Abstract

A highly reliable integration of a wavelength monitor (WM) in an industry standard 14-pin butterfly package has been successfully achieved by using soldering and YAG welding techniques. Mechanical integrity and endurance tests for fixed and tunable distributed-feedback (DFB) laser diode modules (LDMs) were performed according to an extended Telcordia GR-468-CORE in order to appreciate the fixtures of the WM part composed of a prism, a Fabry-Pérot etalon, power, and WM photodiodes. Wavelength and a fiber output power were evaluated as a function of duration time for each test. Incident light angles change against an etalon and an optical coupling deviates due to the separation between a laser diode part and a WM part for tunable DFB LDMs. The two occurrences have a profound influence on wavelength drifts. It was found that the wavelength drifts were less than ±5 pm under mechanical and thermal stresses for both types of DFB LDMs. It was also confirmed that the coated and mounted etalon itself was also highly reliable under thermal stresses. These results show that the WM-integrated fixed and tunable DFB LDMs were fully applicable to next-generation dense-wavelength-division-multiplexing (DWDM) systems of 50- and 25-GHz channel spacing.

© 2005 IEEE

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  1. "Optical Interfaces for Multichannel Systems With Optical Amplifiers", ITU-T Recommendation G.692, App. V.5, p. 28, 1998.
  2. M. Guy, B. Villeneuve, C. Latrasse and M. Tetu, "Simultaneous absolute frequency control of laser transmitter in both 1.3 and 1.55 µ m bands for multi wavelength communication systems", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 1136-1143, Jun. 1996.
  3. M. Poulin, C. Latrasse, N. Cyr and M. Tetu, "An absolute frequency reference at 192.6 THz (1556 nm) based on a two-photon absorption line of rubidium at 778 nm for WDM communication systems", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, no. 12, pp. 1631-1633, Dec. 1997.
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  7. S. T. Winnall and A. C. Lindsay, "DFB semiconductor diode laser frequency stabilization employing electronic feedback and Bragg grating Fabry-Pérot interferometer", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 11, pp. 1357-1359, Nov. 1999.
  8. S. Lee, Y. Hsu and C. Pien, "High-resolution wavelength monitoring using differential/ratio detection of junction voltage across a diode laser", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 872-874, Aug. 2001.
  9. C. S. Park, W. Seo and B. H. Yoon, "Simple channel monitoring method for fail detection of multiple WDM channels using a wavelength selective detector", Electron. Lett., vol. 34, no. 17, pp. 1677-1678, Aug. 1998.
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  12. H. Nasu, M. Oike, T. Nomura and A. Kasukawa, "40 mW over DFB laser module with integrated wavelength monitor for 50 GHz channel spacing DWDM application", in Proc. Eur. Conf. Optical Communication. Conf. (ECOC), 2001, pp. 428-429.
  13. H. Nasu, T. Takagi, M. Oike, T. Nomura and A. Kasukawa, "Ultrahigh wavelength stability through thermal compensation in wavelength-monitor integrated laser modules", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 380-382, Mar. 2003.
  14. H. Nasu, T. Mukaihara, T. Nomura, A. Kasukawa, M. Oike, H. Matsuura, T. Shiba and T. Ninomiya, "25 GHz-spacing wavelength monitor integrated DFB laser module using standard 14-pin butterfly package", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), Mar. 2002, pp. 209-211.
  15. T. Mukaihara, H. Nasu, T. Kimoto, S. Tamura, T. Nomura, T. Shinagawa, A. Kasukawa, M. Oike, H. Matsuura, T. Shiba and T. Ninomiya, "High reliable 40 mW, 25 GHz x 20 ch thermally tunable DFB laser module integrated with wavelength monitor", in Proc. Eur. Conf. Optical Comm. (ECOC), vol. 3, Sep. 2002, p. 27.
  16. H. Nasu, T. Mukaihara, T. Takagi, M. Oike, T. Nomura and A. Kasukawa, "25 GHz-spacing wavelength monitor integrated DFB laser module for DWDM applications", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 293-295, Feb. 2003.
  17. T. Shinagawa, T. Sato, H. Nasu, T. Mukaihara, T. Nomura, A. Kasukawa, M. Oike, H. Matsuura, T. Shiba and T. Ninomiya, "Highly-reliable operation of DFB laser modules with integrated wavelength monitor", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), Mar. 2003, pp. 381-382.
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  19. "Test Methods Standard Microcircuits", Military Standard 883E, Dec. 1996.

Other (19)

"Optical Interfaces for Multichannel Systems With Optical Amplifiers", ITU-T Recommendation G.692, App. V.5, p. 28, 1998.

M. Guy, B. Villeneuve, C. Latrasse and M. Tetu, "Simultaneous absolute frequency control of laser transmitter in both 1.3 and 1.55 µ m bands for multi wavelength communication systems", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 1136-1143, Jun. 1996.

M. Poulin, C. Latrasse, N. Cyr and M. Tetu, "An absolute frequency reference at 192.6 THz (1556 nm) based on a two-photon absorption line of rubidium at 778 nm for WDM communication systems", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, no. 12, pp. 1631-1633, Dec. 1997.

M. Teshima, M. Koga and K. Sato, "Performance of multiwavelength simultaneous monitoring circuit employing arrayed-waveguide grating", J. Lightw. Technol. , vol. 14, no. 10, pp. 2277-2285, Oct. 1996.

K. Okamoto, K. Hattori and Y. Ohmori, "Fabrication of multiwavelength simultaneous monitoring device using arrayed-wavelength grating", Electron. Lett., vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 569-570, Mar. 1996.

Y. Park, S. T. Lee and C. J. Chae, "A novel wavelength stabilization scheme using a fiber grating for WDM transmission", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 10, pp. 1446-1448, Oct. 1998.

S. T. Winnall and A. C. Lindsay, "DFB semiconductor diode laser frequency stabilization employing electronic feedback and Bragg grating Fabry-Pérot interferometer", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 11, pp. 1357-1359, Nov. 1999.

S. Lee, Y. Hsu and C. Pien, "High-resolution wavelength monitoring using differential/ratio detection of junction voltage across a diode laser", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 872-874, Aug. 2001.

C. S. Park, W. Seo and B. H. Yoon, "Simple channel monitoring method for fail detection of multiple WDM channels using a wavelength selective detector", Electron. Lett., vol. 34, no. 17, pp. 1677-1678, Aug. 1998.

B. Villeneuve, M. Cyr and H. B. Kim, "High-stability wavelength-controlled DFB laser sources for dense WDM application", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), Feb. 1998, pp. 381-382.

K. Tatsuno, M. Shirai, H. Furuichi, K. Kuroguchi, N. Baba, H. Kuwano, Y. Iwafuji and A. Murata, "50 GHz spacing, multi-wavelength tunable locker integrated in a transmitter module with monolithic-modulator and a DFB-laser", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), Mar. 2001, pp. 1-4.

H. Nasu, M. Oike, T. Nomura and A. Kasukawa, "40 mW over DFB laser module with integrated wavelength monitor for 50 GHz channel spacing DWDM application", in Proc. Eur. Conf. Optical Communication. Conf. (ECOC), 2001, pp. 428-429.

H. Nasu, T. Takagi, M. Oike, T. Nomura and A. Kasukawa, "Ultrahigh wavelength stability through thermal compensation in wavelength-monitor integrated laser modules", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 380-382, Mar. 2003.

H. Nasu, T. Mukaihara, T. Nomura, A. Kasukawa, M. Oike, H. Matsuura, T. Shiba and T. Ninomiya, "25 GHz-spacing wavelength monitor integrated DFB laser module using standard 14-pin butterfly package", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), Mar. 2002, pp. 209-211.

T. Mukaihara, H. Nasu, T. Kimoto, S. Tamura, T. Nomura, T. Shinagawa, A. Kasukawa, M. Oike, H. Matsuura, T. Shiba and T. Ninomiya, "High reliable 40 mW, 25 GHz x 20 ch thermally tunable DFB laser module integrated with wavelength monitor", in Proc. Eur. Conf. Optical Comm. (ECOC), vol. 3, Sep. 2002, p. 27.

H. Nasu, T. Mukaihara, T. Takagi, M. Oike, T. Nomura and A. Kasukawa, "25 GHz-spacing wavelength monitor integrated DFB laser module for DWDM applications", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 293-295, Feb. 2003.

T. Shinagawa, T. Sato, H. Nasu, T. Mukaihara, T. Nomura, A. Kasukawa, M. Oike, H. Matsuura, T. Shiba and T. Ninomiya, "Highly-reliable operation of DFB laser modules with integrated wavelength monitor", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), Mar. 2003, pp. 381-382.

"Generic Reliability Assurance Requirements for Optoelectronic Devices Used in Telecommunications Equipment", Telcordia GR-468-CORE,no. 2, Dec. 2002.

"Test Methods Standard Microcircuits", Military Standard 883E, Dec. 1996.

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