Abstract

A free space adaptive optical interconnect is reported, in which an optically modulated channel from a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser at 1.25 Gb/s is steered using reconfigurable binary phase gratings displayed on a ferroelectric liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS) spatial light modulator (SLM), to correct for misalignment. The optical system, and addressing scheme to maintain a transparent optical path, is described. The measured optical losses total 13.6 dB, sufficient to give a bit error rate (BER) of 10<sup>-12</sup> with current optical transmitter and receiver technology. This is, to our knowledge, the first demonstration of a high-speed data transmission through an adaptive optical interconnect using an "off-the-shelf" commercial ferroelectric display panel.

© 2006 IEEE

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  28. M. Arai, N. Nishiyama, M. Azuchi, S. Shinada, A. Matsutani, F. Koyama and K. Iga, "GaInAs/GaAs single mode vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) array on GaAs (311)B", IEICE Trans. Electron., vol. E84C, no. 3, pp. 331-338, 2001.

Other (28)

W. Klaus, "Development of LC optics for free-space laser communications", AEU, Int. J. Electron. Commun., vol. 56, no. 4, pp. 243-253, Jun. 2002.

H. J. White, C. P. Barrett, M. J. Birch, J. R. Brocklehurst, N. A. Brownjohn, W. A. Crossland, A. B. Davey, D. M. Monro, D. T. Neilson, J. A. Nicholls, G. M. Proudley, B. Robertson, R. W. A. Scarr, M. Snook, C. Stace, M. R. Taghizadeh, D. Vass and A. C. Walker, "Optically connected parallel machine: Design, performance and application", Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng.-Optoelectron., vol. 146, no. 3, pp. 125-136, Jun. 1999.

C. W. Wilmsen, C. J. Duan, J. R. Collington, M. P. Dames and W. A. Crossland, "Vertical cavity surface emitting laser based optoelectronic asynchronous transfer mode switch", Opt. Eng., vol. 38, no. 7, pp. 1216-1222, Jul. 1999.

C. J. Henderson, B. Robertson, D. G. Leyva, T. Wilkinson, D. O'Brien and G. Faulkner, "Control of a free space adaptive optical interconnect using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator for beam steering", Opt. Eng., vol. 44, no. 7, p. 075401, Jul. 2005.

D. C. O'Brien, G. E. Faulkner, T. D. Wilkinson, B. Robertson and D. G. Leyva, "Design and analysis of an adaptive board-to-board dynamic holographic interconnect", Appl. Opt., vol. 43, no. 16, pp. 3297-3305, Jun. 2004.

W. A. Crossland, I. G. Manolis, M. M. Redmond, K. L. Tan, T. D. Wilkinson, M. J. Holmes, T. R. Parker, H. H. Chu, J. Croucher, V. A. Handerek, S. T. Warr, B. Robertson, I. G. Bonas, R. Franklin, C. Stace, H. J. White, R. A. Woolley and G. Henshall, "Holographic optical switching: The ‘ROSES’ demonstrator", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 1845-1854, Dec. 2000.

K. Heggarty, B. Fracasso, C. Letort, J. L. D. de la Tocnaye, M. Birch and D. Kruerke, "Silicon backplane ferroelectric liquid crystal spatial light modulator for uses within an optical telecommunications environment", Ferroelectrics, vol. 312, pp. 461-477, 2004.

D. T. Neilson, R. Frahm, P. Kolodner, C. A. Bolle, R. Ryf, J. Kim, A. R. Papazian, C. J. Nuzman, A. Gasparyan, N. R. Basavanhally, V. A. Aksyuk and J. V. Gates, "256 × 256 port optical cross-connect subsystem", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 1499-1509, Jun. 2004.

G. C. Boisset, B. Robertson and H. S. Hinton, "Design and construction of an active alignment demonstrator for a free-space optical interconnect", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 676-678, Jun. 1995.

T. D. Wilkinson, C. Henderson, D. G. Leyva, B. Robertson, D. O'Brien and G. Faulkner, "Adaptive optical interconnect using an FLC SLM", Ferroelectrics, vol. 312, pp. 503-507, 2004.

D. G. Leyva, B. Robertson, C. Henderson, T. Wilkinson, D. C. O'Brien and G. Faulkner, "Free space optical interconnect using an FLC SLM for active beam steering and wave front correction", Proc. SPIE, vol. 5453, no. 1, pp. 62-72, 2004.

N. Collings, W. A. Crossland, P. J. Ayliffe, D. G. Vass and I. Underwood, "Evolutionary development of advanced liquid-crystal spatial light modulators", Appl. Opt., vol. 28, no. 22, pp. 4740-4747, Nov. 1989.

T. D. Wilkinson, W. A. Crossland, S. T. Warr, T. C. B. Yu, A. B. Davey and R. J. Mears, "New applications for ferroelectric liquid crystals", Liquid Cryst. Today, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 1-6, 1994.

H. Zhang and K. D'Have, "Surface trapping of ions and symmetric addressing scheme for FLCDs", Mol. Cryst. Liquid Cryst., vol. 351, pp. 27-34, 2000.

D. C. O'Brien and D. J. McKnight, "A compact holographically routed optical crossbar using a ferroelectric liquid-crystal over silicon spatial light modulator", presented at the Int. Conf. Optical Computing, Edinburgh, U.K.,1995.

J. Tatum, D. Smith, J. Guenter and R. Johnson, "High speed characteristics of VCSELs", Proc. SPIE, vol. 3004, pp. 151-159, 1997.

W. Crossland and T. D. Wilkinson, "Nondisplay applications of liquid crystals," in Handbook of Liquid Crystals, D. Demus, J. Goodby, G. W. Gray, H. W. Spiess, and V. Vill, Eds. Weinheim: Germany: Wiley-VCH, 1998,vol. 1, pp. 763-822.

K. L. Tan, S. T. Warr, I. G. Manolis, T. D. Wilkinson, M. M. Redmond, W. A. Crossland, R. J. Mears and B. Robertson, "Dynamic holography for optical interconnections. II. Routing holograms with predictable location and intensity of each diffraction order", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, Opt. Image Sci., vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 205-215, Jan. 2001.

M. Johansson, S. Hard, B. Robertson, I. Manolis, T. Wilkinson and W. Crossland, "Adaptive beam steering implemented in a ferroelectric liquid-crystal spatial-light-modulator free-space, fiber-optic switch", Appl. Opt., vol. 41, no. 23, pp. 4904-4911, Aug. 2002.

D. G. Leyva, B. Robertson, C. J. Henderson and T. D. Wilkinson, "Crosstalk analysis in a telecentric adaptive free-space optical relay based on a spatial light modulator", Appl. Opt., vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 63-75, Jan. 2006.

Maxim, "HFAN-03.0.2: Optical Receiver Performance Evaluation",

Maxim, "HFAN-03.0.0: Accurately Estimating Optical Receiver Sensitivity",

W. A. Crossland, T. D. Wilkinson, I. G. Manolis, M. M. Redmond and A. B. Davey, "Telecommunications applications of LCOS devices", Mol. Cryst. Liquid Cryst., vol. 375, pp. 1-13, 2003.

I. Schmale, "Parallel optics: The solution for high speed interconnects", vol. 2003, Sep. 2003.

R. Bockstaele, M. D. Wilde, W. Meeus, O. Rits, H. Lambrecht, J. V. Campenhout, J. D. Baets, P. V. Daele, E. v. d. Berg, M. Klemenc, S. Eitel, R. Annen, J. V. Koetsem, G. Widawski, B. Bareel, J. Goudeau, P. L. Moine, R. Fries, P. Straub, F. Marion, J. Routin and R. Baets, "A parallel optical interconnect link with on chip optical access", Proc. SPIE, vol. 5453, pp. 124-133, 2004.

G. L. Bona, B. J. Offrein, U. Bapst, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, R. Budd, R. Dangel, L. Dellmann and F. Horst, "Characterization of parallel optical-interconnect waveguides integrated on a printed circuit board", Proc. SPIE, vol. 5453, pp. 134-141, 2004.

C. Cook, J. E. Cunningham, A. Hargrove, G. G. Ger, K. W. Goossen, W. Y. Jan, H. H. Kim, R. Krause, M. Manges, M. Morrissey, M. Perinpanayagam, A. Persaud, G. J. Shevchuk, V. Sinyansky and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, "A 36-channel parallel optical interconnect module based on optoelectronics-on-VLSI technology", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 387-399, Mar./Apr. 2003.

M. Arai, N. Nishiyama, M. Azuchi, S. Shinada, A. Matsutani, F. Koyama and K. Iga, "GaInAs/GaAs single mode vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) array on GaAs (311)B", IEICE Trans. Electron., vol. E84C, no. 3, pp. 331-338, 2001.

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