Abstract

Homodyne phase-shift-keying systems can achieve the best receiver sensitivity and the longest transmission distance among all optical communication systems. This paper reviews recent research efforts in the field and examines future possibilities that might lead toward potential practical use of these systems. Additionally, phase estimation techniques based on feed-forward phase recovery and digital delay-lock loop approaches are examined, simulated, and compared.

© 2006 IEEE

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Electron. Lett. (3)

S. Norimatsu, "10 Gb/s optical PSK homodyne transmission experiments using external cavity DFB LDs," Electron. Lett. 26, 648-649 (1990).

T. Okoshi, Y. H. Cheng, "Four-port homodyne receiver for optical fiber communications comprising phase and polarization diversities," Electron. Lett. 23, 377-378 (1987).

L. D. Tzeng, "Polarization-insensitive coherent receiver using a double balanced optical hybrid system," Electron. Lett. 23, 1195-1196 (1987).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (4)

C. Xu, "Differential phase-shift keying for high spectral efficiency optical transmissions," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 10, 281-293 (2004).

C. Xu, X. Liu, X. Wei, "Differential phase-shift keying for high spectral efficiency optical transmissions," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 10, 281-293 (2004).

J. M. Kahn, K.-P. Ho, "Spectral efficiency limits and modulation/detection techniques for DWDM systems," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 10, 259-272 (2004).

V. W. S. Chan, "Optical space communications," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 6, 959-975 (2000).

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits (1)

T. H. Lee, "A 2.5 V CMOS delay-locked loop for 18 Mbit, 500 megabyte/s DRAM," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 29, 1491-1496 (1994).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (15)

R. Noé, "PLL-free synchronous QPSK polarization multiplex/diversity receiver concept with digital I&Q baseband processing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 887-889 (2005).

M. H. Shih, "Integrated coherent transceivers for broad-band access networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1526-1528 (1997).

M. G. Taylor, "Coherent detection method using DSP for demodulation of signal and subsequent equalization of propagation impairments," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 674-676 (2004).

S. Bhandare, "5.94-Tb/s 1.49-b/s/Hz (40 $\times$ 2 $\times$ 2 $\times$ 40 Gb/s) RZ-DQPSK polarization-division multiplex C-band transmission over 324 km," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 914-916 (2005).

F. Ghirardi, "InP-based 10-GHz bandwidth polarization diversity heterodyne photoreceiver with electrooptical adjustability," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 814-816 (1994).

M. Hamacher, "Fabrication of a heterodyne receiver OEIC with optimized integration process using three MOVPE growth steps only," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 75-77 (1996).

U. Hilbk, "First system experiments with a monolithically integrated tunable polarization diversity heterodyne receiver OEIC on InP," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 129-131 (1995).

S. Norimatsu, "An optical 90$^{\circ}$-hybrid balanced receiver module using a planar lightwave circuit," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 737-739 (1995).

P. S. Cho, "Coherent homodyne detection of BPSK signals using time-gated amplification and $\hbox{LiNbO}_{3}$ optical 90$^{\circ}$ hybrid," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1727-1729 (2004).

J. M. Kahn, "4-Gb/s PSK homodyne transmission system using phase-locked semiconductor lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 285-287 (1990).

J. M. Kahn, "BPSK homodyne detection experiment using balanced optical phase-locked loop with quantized feedback," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 840-843 (1990).

S. Norimatsu, "PSK optical homodyne detection using external cavity laser diodes in Costas loop," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 374-376 (1990).

A. H. Gnauck, "Demonstration of 42.7-Gb/s DPSK receiver with 45 photons/bit sensitivity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 99-101 (2003).

S. Savory, A. Hadjifotiou, "Laser linewidth requirements for optical DQPSK systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 930-932 (2004).

O. K. Tonguz, R. E. Wagner, "Equivalence between preamplified direct detection and heterodyne receivers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 835-837 (1991).

IEEE Trans. Commun. (2)

G. J. Foschini, "Noncoherent detection of coherent lightwave signals corrupted by phase noise," IEEE Trans. Commun. 36, 306-314 (1988).

X. Zhu, J. M. Khan, "Free-space optical communication through atmospheric turbulence channels," IEEE Trans. Commun. 50, 1293-1300 (2002).

J. Lightw. Technol. (23)

K.-P. Ho, J. M. Kahn, "Electronic compensation technique to mitigate nonlinear phase noise," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 779-783 (2004).

R. Noé, "Phase noise-tolerant synchronous QPSK/BPSK baseband-type intradyne receiver concept with feedforward carrier recovery," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 802-808 (2005).

F. Derr, "Coherent optical QPSK intradyne system: Concept and digital receiver realization," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 1290-1296 (1992).

L. Wang, "Counterreceiving heterodyne detection with an integrated coherent transceiver and its applications in bandwidth-on-demand access networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 1724-1731 (1999).

E.-J. Bachus, "Coherent optical systems implemented for business traffic routing and access: The RACE COBRA project," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 1309-1319 (1996).

S. Yamazaki, K. Emura, "Feasibility study on QPSK optical-heterodyne detection system," J. Lightw. Technol. 8, 1646-1653 (1990).

S. Norimatsu, "Optimum optical power splitting ratio of decision driven phase-locked loop in BPSK optical homodyne receiver," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 2183-2190 (1995).

L. G. Kazovsky, "Wide-linewidth phase diversity homodyne receivers," J. Lightw. Technol. 6, 1527-1536 (1988).

A. W. Davis, "Phase diversity techniques for coherent optical receivers," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-5, 561-572 (1987).

S. Norimatsu, K. Iwashita, "Linewidth requirements for optical synchronous detection systems with nonnegligible loop delay time," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 341-349 (1992).

I. Garrett, "Impact of phase noise in weakly coherent systems: A new and accurate approach," J. Lightw. Technol. 8, 329-337 (1990).

L. G. Kazovsky, D. A. Atlas, "A 1320-nm experimental optical phase-locked loop: Performance investigation and PSK homodyne experiments at 140 Mb/s and 2 Gb/s," J. Lightw. Technol. 8, 1414-1425 (1990).

A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, "Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 115-130 (2005).

R. F. Kalman, "Dynamic range of coherent analog fiber-optic links," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 1263-1277 (1994).

L. G. Kazovsky, "Decision-driven phase-locked loop for optical homodyne receivers: Performance analysis and laser linewidth requirements," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-3, 1238-1247 (1985).

L. G. Kazovsky, "Balanced phase-locked loops for optical homodyne receivers: Performance analysis, design considerations, and laser linewidth requirements," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-4, 182-195 (1986).

S. Huang, L. Wang, "Exact evaluation of laser linewidth requirements for optical PSK homodyne communication systems with balanced PLL receivers," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 661-664 (1996).

L. G. Kazovsky, "Phase- and polarization-diversity coherent optical techniques," J. Lightw. Technol. 7, 279-292 (1989).

L. G. Kazovsky, "Performance analysis and laser linewidth requirements for optical PSK heterodyne communications systems," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-4, 415-425 (1986).

K. Kikuchi, "Degradation of bit-error rate in coherent optical communications due to spectral spread of the transmitter and the local oscillator," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-2, 1024-1033 (1984).

L. G. Kazovsky, O. K. Tonguz, "ASK and FSK coherent lightwave systems: A simplified approximate analysis," J. Lightw. Technol. 8, 338-352 (1990).

J. J. O. Pires, J. R. F. da Rocha, "Performance analysis of DPSK direct detection optical systems in the presence of interferometric intensity noise," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 1722-1730 (1992).

J. R. Barry, J. M. Kahn, "Carrier synchronization for homodyne and heterodyne detection of optical quadriphase-shift keying," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 1939-1951 (1992).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (12)

D.-S. Ly-Gagnon, "Unrepeated 210-km transmission with coherent detection and digital signal processing of 20-Gb/s QPSK signal," Optical Fiber Commun. AnaheimCA (2005) Paper OTuL4.

M. G. Taylor, "Accurate digital phase estimation process for coherent detection using a parallel digital processor," Euro. Conf. Optical Commun. GlasgowU.K. (2005) Paper Tu4.2.6.

B. Razavi, Design of Integrated Circuits for Optical Communications (McGraw-Hill, 2003).

L. G. Kazovsky, S. Benedetto, A. Willner, Optical Fiber Communication Systems (Artech House, 1996).

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems (Wiley, 2002).

K. Yonenaga, K. Hagimoto, "10-Gbit/s $\times$ four-channel WDM transmission experiment over 2400-km DSF using optical DPSK direct detection scheme," Optical Fiber Commun. DallasTX (1997) Paper ThS2.

J.-X. Cai, "RZ-DPSK field trial over 13, 100 km of installed non slope-matched submarine fibers," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. Los AngelesCA (2004) Paper PDP34.

A. H. Gnauck, "6 $\times$ 42.7-Gb/s transmission over ten 200-km EDFA-amplified SSMF spans using polarization-alternating RZ-DPSK," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. Los AngelesCA (2004) Paper PDP35.

G. Charlet, "WDM transmission at 6 Tb/s capacity over transatlantic distance, using 42.7 Gb/s differential phase-shift keying without pulse carver," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. Los AngelesCA (2004) Paper PDP36.

L. Becouarn, "42 $\times$ 42.7 Gb/s RZ-DPSK transmission over a 4820 km long NZDSF deployed line C-band-only EDFAs," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. Los AngelesCA (2004) Paper PDP37.

N. Yoshikane, I. Morita, "1.14 b/s/Hz spectrally-efficient 50 $\times$ 84.5 Gb/s transmission over 300 km using copolared CS-RZ DQPSK signals," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. Los AngelesCA (2004) Paper PDP38.

S. L. Jansen, "10, 200 km 22 $\times$ 2 $\times$ 10 Gb/s RZ-DQPSK dense WDM transmission without inline dispersion compensation through optical phase conjugation," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. Los AngelesCA (2005) Paper PDP37.

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