Abstract

A deeply etched SiO<sub>2</sub> ridge waveguide including the buffer, core, and cladding is presented for realizing sharp bends. The present SiO<sub>2</sub> ridge waveguide has a strong confinement at the lateral direction, while it has a weak confinement at the vertical direction. Due to the strong confinement, a sharp bend (with a very small bending radius of about 10 μm) is obtained for an acceptable bending loss. A detailed analysis of the loss in a bent waveguide is given by using a finite-difference method. In order to reduce the transition loss, a narrow bending section with an optimal lateral offset is used. A low leakage loss is obtained by using wide straight waveguides, and linear tapers are used to connect the wide straight section and narrow bent sections.

© 2006 IEEE

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Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (3)

T. Miya, "Silica-based planar lightwave circuits: Passive and thermally active devices," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 6, 38-45 (2000).

M. K. Smit, C. van Dam, "Phasar-based WDM-devices: Principles, design and applications," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 236-250 (1996).

Y. Hibino, "Recent advances in high-density and large-scale AWG multi/demultiplexers with higher index-contrast silica-based PLCs," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 1090-1101 (2002).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

H. Y. Ou, "Trenches for building blocks of advanced planar components," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1334-1336 (2004).

F. Grillot, L. Vivien, S. Laval, D. Pascal, E. Cassan, "Size influence on the propagation loss induced by sidewall roughness in ultrasmall SOI waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1661-1663 (2004).

J. Lightw. Technol. (6)

M. Popović, K. Wada, S. Akiyama, H. A. Haus, J. Michel, "Air trenches for sharp silica waveguide bends," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 1762-1772 (2002).

S. Akiyama, M. Popović, P. T. Rakich, K. Wada, J. Michel, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, "Air trench bends and splitters for dense optical integration in low index contrast," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2271-2277 (2005).

N.-N. Feng, G.-R. Zhou, W. P. Huang, "Computation of full-vector modes for bending waveguide using cylindrical perfectly matched layers," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 1976-1980 (2002).

M. Kihtoku, T. Hirono, S. Oku, Y. Kadota, Y. Shibata, Y. Yoshikuni, "Control of higher order leaky modes in deep-ridge waveguides and application to low-crosstalk arrayed waveguide gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 499-508 (2004).

I. C. Goyal, R. L. Gallawa, A. K. Ghatak, "Bent planar waveguides and whispering gallery modes: A new method of analysis," J. Lightw. Technol. 8, 768-774 (1990).

T. Kitoh, N. Takato, M. Yasu, "Bending loss reduction in silica-based wave-guides by using lateral offsets," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 555-562 (1995).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, Opt. Image Sci. (1)

D. Dai, S. He, "Analysis for characteristics of bent rib waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, Opt. Image Sci. 21, 113-121 (2004).

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

K. Okamoto, "Recent progress of integrated optics planar lightwave circuits," Opt. Quantum Electron. 31, 107-129 (1999).

Other (1)

A. V. Lavrinenko, L. H. Frandsen, J. Fage-Pedersen, P. I. Borel, "Photonic crystal waveguides based on an antiresonant reflecting platform," Proc. 7th Int. Conf. Transparent Opt. Netw. (2005) pp. 273-276.

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