Abstract

Excess intensity noise in a low-noise single-frequency class-A VECSEL is experimentally investigated over the frequency range 10 kHz–18 GHz. An analytical model is derived, based on multimode Langevin equations, to describe the observed laser excess noise over the whole bandwidth. From 50 MHz to 18 GHz, class-A operation leads to a shot noise limited relative intensity noise (RIN), namely -155 dB/Hz for 1-mA detected photocurrent, except at harmonics of the cavity free spectral range (FSR). At these frequencies, the excess noise is shown to be due to the amplified spontaneous emission contained in the nonlasing side modes. The measured levels of excess noise correspond to side mode suppression ratios (SMSRs) ranging from 70 to 90 dB, in agreement with the model. At low frequencies, 10 kHz–50 MHz, the observed excess noise spectrum has the expected Lorentzian shape. Its bandwidth increases with the pumping rate to an upper limit given by the cavity photon lifetime. Below this cutoff frequency, we show that the pump RIN is the dominant source of noise, while it is filtered by the laser dynamics above. Finally, our model permits to design a semiconductor class-A laser with an intensity noise limited to the shot noise level over the whole 10 kHz–18 GHz bandwidth.

© 2008 IEEE

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2007 (2)

G. Baili, M. Alouini, D. Dolfi, F. Bretenaker, I. Sagnes, A. Garnache, "Shot-noise-limited operation of a monomode high-cavity-finesse semiconductor laser for microwave photonics applications," Opt. Lett. 32, 650-652 (2007).

M. Jacquemet, M. Domenech, G. Lucas-Leclin, P. Georges, J. Dion, M. Strassner, I. Sagnes, A. Garnache, "Single-frequency CW vertical external cavity surface emitting semiconductor laser at 1003 nm and 501 nm by intracavity frequency doubling," Appl. Phys. B. 86, 503-510 (2007).

2006 (2)

C. H. Cow, IIIE. I. Ackerman, G. E. Betts, J. L. Prince, "Limits on the performance of RF-over-fiber links and their impact on device design," IEEE. Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 906-920 (2006).

G. Baili, M. Alouini, C. Moronvalle, D. Dolfi, F. Bretenaker, "Broad-bandwidth shot-noise-limited class-A operation of a monomode semiconductor fiber-based ring laser," Opt. Lett. 31, 62-64 (2006).

2004 (3)

P. Burdack, M. Tröbs, M. Hunnekuhl, C. Fallnich, I. Freitag, "Modulation-free sub-Doppler laser frequency stabilization to molecular iodine with a common-path, two-color interferometer," Opt. Express 12, 644-650 (2004) http://www.opticsexpress.org.

S. Knappe, V. Shah, P. D. D. Schwindt, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L.-A. Liew, J. Moreland, "A microfabricated atomic clock," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1460-1462 (2004).

A. D. McCoy, L. B. Fu, M. Ibsen, B. C. Thomsen, D. J. Richardson, "Intensity noise suppression in fiber DFB laser using gain saturated SOA," Electron. Lett. 40, 107-109 (2004).

1998 (1)

W. H. Loh, B. N. Samson, L. Dong, G. J. Cowle, K. Hsu, "High performance single frequency fiber grating-based Erbium: Ytterbium codoped Fiber lasers," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 114-118 (1998).

1997 (1)

M. McAdams, D. Provenzano, E. Peral, W. K. Marshall, A. Yariv, "Effect of transmission through fiber gratings on semiconductor laser intensity noise," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3341-3343 (1997).

1996 (2)

S. Taccheo, P. Laporta, O. Svelto, G. de Geronimo, "Intensity noise reduction in a single-frequency ytterbium-codoped erbium laser," Opt. Lett. 21, 1747-1749 (1996).

W. K. Marshall, J. Paslaski, A. Yariv, "Reduction of relative intensity noise of the output field of semiconductor lasers due to propagation in dispersive optical fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2496-2498 (1996).

1993 (2)

R. Nagarajan, S. Levy, A. Mar, J. E. Bowers, "Resonantly enhanced semiconductor lasers for efficient transmission of millimeter wave modulated light," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 4-6 (1993).

M. I. Kolobov, L. davidovich, E. Giacobino, C. Fabre, "Role of pumping statistics and dynamics of atomic polarization in quantum fluctuations of laser sources," Phys. Rev. A 47, 1431-1446 (1993).

1990 (2)

C. Benkert, M. O. Scully, J. Bergou, L. Davidovich, M. Hillery, M. Orszag, "Role of pumping statistics in laser dynamics: Quantum Langevin approach," Phys. Rev. A 41, 2756-2765 (1990).

T. J. Kane, "Intensity noise in diode-pumped single-frequency Nd:YAG lasers and its control by electronic feedback," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 244-245 (1990).

1988 (2)

X. J. Meng, T. Chaun, M. C. Wu, "Experimental demonstration of modulation bandwidth enhancement in distributed feedback lasers with external light injection," Electron. Lett. 34, 2031-2032 (1988).

K. Y. Lau, H. Blauvelt, "Effect of low-frequency intensity noise on high frequency direct modulation of semiconductor injection lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 694-696 (1988).

1987 (1)

1983 (1)

K. Sato, "Intensity noise of semiconductor laser diodes in fiber optic analog video transmission," IEEE. J. Quantum. Electron QE-19, 1380-1391 (1983).

1966 (1)

D. E. McCumber, "Intensity fluctuations in the output of CW laser oscillators. I," Phys. Rev. 141, 306-322 (1966).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Knappe, V. Shah, P. D. D. Schwindt, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L.-A. Liew, J. Moreland, "A microfabricated atomic clock," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1460-1462 (2004).

Appl. Phys. B. (1)

M. Jacquemet, M. Domenech, G. Lucas-Leclin, P. Georges, J. Dion, M. Strassner, I. Sagnes, A. Garnache, "Single-frequency CW vertical external cavity surface emitting semiconductor laser at 1003 nm and 501 nm by intracavity frequency doubling," Appl. Phys. B. 86, 503-510 (2007).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

K. Y. Lau, H. Blauvelt, "Effect of low-frequency intensity noise on high frequency direct modulation of semiconductor injection lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 694-696 (1988).

W. K. Marshall, J. Paslaski, A. Yariv, "Reduction of relative intensity noise of the output field of semiconductor lasers due to propagation in dispersive optical fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2496-2498 (1996).

M. McAdams, D. Provenzano, E. Peral, W. K. Marshall, A. Yariv, "Effect of transmission through fiber gratings on semiconductor laser intensity noise," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3341-3343 (1997).

Electron. Lett. (2)

X. J. Meng, T. Chaun, M. C. Wu, "Experimental demonstration of modulation bandwidth enhancement in distributed feedback lasers with external light injection," Electron. Lett. 34, 2031-2032 (1988).

A. D. McCoy, L. B. Fu, M. Ibsen, B. C. Thomsen, D. J. Richardson, "Intensity noise suppression in fiber DFB laser using gain saturated SOA," Electron. Lett. 40, 107-109 (2004).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

T. J. Kane, "Intensity noise in diode-pumped single-frequency Nd:YAG lasers and its control by electronic feedback," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 244-245 (1990).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

R. Nagarajan, S. Levy, A. Mar, J. E. Bowers, "Resonantly enhanced semiconductor lasers for efficient transmission of millimeter wave modulated light," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 4-6 (1993).

IEEE. Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

C. H. Cow, IIIE. I. Ackerman, G. E. Betts, J. L. Prince, "Limits on the performance of RF-over-fiber links and their impact on device design," IEEE. Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 906-920 (2006).

IEEE. J. Quantum. Electron (1)

K. Sato, "Intensity noise of semiconductor laser diodes in fiber optic analog video transmission," IEEE. J. Quantum. Electron QE-19, 1380-1391 (1983).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

W. H. Loh, B. N. Samson, L. Dong, G. J. Cowle, K. Hsu, "High performance single frequency fiber grating-based Erbium: Ytterbium codoped Fiber lasers," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 114-118 (1998).

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

M. I. Kolobov, L. davidovich, E. Giacobino, C. Fabre, "Role of pumping statistics and dynamics of atomic polarization in quantum fluctuations of laser sources," Phys. Rev. A 47, 1431-1446 (1993).

Phys. Rev. (1)

D. E. McCumber, "Intensity fluctuations in the output of CW laser oscillators. I," Phys. Rev. 141, 306-322 (1966).

Phys. Rev. A (1)

C. Benkert, M. O. Scully, J. Bergou, L. Davidovich, M. Hillery, M. Orszag, "Role of pumping statistics in laser dynamics: Quantum Langevin approach," Phys. Rev. A 41, 2756-2765 (1990).

Other (7)

D. A. Tulchinsky, S. J. Strutz, K. J. Williams, "All optical wideband microwave noise filter," Proc. 2001 Int. Topical Meeting Microw. Photon. (2002) pp. 231-234.

H. Lefèvre, The Fiber-Optic Gyroscope (Artech House, 1993).

G. P. Agrawal, N. K. Dutta, Semiconductor Lasers (AT&T, 1993).

C. Wilmsen, H. Temkin, L. A. Coldren, Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1999).

Noise Eater of the Mephisto Laser InnoLight GmbHHannoverGermany http://www.innolight.de/products/mephisto/technical-details.htm data sheet.

K. Petermann, Laser Diode Modulation and Noise (Academic, 1988).

T. Merlet, S. Formont, D. Dolfi, S. Tonda-Goldstein, N. Vodjdani, G. Auvray, S. Blanc, C. Fourdin, Y. Canal, J. Chazelas, "Photonics for RF signal processing in RADAR systems,"," 2004 Int. Topical Meeting Microw. Photon. (2004) pp. 305-308.

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