. A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan and J. E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 58-65, Jan. 1996.
  3. F. Cattaneo, K. Baldwin, S. Yang, T. Krupenkine, S. Ramachandran and J. A. Rogers, "Digitally tunable microfluidic optical fiber devices", J. Microelectromech. Syst., vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 907-912, Dec. 2003.
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  5. X. Dong, X. Yang, P. Shum and C. C. Chan, "Tunable WDM filter with 0.8-nm channel spacing using a pair of long-period fiber gratings", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 795-797, Apr. 2005.
  6. S. Yin, Q. Zhang, K. W. Chung, R. Yang, Z. Cheng and Y. Lu, "Investigation of the electro-optic properties of electron-irradiated poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) copolymer", Opt. Eng., vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 670-672, Mar. 2000.
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  8. Q. M. Zhang, V. Bharti and X. Zhao, "Giant electrostriction and relaxor ferroelectric behavior in electron-irradiated poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluorotehylene) copolymer", Science, vol. 280, no. 5372, pp. 2101-2104, Jun. 1998.
  9. F. Xia, Z. Y. Cheng, H. Xu, Q. M. Zhang, G. Kavarnos, R. Ting, G. Abdul-Sedat and K. D. Belfield, "High electromechanical responses in terpolymer of poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene-chlorofluoroethylene)", Adv. Mater., vol. 14, no. 21, pp. 1574-1577, Nov. 2002.
  10. D. Y. Jeong, Y. K. Wang, M. Huang, Q. M. Zhang, G. J. Kavarnos and F. Bauer, "Electro-optical response of the ferroelectric relaxor poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene-chlorofluoroethylene) terpolymer", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 96, no. 1, pp. 316-319, Jul. 2004.
  11. I. D. Villar, I. R. Matias, F. J. Arregui and P. Lalanne, "Optimization of sensitivity in long period fiber gratings with overlay deposition", Opt. Express, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 56-69, Jan. 2005.
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Other (18)

N. Grote and H. Venghaus, Fiber Optic Communication Devices, Berlin: Germany: Springer-Verlag, 2001, ch. 7.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan and J. E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 58-65, Jan. 1996.

F. Cattaneo, K. Baldwin, S. Yang, T. Krupenkine, S. Ramachandran and J. A. Rogers, "Digitally tunable microfluidic optical fiber devices", J. Microelectromech. Syst., vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 907-912, Dec. 2003.

A. A. Abramov, B. J. Eggleton, J. A. Rogers, R. P. Espindola, A. Hale, R. S. Windeler and T. A. Strasser, "Electrically tunable efficient broad-band fiber filter", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 445-447, Apr. 1999.

X. Dong, X. Yang, P. Shum and C. C. Chan, "Tunable WDM filter with 0.8-nm channel spacing using a pair of long-period fiber gratings", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 795-797, Apr. 2005.

S. Yin, Q. Zhang, K. W. Chung, R. Yang, Z. Cheng and Y. Lu, "Investigation of the electro-optic properties of electron-irradiated poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) copolymer", Opt. Eng., vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 670-672, Mar. 2000.

K. W. Chung and S. Yin, "Analysis of a widely tunable long-period grating by use of an ultrathin cladding layer and higher-order cladding mode coupling", Opt. Lett., vol. 29, no. 8, p. 812, Apr. 2004.

Q. M. Zhang, V. Bharti and X. Zhao, "Giant electrostriction and relaxor ferroelectric behavior in electron-irradiated poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluorotehylene) copolymer", Science, vol. 280, no. 5372, pp. 2101-2104, Jun. 1998.

F. Xia, Z. Y. Cheng, H. Xu, Q. M. Zhang, G. Kavarnos, R. Ting, G. Abdul-Sedat and K. D. Belfield, "High electromechanical responses in terpolymer of poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene-chlorofluoroethylene)", Adv. Mater., vol. 14, no. 21, pp. 1574-1577, Nov. 2002.

D. Y. Jeong, Y. K. Wang, M. Huang, Q. M. Zhang, G. J. Kavarnos and F. Bauer, "Electro-optical response of the ferroelectric relaxor poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene-chlorofluoroethylene) terpolymer", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 96, no. 1, pp. 316-319, Jul. 2004.

I. D. Villar, I. R. Matias, F. J. Arregui and P. Lalanne, "Optimization of sensitivity in long period fiber gratings with overlay deposition", Opt. Express, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 56-69, Jan. 2005.

Z. Wang, J. R. Heflin, R. H. Stolen and S. Ramachandran, "Analysis of optical response of long period fiber gratings to nm-thick thin-film coatings", Opt. Express, vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 2808-2813, Apr. 2005.

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano and A. Cutolo, "Mode transition in high refractive index coated long period gratings", Opt. Express, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 19-34, Jan. 2006.

T. Erdogan, "Cladding-mode resonances in short-and long-period fiber grating filters", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, Opt. Image Sci., vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 1760-1773, Aug. 1997.

E. Anemogiannis, E. N. Glytsis and T. K. Gaylord, "Transmission characteristics of long-period fiber gratings having arbitrary azimuthal/radial refractive index variation", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 218-227, Jan. 2003.

C. Yeh and G. Lindgren, "Computing the propagation characteristics of radially stratified fibers: An efficient method", Appl. Opt., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 483-493, Feb. 1977.

M. J. Adams, An Introduction to Optical Waveguides, New York: Wiley, 1981.

Y. S. Jung, "Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies on the optical constants of indium tin oxide films deposited under various sputtering conditions", Thin Solid Films, vol. 467, no. 1/2, pp. 36-42, Nov. 2004.

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