Abstract

The effect of addition and/or dropping of wavelength-multiplexed channels in a network comprising three concatenated lumped Raman fiber amplifiers (LRFAs) have been analyzed by numerical simulation and verified experimentally. The first LRFA in the cascade is gain clamped using a ring-laser configuration,and the lasing power propagates through the cascade. A large-signal numerical model that incorporates time variation effects and the downstream propagation of signal, upstream propagation of pumps, and downstream and upstream propagation of amplified spontaneous emission spectral components has been used for the theoretical analysis. The LRFAs consist of 16 km of dispersion-compensating fiber counterdirectionally pumped at 1455 nm by a Raman fiber laser. Channel addition/removal is simulated by propagating through the cascade of LRFAs optical power from two laser diodes. One of them is square-wave modulated at 500 Hz, and power fluctuations of the second continuous-wave signal caused by the cross-gain saturation effect in LRFAs are monitored.

© 2004 IEEE

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  1. Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastawa, J. L. Zyskind, C. Wolf, J. W. Sulhoff and R. W. Tkach, "Fast power transients in WDM optical networks with cascaded EDFAs", Electron. Lett., vol. 33, pp. 313-314, Feb. 1997.
  2. A. K. Srivastava, Y. Sun, J. L. Zyskind and J. W. Sulhoff, "EDFA transient response to channel loss in WDM transmission system", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, pp. 386-388, Mar. 1997.
  3. J. L. Zyskind, A. K. Srivastava, Y. Sun, J. C. Ellson, G. W. Newsome, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, J. W. Sulhoff, T. A. Strasser, J. R. Pedrazzani and C. Wolf, "Fast link control protection for surviving channels in multiwavelength otical networks", in Proc. Eur. Conf. Optical Communications , Oslo, Norway, 1996.
  4. J. C. van der Plaats, F. W. Willems and A. M. J. Koonen, "Dynamic pump-loss controlled gain-locking system for erbium-doped fiber amplifiers in multi-wavelength networks", in Proc. Eur. Conf. Optical Commununications, Edinburgh, U.K., 1997.
  5. M. Karasek and F. W. Willems, "Suppression of dynamic cross saturation in cascades of overpumped erbium-doped fiber amplifiers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 1036-1038, July 1998.
  6. E. Delevaque, T. Georges, J. F. Bayon, M. Monerie, P. Niay and P. Berage, "Gain control in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers by lasing at 1480 nm with photoinduced Bragg gratings written on the fiber ends", Electron. Lett., vol. 29, pp. 1112-1114, 1993.
  7. J. F. Massicott, S. D. Willson, R. Wyatt, J. R. Armitage, R. Kashyap and D. Williams, "1480 nm pumped erbium doped fiber amplifier with all-optical automatic gain control", Electron. Lett., vol. 30, pp. 962-964, 1994.
  8. H. Dai, J. Y. Pan and Ch. Lin, "All-optical gain control of in-line erbium-doped fiber amplifiers for hybrid analog/digital WDM systems", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, pp. 737-739, June 1997.
  9. S. Y. Kim, J. Chung and B. Lee, "Dynamic performance of the all-optical gain-controlled EDFA cascade in multiwavelength optical networks", Electron. Lett., vol. 33, pp. 1475-1477, Aug. 1997.
  10. G. Luo, J. L. Zyskind, Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastava, J. W. Sulhoff, C. Wolf and M. A. Ali, "Performance degradation of all-optical gain-clamped EDFA's due to relaxation-oscillations and spectral-hole burning in amplified WDM networks", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, pp. 1346-1348, Oct. 1997.
  11. C. J. Chen and W. S. Wong, "Transient effects in saturated Raman amplifiers", Electron. Lett., vol. 37, pp. 371-373, Mar. 2001 .
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  13. C. J. Chen, J. Ye, W. S. Wong, Y. W. Lu, M. C. Ho, Y. Cao, M. J. Gassner, J. S. Pease, H. S. Tsai, H. K. Lee, S. Cabot and Y. Sun, "Control of transient effects in distributed and lumped Raman amplifiers", Electron. Lett., vol. 37, pp. 1304-1306, Oct. 2001.
  14. M. Karasek and M. Menif, "Protection of surviving channels in pump-controlled gain-locked Raman fiber amplifier", Optics Communications, vol. 210, pp. 57-65, 2002.
  15. S. S.-H. Yam, F.-T. An, E. S.-T. Hu, M. E. Marhic, T. Sakamoto, L. G. Kazovsky and Y. Akasaka, "Gain-clamped S-band discrete Raman amplifier", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC'02), 2002, pp. 385-387.
  16. G. Sacchi, S. Sugliani, B. Bolognini, S. Faralli and F. DiPasquale, "Experimental analysis of gain clamping techniques for lumped Raman amplifiers", in Proc. Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC'03), 2003, pp. 226-227.
  17. M. Karasek, J. Kanka, P. Honzatko and J. Radil, "Protection of surviving channels in all-optical gain-clamped Raman fiber amplifier: Modeling and experimentation", Optics Communications , vol. 231, pp. 309-317, 2004.
  18. B. Bolognini and F. DiPasquale, "Transient effects in gain-clamped discrete Raman amplifier cascades", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, pp. 66-68, Jan. 2004.
  19. H. Kidorf, K. Rottwitt, M. Nissov, M. Ma and E. Rabarijaona, "Pump interactions in a 100-nm bandwidth Raman amplifier", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 530-532, May 1999.
  20. C. J. Chen, H. Lee and Y. J. Cheng, "Instability in Raman amplifiers caused by distributed Rayleigh reflection", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communications Conf. (OFC2003), vol. 1, Atlanta, GA, 2003.
  21. S. Namiki and Y. Emori, "Ultrabroad-band Raman amplifiers pumped and gain-equalized by wavelength-division-multiplexed high-power laser diodes", IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 7, pp. 3-16, Jan./Feb. 2001.

Other (21)

Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastawa, J. L. Zyskind, C. Wolf, J. W. Sulhoff and R. W. Tkach, "Fast power transients in WDM optical networks with cascaded EDFAs", Electron. Lett., vol. 33, pp. 313-314, Feb. 1997.

A. K. Srivastava, Y. Sun, J. L. Zyskind and J. W. Sulhoff, "EDFA transient response to channel loss in WDM transmission system", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, pp. 386-388, Mar. 1997.

J. L. Zyskind, A. K. Srivastava, Y. Sun, J. C. Ellson, G. W. Newsome, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, J. W. Sulhoff, T. A. Strasser, J. R. Pedrazzani and C. Wolf, "Fast link control protection for surviving channels in multiwavelength otical networks", in Proc. Eur. Conf. Optical Communications , Oslo, Norway, 1996.

J. C. van der Plaats, F. W. Willems and A. M. J. Koonen, "Dynamic pump-loss controlled gain-locking system for erbium-doped fiber amplifiers in multi-wavelength networks", in Proc. Eur. Conf. Optical Commununications, Edinburgh, U.K., 1997.

M. Karasek and F. W. Willems, "Suppression of dynamic cross saturation in cascades of overpumped erbium-doped fiber amplifiers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 1036-1038, July 1998.

E. Delevaque, T. Georges, J. F. Bayon, M. Monerie, P. Niay and P. Berage, "Gain control in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers by lasing at 1480 nm with photoinduced Bragg gratings written on the fiber ends", Electron. Lett., vol. 29, pp. 1112-1114, 1993.

J. F. Massicott, S. D. Willson, R. Wyatt, J. R. Armitage, R. Kashyap and D. Williams, "1480 nm pumped erbium doped fiber amplifier with all-optical automatic gain control", Electron. Lett., vol. 30, pp. 962-964, 1994.

H. Dai, J. Y. Pan and Ch. Lin, "All-optical gain control of in-line erbium-doped fiber amplifiers for hybrid analog/digital WDM systems", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, pp. 737-739, June 1997.

S. Y. Kim, J. Chung and B. Lee, "Dynamic performance of the all-optical gain-controlled EDFA cascade in multiwavelength optical networks", Electron. Lett., vol. 33, pp. 1475-1477, Aug. 1997.

G. Luo, J. L. Zyskind, Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastava, J. W. Sulhoff, C. Wolf and M. A. Ali, "Performance degradation of all-optical gain-clamped EDFA's due to relaxation-oscillations and spectral-hole burning in amplified WDM networks", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, pp. 1346-1348, Oct. 1997.

C. J. Chen and W. S. Wong, "Transient effects in saturated Raman amplifiers", Electron. Lett., vol. 37, pp. 371-373, Mar. 2001 .

M. Karasek and M. Menif, "Channel addition/removal response in Raman fiber amplifiers: Modeling and experimentation", J. Lightwave Technol. , vol. 20, pp. 1680-1687, Sept. 2002.

C. J. Chen, J. Ye, W. S. Wong, Y. W. Lu, M. C. Ho, Y. Cao, M. J. Gassner, J. S. Pease, H. S. Tsai, H. K. Lee, S. Cabot and Y. Sun, "Control of transient effects in distributed and lumped Raman amplifiers", Electron. Lett., vol. 37, pp. 1304-1306, Oct. 2001.

M. Karasek and M. Menif, "Protection of surviving channels in pump-controlled gain-locked Raman fiber amplifier", Optics Communications, vol. 210, pp. 57-65, 2002.

S. S.-H. Yam, F.-T. An, E. S.-T. Hu, M. E. Marhic, T. Sakamoto, L. G. Kazovsky and Y. Akasaka, "Gain-clamped S-band discrete Raman amplifier", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC'02), 2002, pp. 385-387.

G. Sacchi, S. Sugliani, B. Bolognini, S. Faralli and F. DiPasquale, "Experimental analysis of gain clamping techniques for lumped Raman amplifiers", in Proc. Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC'03), 2003, pp. 226-227.

M. Karasek, J. Kanka, P. Honzatko and J. Radil, "Protection of surviving channels in all-optical gain-clamped Raman fiber amplifier: Modeling and experimentation", Optics Communications , vol. 231, pp. 309-317, 2004.

B. Bolognini and F. DiPasquale, "Transient effects in gain-clamped discrete Raman amplifier cascades", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, pp. 66-68, Jan. 2004.

H. Kidorf, K. Rottwitt, M. Nissov, M. Ma and E. Rabarijaona, "Pump interactions in a 100-nm bandwidth Raman amplifier", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 530-532, May 1999.

C. J. Chen, H. Lee and Y. J. Cheng, "Instability in Raman amplifiers caused by distributed Rayleigh reflection", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communications Conf. (OFC2003), vol. 1, Atlanta, GA, 2003.

S. Namiki and Y. Emori, "Ultrabroad-band Raman amplifiers pumped and gain-equalized by wavelength-division-multiplexed high-power laser diodes", IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 7, pp. 3-16, Jan./Feb. 2001.

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