Abstract

Phase-encoded optical sampling allows radio-frequency and microwave signals to be directly down-converted and digitized with high linearity and greater than 60-dB (10-effective-bit) signal-to-noise ratio. Wide-band electrical signals can be processed using relatively low optical sampling rates provided that the instantaneous signal bandwidth is less than the Nyquist sampling bandwidth. We demonstrate the capabilities of this technique by using a 60-MS/s system to down-sample two different FM chirp signals: 1) a baseband (0-250 MHz) linear-chirp waveform and 2) a nonlinear-chirp waveform having a 10-GHz center frequency and a frequency excursion of 1 GHz. We characterize the frequency response of the technique and quantify the analog bandwidth limitation due to the optical pulse width. The 3-dB bandwidth imposed by a 30-ps sampling pulse is shown to be 10.4 GHz. We also investigate the impact of the pulse width on the linearity of the phase-encoded optical sampling technique when it is used to sample high-frequency signals.

© 2003 IEEE

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Appl. Opt.

J. Lightwave Technol.

R. Helkey, J. C. Twichell and C. I. Cox, "A down-conversion optical link with RF gain", IEEE J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 15, pp. 956 -961, 1997.

Opt. Lett.

Other

M. Nakazawa, "A 40-GHz 850-fs regeneratively FM mode-locked polarization-maintaining erbium fiber ring laser", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 1613-1615, 2000.

C. M. DePriest, T. Yilmaz, A. Braun, J. H. Abeles and P. J. Delfyett Jr., "High-quality photonic sampling streams from a semiconductor diode ring laser", IEEE J. Quantum. Electron., vol. 38, pp. 380-389, 2002.

L. A. Jiang, S. T. Wong, M. E. Grein, E. P. Ippen and H. A. Haus, "Measuring timing jitter with optical cross correlations", IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 38, pp. 1047-1052, 2002.

J. T. Gallo and J. K. Godshall, "Comparison of series and parallel optical modulators for microwave down-conversion", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 1623-1625, 1998.

S. A. Pappert, R. Helkey and R. T. Logan Jr., "Photonic link techniques for microwave frequency conversion," in RF Photonic Technology in Optical Fiber Links, W. S. C. Chang, Ed. Cambridge: U.K.: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2002, pp. 293-333.

F. Rana, H. L. T. Lee, R. J. Ram, M. E. Grein, L. A. Jiang, E. P. Ippen and H. A. Haus, "Characterization of the noise and correlations in harmonically mode-locked lasers", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, vol. 19, pp. 2609-2621, 2002.

J. C. Twichell, J. L. Wasserman, P. W. Juodawlkis, G. E. Betts and R. C. Williamson, "High-linearity 208-MS/s photonic analog-to-digital converter using 1-to-4 optical time-division demultiplexers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, pp. 714 -716, 2001.

"JDS Uniphase OC-768, 40-Gb/s Amplitude Modulator Specification Sheet", 2002.

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang and Y. Shi, "Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 70, pp. 3335-3337, 1997.

G. K. Gopalakrishnan, W. K. Burns and C. H. Bulmer, "Microwave-optical mixing in LiNbO3 modulators", IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 41, pp. 2383-2391, 1993.

A. C. Lindsay, G. A. Knight and S. T. Winnall, "Photonic mixers for wide bandwidth RF receiver applications", IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 43, pp. 2311-2317, 1993.

K. J. Williams and R. D. Esman, "Optically amplified downconverting link with shot-noise-limited performance", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 8, pp. 148-150, 1996.

C.-K. Sun, R. J. Orazi and S. A. Pappert, "Efficient microwave frequency conversion using photonic link signal mixing", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 8, pp. 154-156, 1996.

C. H. von Helmolt, U. Krüger and K. Krüger, "Microwave fiber-optic downconverter", in Proc. Conf. Optical Fiber Communications (OFC), 1997, pp. 357-358.

R. H. Walden, "Analog-to-digital converter survey and analysis", IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun., vol. 17, pp. 539-549, 1999.

"Analog Devices AD7674 Specification Sheet", 2002.

"Analog Devices AD6645 Specification Sheet", 2002.

"Maxim MAX108 Specification Sheet", 2001.

J. C. Twichell and R. Helkey, "Phase-encoded optical sampling for analog-to-digital converters", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 1237 -1239, 2000.

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O'Donnell, K. G. Ray and R. C. Williamson, "Optically sampled analog-to-digital converters", IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 49, pp. 1840-1852, 2001.

T. R. Clark, J. U. Kang and R. D. Esman, "Performance of a time-and wavelength-interleaved photonic sampler for analog-digital conversion", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 1168-1170, 1999.

F. Coppinger, A. S. Bhushan and B. Jalali, "12 Gsample/s wavelength division sampling analogue-to-digital converter", Electron. Lett., vol. 36, pp. 316-318, 2000.

W. Ng, R. Stephens, D. Persechini and K. V. Reddy, "Ultra-low jitter modelocking of Er-fiber laser at 10 GHz and its application in photonic sampling for analogue-to-digital conversion", Electron. Lett., vol. 37, pp. 113-115, 2001.

T. R. Clark, T. F. Carruthers, P. J. Matthews and I. N. Duling III, "Phase-noise measurements of ultrastable 10 GHz harmonically mode-locked fiber laser", Electron. Lett., vol. 35, pp. 720-721, 1999.

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