Abstract

This paper presents a design approach for multistage gain-flattened fiber Raman amplifiers (FRAs) utilizing the multiwavelength-pumping scheme. To the authors' best knowledge, it is the first time that Raman amplifiers of more than one stage are considered in the design process so as to optimize multistage amplifier performance simultaneously. It is shown both theoretically and experimentally that optical power path integrals among several stages can, in principle, be arbitrarily redistributed while maintaining its gain performance, as long as the consolidated sums at different pump wavelengths are unaltered. The overall gain spectrum of a multistage FRA is thus very close to the cumulative spectrum of chained identical single-stage amplifiers with span numbers equal to its stages. However, the traditional prerequisite to minimize gain flatness in every stage is no longer required. It provides flexibilities to take full advantage of pump lasers with moderate launched powers and allows the reduction of the number of pump lasers and/or wavelengths in most stages. By arranging small positive net gain to the first stages and enhancing it at shorter signal wavelengths, significant reduction and flattening of total noise figure (NF) is achieved even if a pure backward pumping scheme is utilized. Finally, various pumping configurations for Raman amplifiers with hybrid dispersion-compensating fiber (DCF) and standard single-mode fiber (SMF) are discussed, with the objective of realizing flattened gain and noise performance simultaneously without using forward pumps.

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  1. L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon and M. N. Islam, "Soliton propagation in long fibers with periodically compensated loss", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. QE-22, no. 1, pp. 157-173, Jan. 1986.
  2. M. N. Islam, "Raman amplifiers for telecommunications", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 548-559, May/Jun. 2002.
  3. J. Bromage, "Raman amplification for fiber communications systems", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 79-93, Jan. 2004.
  4. D. Garbuzov, R. Menna, A. Komissarov, M. Maiorov, V. Khalfin, A. Tsekoun, S. Todorov and I. Connolly, "1400-1480 nm ridge-waveguide pump lasers with 1 watt CW output power for EDFA and Raman amplification", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communications Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2001, pp. PD-18-1-PD-18-3.
  5. S. Namiki and Y. Emori, "Ultrabroad-band Raman amplifiers pumped and gain equalized by wavelength-division-multiplexed high-power laser diodes", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 3-16, Jan./Feb. 2001.
  6. Y. Emori, K. Tanaka and S. Namiki, "100 nm bandwidth flat-gain Raman amplifiers pumped and gain-equalised by 12-wavelength-channel WDM laser diode unit", Electron. Lett., vol. 35, no. 16, pp. 1355-1356, Aug. 1999.
  7. J.-C. Bouteiller, J. Bromage, H.-J. Thiele, L. E. Nelson, K. Brar and S. Stulz, "An optimization process for Raman-amplified long-span transmission", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 326-328, Jan. 2004.
  8. E. Yoshihiroa, K. Sokoa and N. Shua, "Broadband flat-gain and low-noise Raman amplifiers pumped by wavelength-multiplexed high-power laser diodes", Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 107-122, Apr. 2002.
  9. G. Bolognini, S. Sugliani and F. Di Pasquale, "Double Rayleigh scattering noise in Raman amplifiers using pump time-division-multiplexing schemes", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1286-1288, May 2004.
  10. H. Kidorf, K. Rottwitt, M. Nissov, M. Ma and E. Rabarijaona, "Pump interactions in a 100-nm bandwidth Raman amplifier", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 530-532, May 1999.
  11. M. Achtenhagen, T. G. Chang and B. Nyman, "Analysis of a multiple-pump Raman amplifier", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 78, no. 10, pp. 1322-1324, Mar. 2001.
  12. X. Zhou, C. Lu, P. Shum and T. H. Cheng, "A simplified model and optimal design of a multiwavelength backward-pumped fiber Raman amplifier", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 9, pp. 945-947, Sep. 2001.
  13. M. Yan, J. Chen, W. Jiang, J. Li, J. Chen and X. Li, "Automatic design scheme for optical-fiber Raman amplifiers backward-pumped with multiple laser diode pumps", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 9, pp. 948-950, Sep. 2001.
  14. V. E. Perlin and H. G. Winful, "Optimal design of flat-gain wide-band fiber Raman amplifiers", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 250-254, Feb. 2002.
  15. Z. H. Li, C. Lu, J. Chen and C. L. Zhao, "Raman amplifier design using geometry compensation technique", Opt. Express, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 436-441, Feb. 2004.
  16. M. Muktoyuk, S. Gray and A. Evans, "A method for progressive optimization of pump power and wavelengths for Raman amplification", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1283-1285, May 2004.
  17. F. Forghieri, R. W. Tkach and A. R. Chraplyvy, "Effect of modulation statistics on Raman crosstalk in WDM systems", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 101-103, Jan. 1995.
  18. D. N. Christodoulides and R. B. Jander, "Evolution of stimulated Raman crosstalk in wavelength division multiplexed systems", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 8, no. 12, pp. 1722-1724, Dec. 1996.
  19. T. T. Kung, C. T. Chang, J. C. Dung and S. Chi, "Four-wave mixing between pump and signal in a distributed Raman amplifier", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 1164-1170, May 2003.
  20. Y. Emori, "Ultrabroadband fiber Raman amplifiers", presented at the Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), Copenhagen, Denmark,Paper S3.02, 2002.
  21. C. R. S. Fludger, V. Handerek and R. J. Mears, "Pump to signal RIN transfer in Raman fiber amplifiers", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 19, no. 8, pp. 1140-1148, Aug. 2001.
  22. X. Zhou and M. Birk, "New design method for a WDM system employing broad-band Raman amplification", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 912-914, Mar. 2004.
  23. T. Tanaka, T. Naito, N. Shimojoh, H. Nakamoto, K. Torii, T. Ueki, M. Suyama and A. Sugiyama, "Comparison between dispersion management for long-haul WDM systems using all-Raman-amplifier repeaters", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communications Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2002, pp. 359-361.
  24. T. Miyamoto, T. Tsuzaki, T. Okuno, M. Kakui, M. Hirano, M. Onishi and M. Shigematsu, "Raman amplification over 100 nm-bandwidth with dispersion and dispersion slope compensation for conventional single mode fiber", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communications Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2002, pp. 66-68.
  25. R. Hainberger, T. Hoshida, T. Terahara and H. Onaka, "Comparison of span configurations of Raman-amplified dispersion-managed fibers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 471-473, Apr. 2002.
  26. C. Peucheret, N. Hanik, R. Freund, L. Molle and P. Jeppesen, "Optimization of pre-and post-dispersion compensation schemes for 10-Gbits/s NRZ links using standard and dispersion compensating fibers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 992-994, Aug. 2000.
  27. T. Tsuzaki, M. Kakui, M. Hirano, M. Onishi, Y. Nakai and M. Nishimura, "Broadband discrete fiber Raman amplifier with high differential gain operating over 1.65 mm-band", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communications Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2001, pp. MA3-1-MA3-3.

Other

L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon and M. N. Islam, "Soliton propagation in long fibers with periodically compensated loss", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. QE-22, no. 1, pp. 157-173, Jan. 1986.

M. N. Islam, "Raman amplifiers for telecommunications", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 548-559, May/Jun. 2002.

J. Bromage, "Raman amplification for fiber communications systems", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 79-93, Jan. 2004.

D. Garbuzov, R. Menna, A. Komissarov, M. Maiorov, V. Khalfin, A. Tsekoun, S. Todorov and I. Connolly, "1400-1480 nm ridge-waveguide pump lasers with 1 watt CW output power for EDFA and Raman amplification", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communications Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2001, pp. PD-18-1-PD-18-3.

S. Namiki and Y. Emori, "Ultrabroad-band Raman amplifiers pumped and gain equalized by wavelength-division-multiplexed high-power laser diodes", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 3-16, Jan./Feb. 2001.

Y. Emori, K. Tanaka and S. Namiki, "100 nm bandwidth flat-gain Raman amplifiers pumped and gain-equalised by 12-wavelength-channel WDM laser diode unit", Electron. Lett., vol. 35, no. 16, pp. 1355-1356, Aug. 1999.

J.-C. Bouteiller, J. Bromage, H.-J. Thiele, L. E. Nelson, K. Brar and S. Stulz, "An optimization process for Raman-amplified long-span transmission", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 326-328, Jan. 2004.

E. Yoshihiroa, K. Sokoa and N. Shua, "Broadband flat-gain and low-noise Raman amplifiers pumped by wavelength-multiplexed high-power laser diodes", Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 107-122, Apr. 2002.

G. Bolognini, S. Sugliani and F. Di Pasquale, "Double Rayleigh scattering noise in Raman amplifiers using pump time-division-multiplexing schemes", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1286-1288, May 2004.

H. Kidorf, K. Rottwitt, M. Nissov, M. Ma and E. Rabarijaona, "Pump interactions in a 100-nm bandwidth Raman amplifier", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 530-532, May 1999.

M. Achtenhagen, T. G. Chang and B. Nyman, "Analysis of a multiple-pump Raman amplifier", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 78, no. 10, pp. 1322-1324, Mar. 2001.

X. Zhou, C. Lu, P. Shum and T. H. Cheng, "A simplified model and optimal design of a multiwavelength backward-pumped fiber Raman amplifier", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 9, pp. 945-947, Sep. 2001.

M. Yan, J. Chen, W. Jiang, J. Li, J. Chen and X. Li, "Automatic design scheme for optical-fiber Raman amplifiers backward-pumped with multiple laser diode pumps", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 9, pp. 948-950, Sep. 2001.

V. E. Perlin and H. G. Winful, "Optimal design of flat-gain wide-band fiber Raman amplifiers", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 250-254, Feb. 2002.

Z. H. Li, C. Lu, J. Chen and C. L. Zhao, "Raman amplifier design using geometry compensation technique", Opt. Express, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 436-441, Feb. 2004.

M. Muktoyuk, S. Gray and A. Evans, "A method for progressive optimization of pump power and wavelengths for Raman amplification", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1283-1285, May 2004.

F. Forghieri, R. W. Tkach and A. R. Chraplyvy, "Effect of modulation statistics on Raman crosstalk in WDM systems", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 101-103, Jan. 1995.

D. N. Christodoulides and R. B. Jander, "Evolution of stimulated Raman crosstalk in wavelength division multiplexed systems", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 8, no. 12, pp. 1722-1724, Dec. 1996.

T. T. Kung, C. T. Chang, J. C. Dung and S. Chi, "Four-wave mixing between pump and signal in a distributed Raman amplifier", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 1164-1170, May 2003.

Y. Emori, "Ultrabroadband fiber Raman amplifiers", presented at the Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), Copenhagen, Denmark,Paper S3.02, 2002.

C. R. S. Fludger, V. Handerek and R. J. Mears, "Pump to signal RIN transfer in Raman fiber amplifiers", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 19, no. 8, pp. 1140-1148, Aug. 2001.

X. Zhou and M. Birk, "New design method for a WDM system employing broad-band Raman amplification", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 912-914, Mar. 2004.

T. Tanaka, T. Naito, N. Shimojoh, H. Nakamoto, K. Torii, T. Ueki, M. Suyama and A. Sugiyama, "Comparison between dispersion management for long-haul WDM systems using all-Raman-amplifier repeaters", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communications Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2002, pp. 359-361.

T. Miyamoto, T. Tsuzaki, T. Okuno, M. Kakui, M. Hirano, M. Onishi and M. Shigematsu, "Raman amplification over 100 nm-bandwidth with dispersion and dispersion slope compensation for conventional single mode fiber", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communications Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2002, pp. 66-68.

R. Hainberger, T. Hoshida, T. Terahara and H. Onaka, "Comparison of span configurations of Raman-amplified dispersion-managed fibers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 471-473, Apr. 2002.

C. Peucheret, N. Hanik, R. Freund, L. Molle and P. Jeppesen, "Optimization of pre-and post-dispersion compensation schemes for 10-Gbits/s NRZ links using standard and dispersion compensating fibers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 992-994, Aug. 2000.

T. Tsuzaki, M. Kakui, M. Hirano, M. Onishi, Y. Nakai and M. Nishimura, "Broadband discrete fiber Raman amplifier with high differential gain operating over 1.65 mm-band", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communications Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2001, pp. MA3-1-MA3-3.

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