Abstract

We present a review of the critical design aspects of monolithically integrated optical phase lock loops (OPLLs). OPLL design procedures and OPLL parameters are discussed. A technique to evaluate the gain of the closed loop operating system is introduced and experimentally validated for the first time. A dual-OPLL system, when synchronised to an optical frequency comb generator without any prior filtering of the comb lines, allows generation of high spectral purity signals at any desired frequency from several GHz up to THz range. Heterodyne phase locking was achieved at a continuously tuneable offset frequency between 2 and 6 GHz. Thanks to the photonic integration, small dimensions, and custom-made electronics, the propagation delay in the loop was less than 1.8 ns, allowing good phase noise performance with OPLLs based on lasers with linewidths less than a few MHz. The system demonstrates the potential for photonic integration to be applied in various microwave photonics applications where narrow-bandwidth tuneable optical filters with amplification functionality are required.

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  22. R. T. Ramos, and A. J. Seeds, “Comparison between first-order and second-order optical phase-lock loops”, IEEE Microw. Guided Wave Lett., vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 7 9, 1994.
  23. R. T. Ramos, and A. J. Seeds, “Delay, linewidth and bandwidth limitations in optical phase-locked loop design”, Electron. Lett., vol. 3, pp. 389 391, 1990.
  24. J. Borner, G. Pillet, L. Morvan, D. Dolfi, K. Balakier, and C. Renaud, “Optical demodulation of THz signals”, Proc. IEEE Photon. Conf., 2013, vol. 5, pp. 209 210.
  25. K. Balakier, M. J. Fice, L. Ponnampalam, A. J. Seeds, and C. C. Renaud, “Tuneability of monolithically integrated optical phase lock loop for THz generation”, Proc. IEEE Int. Top. Meeting Microw. Photon., 2013, pp. 182 185.
  26. R. J. Steed, F. Pozzi, M. Fice, C. Renaud, D. C. Rogers, I. F. Lealman, D. G. Moodie, P. J. Cannard, C. Lynch, L. Johnston, M. J. Robertson, R. Cronin, L. Pavlovic, L. Naglic, M. Vidmar, and A. J. Seeds, “Monolithically integrated heterodyne optical phase-lock loop with RF XOR phase detector”, Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 21, pp. 20048 20053, 2011.
  27. E. Rouvalis, C. C. Renaud, D. G. Moodie, M. J. Robertson, and A. J. Seeds, “Continuous wave terahertz generation from ultra-fast InP-Based photodiodes”, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 509 517, 2012.
  28. S. Bennett, B. Cai, E. Burr, O. Gough, and A. J. Seeds, “1.8-THz bandwidth, zero-frequency error, tunable optical comb generator for DWDM applications”, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 551 553, 1999.
  29. U. Gliese, T. Nielsen, M. Bruun, E. L. Christensen, and K. E. Stubkjaer, “A 3-18 GHz microwave signal generator based on optical phase locked semiconductor DFB lasers”, Proc. Lasers Electro-Opt. Soc., 1993, pp. 5 6.
  30. M. Lu, H. Park, E. Bloch, A. Sivananthan, A. Bhardwaj, Z. Griffith, L. A. Johansson, M. J. Rodwell, and L. A. Coldren, “Highly integrated optical heterodyne phase-locked loop with phase / frequency detection”, Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 9, pp. 1090 1092, 2012.

2012 (3)

B. Vidal, T. Nagatsuma, N. J. Gomes, and T. E. Darcie, “Photonic technologies for millimeter- and submillimeter-wave signals”, Adv. Opt. Technol., vol. 2012, pp. 1 18, 2012.

E. Rouvalis, C. C. Renaud, D. G. Moodie, M. J. Robertson, and A. J. Seeds, “Continuous wave terahertz generation from ultra-fast InP-Based photodiodes”, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 509 517, 2012.

M. Lu, H. Park, E. Bloch, A. Sivananthan, A. Bhardwaj, Z. Griffith, L. A. Johansson, M. J. Rodwell, and L. A. Coldren, “Highly integrated optical heterodyne phase-locked loop with phase / frequency detection”, Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 9, pp. 1090 1092, 2012.

2011 (5)

R. J. Steed, L. Ponnampalam, M. J. Fice, C. C. Renaud, D. C. Rogers, D. G. Moodie, G. D. Maxwell, I. F. Lealman, M. J. Robertson, L. Pavlovic, N. Luka, V. Matjaz, and A. J. Seeds, “Hybrid integrated optical phase-lock loops for photonic terahertz sources”, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 210 217, 2011.

M. J. Fice, A. Chiuchiarelli, E. Ciaramella, and A. J. Seeds, “Homodyne coherent optical receiver using an optical injection phase-lock loop”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 1152 1164, 2011.

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, E. Bente, J. Van der Tol, H. Ambrosius, D. Robbins, M. Wale, N. Grote, and M. Schell, “Generic foundry model for InP-based photonics”, IET Optoelectron., vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 187 194, 2011.

L. Ponnampalam, M. Fice, F. Pozzi, C. Renaud, D. Rogers, I. F. Lealman, D. G. Moodie, P. J. Cannard, C. Lynch, L. Johnston, M. J. Robertson, R. Cronin, L. Pavlovic, L. Naglic, M. Vidmar, and A. Seeds, “Monolithically integrated photonic heterodyne system”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 15, pp. 2229 2234, 2011.

R. J. Steed, F. Pozzi, M. Fice, C. Renaud, D. C. Rogers, I. F. Lealman, D. G. Moodie, P. J. Cannard, C. Lynch, L. Johnston, M. J. Robertson, R. Cronin, L. Pavlovic, L. Naglic, M. Vidmar, and A. J. Seeds, “Monolithically integrated heterodyne optical phase-lock loop with RF XOR phase detector”, Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 21, pp. 20048 20053, 2011.

2010 (1)

S. Ristic, A. Bhardwaj, M. J. Rodwell, L. A. Coldren, and L. A. Johansson, “An optical phase-locked loop photonic integrated circuit”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 526 538, 2010.

2008 (1)

L. Naglic, L. Pavlovic, B. Batagelj, and M. Vidmar, “Improved phase detector for electro-optical phase-locked loops”, Electron. Lett., vol. 44, no. 12, pp. 44 45, 2008.

2007 (1)

J. Capmany, and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds”, Nature Photon., vol. 1, pp. 319 330, 2007.

2006 (1)

A. J. Seeds, and K. J. Williams, “Microwave photonics”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 4628 4641, 2006.

2003 (1)

S. Fukushima, C. Silva, Y. Muramoto, and A. J. Seeds, “Optoelectronic millimeter-wave synthesis using an optical frequency comb generator, optically injection locked lasers, and a unitraveling-carrier photodiode”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 12, pp. 3043 3051, 2003.

2002 (1)

A. J. Seeds, “Microwave photonics”, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 877 887, 2002.

1999 (3)

L. N. Langley, M. D. Elkin, C. Edge, M. J. Wale, U. Gliese, X. Huang, and A. J. Seeds, “Packaged semiconductor laser optical phase-locked loop (OPLL) for photonic generation, processing and transmission of microwave signals”, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 47, no. 7, pp. 1257 1264, 1999.

A. C. Bordonalli, C. Walton, and A. J. Seeds, “High-performance phase locking of wide linewidth semiconductor lasers by combined use of optical injection locking and optical phase-lock loop”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 328 342, 1999.

S. Bennett, B. Cai, E. Burr, O. Gough, and A. J. Seeds, “1.8-THz bandwidth, zero-frequency error, tunable optical comb generator for DWDM applications”, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 551 553, 1999.

1994 (1)

R. T. Ramos, and A. J. Seeds, “Comparison between first-order and second-order optical phase-lock loops”, IEEE Microw. Guided Wave Lett., vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 7 9, 1994.

1991 (1)

M. Kourogi, C.-H. Shin, and M. Ohtsu, “A 134 MHz bandwidth homodyne optical phase-locked-loop of semiconductor laser diodes”, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 270 272, 1991.

1990 (1)

R. T. Ramos, and A. J. Seeds, “Delay, linewidth and bandwidth limitations in optical phase-locked loop design”, Electron. Lett., vol. 3, pp. 389 391, 1990.

1987 (1)

M. A. Grant, W. C. Michie, and M. J. Fletcher, “The performance of optical phase-locked loops in the presence of nonnegligible loop propagation delay”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. LT-5, no. 4, pp. 592 597, 1987.

Amann, M. C.

M. C. Amann, and J. Buus, Tuneable Laser Diodes, Norwood, MA, USA: Artech House, 1998.

Ambrosius, H.

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, E. Bente, J. Van der Tol, H. Ambrosius, D. Robbins, M. Wale, N. Grote, and M. Schell, “Generic foundry model for InP-based photonics”, IET Optoelectron., vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 187 194, 2011.

Balakier, K.

K. Balakier, M. J. Fice, L. Ponnampalam, C. C. Renaud, and A. J. Seeds, “Tuneable monolithically integrated photonic THz heterodyne system”, Proc. IEEE Int. Top. Meeting Microw. Photon., 2012, pp. 286 289.

J. Borner, G. Pillet, L. Morvan, D. Dolfi, K. Balakier, and C. Renaud, “Optical demodulation of THz signals”, Proc. IEEE Photon. Conf., 2013, vol. 5, pp. 209 210.

K. Balakier, M. J. Fice, L. Ponnampalam, A. J. Seeds, and C. C. Renaud, “Tuneability of monolithically integrated optical phase lock loop for THz generation”, Proc. IEEE Int. Top. Meeting Microw. Photon., 2013, pp. 182 185.

Batagelj, B.

L. Naglic, L. Pavlovic, B. Batagelj, and M. Vidmar, “Improved phase detector for electro-optical phase-locked loops”, Electron. Lett., vol. 44, no. 12, pp. 44 45, 2008.

Bennett, S.

S. Bennett, B. Cai, E. Burr, O. Gough, and A. J. Seeds, “1.8-THz bandwidth, zero-frequency error, tunable optical comb generator for DWDM applications”, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 551 553, 1999.

Bente, E.

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, E. Bente, J. Van der Tol, H. Ambrosius, D. Robbins, M. Wale, N. Grote, and M. Schell, “Generic foundry model for InP-based photonics”, IET Optoelectron., vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 187 194, 2011.

Bhardwaj, A.

M. Lu, H. Park, E. Bloch, A. Sivananthan, A. Bhardwaj, Z. Griffith, L. A. Johansson, M. J. Rodwell, and L. A. Coldren, “Highly integrated optical heterodyne phase-locked loop with phase / frequency detection”, Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 9, pp. 1090 1092, 2012.

S. Ristic, A. Bhardwaj, M. J. Rodwell, L. A. Coldren, and L. A. Johansson, “An optical phase-locked loop photonic integrated circuit”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 526 538, 2010.

Bloch, E.

M. Lu, H. Park, E. Bloch, A. Sivananthan, A. Bhardwaj, Z. Griffith, L. A. Johansson, M. J. Rodwell, and L. A. Coldren, “Highly integrated optical heterodyne phase-locked loop with phase / frequency detection”, Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 9, pp. 1090 1092, 2012.

Bordonalli, A. C.

A. C. Bordonalli, C. Walton, and A. J. Seeds, “High-performance phase locking of wide linewidth semiconductor lasers by combined use of optical injection locking and optical phase-lock loop”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 328 342, 1999.

Borner, J.

J. Borner, G. Pillet, L. Morvan, D. Dolfi, K. Balakier, and C. Renaud, “Optical demodulation of THz signals”, Proc. IEEE Photon. Conf., 2013, vol. 5, pp. 209 210.

Bruun, M.

U. Gliese, T. Nielsen, M. Bruun, E. L. Christensen, and K. E. Stubkjaer, “A 3-18 GHz microwave signal generator based on optical phase locked semiconductor DFB lasers”, Proc. Lasers Electro-Opt. Soc., 1993, pp. 5 6.

Burr, E.

S. Bennett, B. Cai, E. Burr, O. Gough, and A. J. Seeds, “1.8-THz bandwidth, zero-frequency error, tunable optical comb generator for DWDM applications”, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 551 553, 1999.

Buus, J.

M. C. Amann, and J. Buus, Tuneable Laser Diodes, Norwood, MA, USA: Artech House, 1998.

Cai, B.

S. Bennett, B. Cai, E. Burr, O. Gough, and A. J. Seeds, “1.8-THz bandwidth, zero-frequency error, tunable optical comb generator for DWDM applications”, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 551 553, 1999.

Cannard, P. J.

R. J. Steed, F. Pozzi, M. Fice, C. Renaud, D. C. Rogers, I. F. Lealman, D. G. Moodie, P. J. Cannard, C. Lynch, L. Johnston, M. J. Robertson, R. Cronin, L. Pavlovic, L. Naglic, M. Vidmar, and A. J. Seeds, “Monolithically integrated heterodyne optical phase-lock loop with RF XOR phase detector”, Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 21, pp. 20048 20053, 2011.

L. Ponnampalam, M. Fice, F. Pozzi, C. Renaud, D. Rogers, I. F. Lealman, D. G. Moodie, P. J. Cannard, C. Lynch, L. Johnston, M. J. Robertson, R. Cronin, L. Pavlovic, L. Naglic, M. Vidmar, and A. Seeds, “Monolithically integrated photonic heterodyne system”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 15, pp. 2229 2234, 2011.

Capmany, J.

J. Capmany, and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds”, Nature Photon., vol. 1, pp. 319 330, 2007.

Chiuchiarelli, A.

M. J. Fice, A. Chiuchiarelli, E. Ciaramella, and A. J. Seeds, “Homodyne coherent optical receiver using an optical injection phase-lock loop”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 1152 1164, 2011.

Christensen, E. L.

U. Gliese, T. Nielsen, M. Bruun, E. L. Christensen, and K. E. Stubkjaer, “A 3-18 GHz microwave signal generator based on optical phase locked semiconductor DFB lasers”, Proc. Lasers Electro-Opt. Soc., 1993, pp. 5 6.

Ciaramella, E.

M. J. Fice, A. Chiuchiarelli, E. Ciaramella, and A. J. Seeds, “Homodyne coherent optical receiver using an optical injection phase-lock loop”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 1152 1164, 2011.

Coldren, L. A.

M. Lu, H. Park, E. Bloch, A. Sivananthan, A. Bhardwaj, Z. Griffith, L. A. Johansson, M. J. Rodwell, and L. A. Coldren, “Highly integrated optical heterodyne phase-locked loop with phase / frequency detection”, Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 9, pp. 1090 1092, 2012.

S. Ristic, A. Bhardwaj, M. J. Rodwell, L. A. Coldren, and L. A. Johansson, “An optical phase-locked loop photonic integrated circuit”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 526 538, 2010.

L. A. Coldren, “Photonic integrated circuits for microwave photonics”, Proc. IEEE Top. Meeting Microw. Photon., 2010, pp. 1 4.

Cronin, R.

L. Ponnampalam, M. Fice, F. Pozzi, C. Renaud, D. Rogers, I. F. Lealman, D. G. Moodie, P. J. Cannard, C. Lynch, L. Johnston, M. J. Robertson, R. Cronin, L. Pavlovic, L. Naglic, M. Vidmar, and A. Seeds, “Monolithically integrated photonic heterodyne system”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 15, pp. 2229 2234, 2011.

R. J. Steed, F. Pozzi, M. Fice, C. Renaud, D. C. Rogers, I. F. Lealman, D. G. Moodie, P. J. Cannard, C. Lynch, L. Johnston, M. J. Robertson, R. Cronin, L. Pavlovic, L. Naglic, M. Vidmar, and A. J. Seeds, “Monolithically integrated heterodyne optical phase-lock loop with RF XOR phase detector”, Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 21, pp. 20048 20053, 2011.

Darcie, T. E.

B. Vidal, T. Nagatsuma, N. J. Gomes, and T. E. Darcie, “Photonic technologies for millimeter- and submillimeter-wave signals”, Adv. Opt. Technol., vol. 2012, pp. 1 18, 2012.

Dolfi, D.

J. Borner, G. Pillet, L. Morvan, D. Dolfi, K. Balakier, and C. Renaud, “Optical demodulation of THz signals”, Proc. IEEE Photon. Conf., 2013, vol. 5, pp. 209 210.

Edge, C.

L. N. Langley, M. D. Elkin, C. Edge, M. J. Wale, U. Gliese, X. Huang, and A. J. Seeds, “Packaged semiconductor laser optical phase-locked loop (OPLL) for photonic generation, processing and transmission of microwave signals”, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 47, no. 7, pp. 1257 1264, 1999.

Elkin, M. D.

L. N. Langley, M. D. Elkin, C. Edge, M. J. Wale, U. Gliese, X. Huang, and A. J. Seeds, “Packaged semiconductor laser optical phase-locked loop (OPLL) for photonic generation, processing and transmission of microwave signals”, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 47, no. 7, pp. 1257 1264, 1999.

Fice, M.

L. Ponnampalam, M. Fice, F. Pozzi, C. Renaud, D. Rogers, I. F. Lealman, D. G. Moodie, P. J. Cannard, C. Lynch, L. Johnston, M. J. Robertson, R. Cronin, L. Pavlovic, L. Naglic, M. Vidmar, and A. Seeds, “Monolithically integrated photonic heterodyne system”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 15, pp. 2229 2234, 2011.

R. J. Steed, F. Pozzi, M. Fice, C. Renaud, D. C. Rogers, I. F. Lealman, D. G. Moodie, P. J. Cannard, C. Lynch, L. Johnston, M. J. Robertson, R. Cronin, L. Pavlovic, L. Naglic, M. Vidmar, and A. J. Seeds, “Monolithically integrated heterodyne optical phase-lock loop with RF XOR phase detector”, Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 21, pp. 20048 20053, 2011.

Fice, M. J.

M. J. Fice, A. Chiuchiarelli, E. Ciaramella, and A. J. Seeds, “Homodyne coherent optical receiver using an optical injection phase-lock loop”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 1152 1164, 2011.

R. J. Steed, L. Ponnampalam, M. J. Fice, C. C. Renaud, D. C. Rogers, D. G. Moodie, G. D. Maxwell, I. F. Lealman, M. J. Robertson, L. Pavlovic, N. Luka, V. Matjaz, and A. J. Seeds, “Hybrid integrated optical phase-lock loops for photonic terahertz sources”, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 210 217, 2011.

K. Balakier, M. J. Fice, L. Ponnampalam, A. J. Seeds, and C. C. Renaud, “Tuneability of monolithically integrated optical phase lock loop for THz generation”, Proc. IEEE Int. Top. Meeting Microw. Photon., 2013, pp. 182 185.

A. J. Seeds, F. Pozzi, C. C. Renaud, M. J. Fice, L. Ponnampalam, D. C. Rogers, I. F. Lealman, and R. Gwilliam, “Microwave photonics: Opportunities for photonic integration”, Proc. Eur. Conf. Integr. Opt., 2008, pp. 123 132.

K. Balakier, M. J. Fice, L. Ponnampalam, C. C. Renaud, and A. J. Seeds, “Tuneable monolithically integrated photonic THz heterodyne system”, Proc. IEEE Int. Top. Meeting Microw. Photon., 2012, pp. 286 289.

Fletcher, M. J.

M. A. Grant, W. C. Michie, and M. J. Fletcher, “The performance of optical phase-locked loops in the presence of nonnegligible loop propagation delay”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. LT-5, no. 4, pp. 592 597, 1987.

Fukushima, S.

S. Fukushima, C. Silva, Y. Muramoto, and A. J. Seeds, “Optoelectronic millimeter-wave synthesis using an optical frequency comb generator, optically injection locked lasers, and a unitraveling-carrier photodiode”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 12, pp. 3043 3051, 2003.

Gardner, F. M.

F. M. Gardner, Phaselock Techniques, Oxford, U.K.: Wiley, 2005.

Gliese, U.

L. N. Langley, M. D. Elkin, C. Edge, M. J. Wale, U. Gliese, X. Huang, and A. J. Seeds, “Packaged semiconductor laser optical phase-locked loop (OPLL) for photonic generation, processing and transmission of microwave signals”, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 47, no. 7, pp. 1257 1264, 1999.

U. Gliese, T. Nielsen, M. Bruun, E. L. Christensen, and K. E. Stubkjaer, “A 3-18 GHz microwave signal generator based on optical phase locked semiconductor DFB lasers”, Proc. Lasers Electro-Opt. Soc., 1993, pp. 5 6.

Gomes, N. J.

B. Vidal, T. Nagatsuma, N. J. Gomes, and T. E. Darcie, “Photonic technologies for millimeter- and submillimeter-wave signals”, Adv. Opt. Technol., vol. 2012, pp. 1 18, 2012.

Gough, O.

S. Bennett, B. Cai, E. Burr, O. Gough, and A. J. Seeds, “1.8-THz bandwidth, zero-frequency error, tunable optical comb generator for DWDM applications”, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 551 553, 1999.

Grant, M. A.

M. A. Grant, W. C. Michie, and M. J. Fletcher, “The performance of optical phase-locked loops in the presence of nonnegligible loop propagation delay”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. LT-5, no. 4, pp. 592 597, 1987.

Griffith, Z.

M. Lu, H. Park, E. Bloch, A. Sivananthan, A. Bhardwaj, Z. Griffith, L. A. Johansson, M. J. Rodwell, and L. A. Coldren, “Highly integrated optical heterodyne phase-locked loop with phase / frequency detection”, Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 9, pp. 1090 1092, 2012.

Grote, N.

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, E. Bente, J. Van der Tol, H. Ambrosius, D. Robbins, M. Wale, N. Grote, and M. Schell, “Generic foundry model for InP-based photonics”, IET Optoelectron., vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 187 194, 2011.

Gwilliam, R.

A. J. Seeds, F. Pozzi, C. C. Renaud, M. J. Fice, L. Ponnampalam, D. C. Rogers, I. F. Lealman, and R. Gwilliam, “Microwave photonics: Opportunities for photonic integration”, Proc. Eur. Conf. Integr. Opt., 2008, pp. 123 132.

Huang, X.

L. N. Langley, M. D. Elkin, C. Edge, M. J. Wale, U. Gliese, X. Huang, and A. J. Seeds, “Packaged semiconductor laser optical phase-locked loop (OPLL) for photonic generation, processing and transmission of microwave signals”, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 47, no. 7, pp. 1257 1264, 1999.

Johansson, L. A.

M. Lu, H. Park, E. Bloch, A. Sivananthan, A. Bhardwaj, Z. Griffith, L. A. Johansson, M. J. Rodwell, and L. A. Coldren, “Highly integrated optical heterodyne phase-locked loop with phase / frequency detection”, Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 9, pp. 1090 1092, 2012.

S. Ristic, A. Bhardwaj, M. J. Rodwell, L. A. Coldren, and L. A. Johansson, “An optical phase-locked loop photonic integrated circuit”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 526 538, 2010.

Johnston, L.

L. Ponnampalam, M. Fice, F. Pozzi, C. Renaud, D. Rogers, I. F. Lealman, D. G. Moodie, P. J. Cannard, C. Lynch, L. Johnston, M. J. Robertson, R. Cronin, L. Pavlovic, L. Naglic, M. Vidmar, and A. Seeds, “Monolithically integrated photonic heterodyne system”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 15, pp. 2229 2234, 2011.

R. J. Steed, F. Pozzi, M. Fice, C. Renaud, D. C. Rogers, I. F. Lealman, D. G. Moodie, P. J. Cannard, C. Lynch, L. Johnston, M. J. Robertson, R. Cronin, L. Pavlovic, L. Naglic, M. Vidmar, and A. J. Seeds, “Monolithically integrated heterodyne optical phase-lock loop with RF XOR phase detector”, Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 21, pp. 20048 20053, 2011.

Kourogi, M.

M. Kourogi, C.-H. Shin, and M. Ohtsu, “A 134 MHz bandwidth homodyne optical phase-locked-loop of semiconductor laser diodes”, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 270 272, 1991.

Langley, L. N.

L. N. Langley, M. D. Elkin, C. Edge, M. J. Wale, U. Gliese, X. Huang, and A. J. Seeds, “Packaged semiconductor laser optical phase-locked loop (OPLL) for photonic generation, processing and transmission of microwave signals”, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 47, no. 7, pp. 1257 1264, 1999.

Lealman, I. F.

R. J. Steed, L. Ponnampalam, M. J. Fice, C. C. Renaud, D. C. Rogers, D. G. Moodie, G. D. Maxwell, I. F. Lealman, M. J. Robertson, L. Pavlovic, N. Luka, V. Matjaz, and A. J. Seeds, “Hybrid integrated optical phase-lock loops for photonic terahertz sources”, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 210 217, 2011.

L. Ponnampalam, M. Fice, F. Pozzi, C. Renaud, D. Rogers, I. F. Lealman, D. G. Moodie, P. J. Cannard, C. Lynch, L. Johnston, M. J. Robertson, R. Cronin, L. Pavlovic, L. Naglic, M. Vidmar, and A. Seeds, “Monolithically integrated photonic heterodyne system”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 15, pp. 2229 2234, 2011.

R. J. Steed, F. Pozzi, M. Fice, C. Renaud, D. C. Rogers, I. F. Lealman, D. G. Moodie, P. J. Cannard, C. Lynch, L. Johnston, M. J. Robertson, R. Cronin, L. Pavlovic, L. Naglic, M. Vidmar, and A. J. Seeds, “Monolithically integrated heterodyne optical phase-lock loop with RF XOR phase detector”, Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 21, pp. 20048 20053, 2011.

A. J. Seeds, F. Pozzi, C. C. Renaud, M. J. Fice, L. Ponnampalam, D. C. Rogers, I. F. Lealman, and R. Gwilliam, “Microwave photonics: Opportunities for photonic integration”, Proc. Eur. Conf. Integr. Opt., 2008, pp. 123 132.

Leijtens, X.

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, E. Bente, J. Van der Tol, H. Ambrosius, D. Robbins, M. Wale, N. Grote, and M. Schell, “Generic foundry model for InP-based photonics”, IET Optoelectron., vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 187 194, 2011.

Lu, M.

M. Lu, H. Park, E. Bloch, A. Sivananthan, A. Bhardwaj, Z. Griffith, L. A. Johansson, M. J. Rodwell, and L. A. Coldren, “Highly integrated optical heterodyne phase-locked loop with phase / frequency detection”, Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 9, pp. 1090 1092, 2012.

Luka, N.

R. J. Steed, L. Ponnampalam, M. J. Fice, C. C. Renaud, D. C. Rogers, D. G. Moodie, G. D. Maxwell, I. F. Lealman, M. J. Robertson, L. Pavlovic, N. Luka, V. Matjaz, and A. J. Seeds, “Hybrid integrated optical phase-lock loops for photonic terahertz sources”, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 210 217, 2011.

Lynch, C.

L. Ponnampalam, M. Fice, F. Pozzi, C. Renaud, D. Rogers, I. F. Lealman, D. G. Moodie, P. J. Cannard, C. Lynch, L. Johnston, M. J. Robertson, R. Cronin, L. Pavlovic, L. Naglic, M. Vidmar, and A. Seeds, “Monolithically integrated photonic heterodyne system”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 15, pp. 2229 2234, 2011.

R. J. Steed, F. Pozzi, M. Fice, C. Renaud, D. C. Rogers, I. F. Lealman, D. G. Moodie, P. J. Cannard, C. Lynch, L. Johnston, M. J. Robertson, R. Cronin, L. Pavlovic, L. Naglic, M. Vidmar, and A. J. Seeds, “Monolithically integrated heterodyne optical phase-lock loop with RF XOR phase detector”, Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 21, pp. 20048 20053, 2011.

Matjaz, V.

R. J. Steed, L. Ponnampalam, M. J. Fice, C. C. Renaud, D. C. Rogers, D. G. Moodie, G. D. Maxwell, I. F. Lealman, M. J. Robertson, L. Pavlovic, N. Luka, V. Matjaz, and A. J. Seeds, “Hybrid integrated optical phase-lock loops for photonic terahertz sources”, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 210 217, 2011.

Maxwell, G. D.

R. J. Steed, L. Ponnampalam, M. J. Fice, C. C. Renaud, D. C. Rogers, D. G. Moodie, G. D. Maxwell, I. F. Lealman, M. J. Robertson, L. Pavlovic, N. Luka, V. Matjaz, and A. J. Seeds, “Hybrid integrated optical phase-lock loops for photonic terahertz sources”, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 210 217, 2011.

Michie, W. C.

M. A. Grant, W. C. Michie, and M. J. Fletcher, “The performance of optical phase-locked loops in the presence of nonnegligible loop propagation delay”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. LT-5, no. 4, pp. 592 597, 1987.

Moodie, D. G.

E. Rouvalis, C. C. Renaud, D. G. Moodie, M. J. Robertson, and A. J. Seeds, “Continuous wave terahertz generation from ultra-fast InP-Based photodiodes”, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 509 517, 2012.

R. J. Steed, F. Pozzi, M. Fice, C. Renaud, D. C. Rogers, I. F. Lealman, D. G. Moodie, P. J. Cannard, C. Lynch, L. Johnston, M. J. Robertson, R. Cronin, L. Pavlovic, L. Naglic, M. Vidmar, and A. J. Seeds, “Monolithically integrated heterodyne optical phase-lock loop with RF XOR phase detector”, Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 21, pp. 20048 20053, 2011.

R. J. Steed, L. Ponnampalam, M. J. Fice, C. C. Renaud, D. C. Rogers, D. G. Moodie, G. D. Maxwell, I. F. Lealman, M. J. Robertson, L. Pavlovic, N. Luka, V. Matjaz, and A. J. Seeds, “Hybrid integrated optical phase-lock loops for photonic terahertz sources”, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 210 217, 2011.

L. Ponnampalam, M. Fice, F. Pozzi, C. Renaud, D. Rogers, I. F. Lealman, D. G. Moodie, P. J. Cannard, C. Lynch, L. Johnston, M. J. Robertson, R. Cronin, L. Pavlovic, L. Naglic, M. Vidmar, and A. Seeds, “Monolithically integrated photonic heterodyne system”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 15, pp. 2229 2234, 2011.

Morvan, L.

J. Borner, G. Pillet, L. Morvan, D. Dolfi, K. Balakier, and C. Renaud, “Optical demodulation of THz signals”, Proc. IEEE Photon. Conf., 2013, vol. 5, pp. 209 210.

Muramoto, Y.

S. Fukushima, C. Silva, Y. Muramoto, and A. J. Seeds, “Optoelectronic millimeter-wave synthesis using an optical frequency comb generator, optically injection locked lasers, and a unitraveling-carrier photodiode”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 12, pp. 3043 3051, 2003.

Nagatsuma, T.

B. Vidal, T. Nagatsuma, N. J. Gomes, and T. E. Darcie, “Photonic technologies for millimeter- and submillimeter-wave signals”, Adv. Opt. Technol., vol. 2012, pp. 1 18, 2012.

T. Nagatsuma, “Generating millimeter and terahertz waves”, IEEE Microw. Mag., 2009, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 64 74.

Naglic, L.

L. Ponnampalam, M. Fice, F. Pozzi, C. Renaud, D. Rogers, I. F. Lealman, D. G. Moodie, P. J. Cannard, C. Lynch, L. Johnston, M. J. Robertson, R. Cronin, L. Pavlovic, L. Naglic, M. Vidmar, and A. Seeds, “Monolithically integrated photonic heterodyne system”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 15, pp. 2229 2234, 2011.

R. J. Steed, F. Pozzi, M. Fice, C. Renaud, D. C. Rogers, I. F. Lealman, D. G. Moodie, P. J. Cannard, C. Lynch, L. Johnston, M. J. Robertson, R. Cronin, L. Pavlovic, L. Naglic, M. Vidmar, and A. J. Seeds, “Monolithically integrated heterodyne optical phase-lock loop with RF XOR phase detector”, Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 21, pp. 20048 20053, 2011.

L. Naglic, L. Pavlovic, B. Batagelj, and M. Vidmar, “Improved phase detector for electro-optical phase-locked loops”, Electron. Lett., vol. 44, no. 12, pp. 44 45, 2008.

Nielsen, T.

U. Gliese, T. Nielsen, M. Bruun, E. L. Christensen, and K. E. Stubkjaer, “A 3-18 GHz microwave signal generator based on optical phase locked semiconductor DFB lasers”, Proc. Lasers Electro-Opt. Soc., 1993, pp. 5 6.

Novak, D.

J. Capmany, and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds”, Nature Photon., vol. 1, pp. 319 330, 2007.

Ohtsu, M.

M. Kourogi, C.-H. Shin, and M. Ohtsu, “A 134 MHz bandwidth homodyne optical phase-locked-loop of semiconductor laser diodes”, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 270 272, 1991.

Park, H.

M. Lu, H. Park, E. Bloch, A. Sivananthan, A. Bhardwaj, Z. Griffith, L. A. Johansson, M. J. Rodwell, and L. A. Coldren, “Highly integrated optical heterodyne phase-locked loop with phase / frequency detection”, Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 9, pp. 1090 1092, 2012.

Pavlovic, L.

R. J. Steed, F. Pozzi, M. Fice, C. Renaud, D. C. Rogers, I. F. Lealman, D. G. Moodie, P. J. Cannard, C. Lynch, L. Johnston, M. J. Robertson, R. Cronin, L. Pavlovic, L. Naglic, M. Vidmar, and A. J. Seeds, “Monolithically integrated heterodyne optical phase-lock loop with RF XOR phase detector”, Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 21, pp. 20048 20053, 2011.

R. J. Steed, L. Ponnampalam, M. J. Fice, C. C. Renaud, D. C. Rogers, D. G. Moodie, G. D. Maxwell, I. F. Lealman, M. J. Robertson, L. Pavlovic, N. Luka, V. Matjaz, and A. J. Seeds, “Hybrid integrated optical phase-lock loops for photonic terahertz sources”, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 210 217, 2011.

L. Ponnampalam, M. Fice, F. Pozzi, C. Renaud, D. Rogers, I. F. Lealman, D. G. Moodie, P. J. Cannard, C. Lynch, L. Johnston, M. J. Robertson, R. Cronin, L. Pavlovic, L. Naglic, M. Vidmar, and A. Seeds, “Monolithically integrated photonic heterodyne system”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 15, pp. 2229 2234, 2011.

L. Naglic, L. Pavlovic, B. Batagelj, and M. Vidmar, “Improved phase detector for electro-optical phase-locked loops”, Electron. Lett., vol. 44, no. 12, pp. 44 45, 2008.

Pillet, G.

J. Borner, G. Pillet, L. Morvan, D. Dolfi, K. Balakier, and C. Renaud, “Optical demodulation of THz signals”, Proc. IEEE Photon. Conf., 2013, vol. 5, pp. 209 210.

Ponnampalam, L.

L. Ponnampalam, M. Fice, F. Pozzi, C. Renaud, D. Rogers, I. F. Lealman, D. G. Moodie, P. J. Cannard, C. Lynch, L. Johnston, M. J. Robertson, R. Cronin, L. Pavlovic, L. Naglic, M. Vidmar, and A. Seeds, “Monolithically integrated photonic heterodyne system”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 15, pp. 2229 2234, 2011.

R. J. Steed, L. Ponnampalam, M. J. Fice, C. C. Renaud, D. C. Rogers, D. G. Moodie, G. D. Maxwell, I. F. Lealman, M. J. Robertson, L. Pavlovic, N. Luka, V. Matjaz, and A. J. Seeds, “Hybrid integrated optical phase-lock loops for photonic terahertz sources”, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 210 217, 2011.

K. Balakier, M. J. Fice, L. Ponnampalam, C. C. Renaud, and A. J. Seeds, “Tuneable monolithically integrated photonic THz heterodyne system”, Proc. IEEE Int. Top. Meeting Microw. Photon., 2012, pp. 286 289.

A. J. Seeds, F. Pozzi, C. C. Renaud, M. J. Fice, L. Ponnampalam, D. C. Rogers, I. F. Lealman, and R. Gwilliam, “Microwave photonics: Opportunities for photonic integration”, Proc. Eur. Conf. Integr. Opt., 2008, pp. 123 132.

K. Balakier, M. J. Fice, L. Ponnampalam, A. J. Seeds, and C. C. Renaud, “Tuneability of monolithically integrated optical phase lock loop for THz generation”, Proc. IEEE Int. Top. Meeting Microw. Photon., 2013, pp. 182 185.

Pozzi, F.

R. J. Steed, F. Pozzi, M. Fice, C. Renaud, D. C. Rogers, I. F. Lealman, D. G. Moodie, P. J. Cannard, C. Lynch, L. Johnston, M. J. Robertson, R. Cronin, L. Pavlovic, L. Naglic, M. Vidmar, and A. J. Seeds, “Monolithically integrated heterodyne optical phase-lock loop with RF XOR phase detector”, Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 21, pp. 20048 20053, 2011.

L. Ponnampalam, M. Fice, F. Pozzi, C. Renaud, D. Rogers, I. F. Lealman, D. G. Moodie, P. J. Cannard, C. Lynch, L. Johnston, M. J. Robertson, R. Cronin, L. Pavlovic, L. Naglic, M. Vidmar, and A. Seeds, “Monolithically integrated photonic heterodyne system”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 15, pp. 2229 2234, 2011.

A. J. Seeds, F. Pozzi, C. C. Renaud, M. J. Fice, L. Ponnampalam, D. C. Rogers, I. F. Lealman, and R. Gwilliam, “Microwave photonics: Opportunities for photonic integration”, Proc. Eur. Conf. Integr. Opt., 2008, pp. 123 132.

Ramos, R. T.

R. T. Ramos, and A. J. Seeds, “Comparison between first-order and second-order optical phase-lock loops”, IEEE Microw. Guided Wave Lett., vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 7 9, 1994.

R. T. Ramos, and A. J. Seeds, “Delay, linewidth and bandwidth limitations in optical phase-locked loop design”, Electron. Lett., vol. 3, pp. 389 391, 1990.

Renaud, C.

R. J. Steed, F. Pozzi, M. Fice, C. Renaud, D. C. Rogers, I. F. Lealman, D. G. Moodie, P. J. Cannard, C. Lynch, L. Johnston, M. J. Robertson, R. Cronin, L. Pavlovic, L. Naglic, M. Vidmar, and A. J. Seeds, “Monolithically integrated heterodyne optical phase-lock loop with RF XOR phase detector”, Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 21, pp. 20048 20053, 2011.

L. Ponnampalam, M. Fice, F. Pozzi, C. Renaud, D. Rogers, I. F. Lealman, D. G. Moodie, P. J. Cannard, C. Lynch, L. Johnston, M. J. Robertson, R. Cronin, L. Pavlovic, L. Naglic, M. Vidmar, and A. Seeds, “Monolithically integrated photonic heterodyne system”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 15, pp. 2229 2234, 2011.

J. Borner, G. Pillet, L. Morvan, D. Dolfi, K. Balakier, and C. Renaud, “Optical demodulation of THz signals”, Proc. IEEE Photon. Conf., 2013, vol. 5, pp. 209 210.

Renaud, C. C.

E. Rouvalis, C. C. Renaud, D. G. Moodie, M. J. Robertson, and A. J. Seeds, “Continuous wave terahertz generation from ultra-fast InP-Based photodiodes”, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 509 517, 2012.

R. J. Steed, L. Ponnampalam, M. J. Fice, C. C. Renaud, D. C. Rogers, D. G. Moodie, G. D. Maxwell, I. F. Lealman, M. J. Robertson, L. Pavlovic, N. Luka, V. Matjaz, and A. J. Seeds, “Hybrid integrated optical phase-lock loops for photonic terahertz sources”, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 210 217, 2011.

K. Balakier, M. J. Fice, L. Ponnampalam, A. J. Seeds, and C. C. Renaud, “Tuneability of monolithically integrated optical phase lock loop for THz generation”, Proc. IEEE Int. Top. Meeting Microw. Photon., 2013, pp. 182 185.

A. J. Seeds, F. Pozzi, C. C. Renaud, M. J. Fice, L. Ponnampalam, D. C. Rogers, I. F. Lealman, and R. Gwilliam, “Microwave photonics: Opportunities for photonic integration”, Proc. Eur. Conf. Integr. Opt., 2008, pp. 123 132.

K. Balakier, M. J. Fice, L. Ponnampalam, C. C. Renaud, and A. J. Seeds, “Tuneable monolithically integrated photonic THz heterodyne system”, Proc. IEEE Int. Top. Meeting Microw. Photon., 2012, pp. 286 289.

Ristic, S.

S. Ristic, A. Bhardwaj, M. J. Rodwell, L. A. Coldren, and L. A. Johansson, “An optical phase-locked loop photonic integrated circuit”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 526 538, 2010.

Robbins, D.

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, E. Bente, J. Van der Tol, H. Ambrosius, D. Robbins, M. Wale, N. Grote, and M. Schell, “Generic foundry model for InP-based photonics”, IET Optoelectron., vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 187 194, 2011.

Robertson, M. J.

E. Rouvalis, C. C. Renaud, D. G. Moodie, M. J. Robertson, and A. J. Seeds, “Continuous wave terahertz generation from ultra-fast InP-Based photodiodes”, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 509 517, 2012.

R. J. Steed, F. Pozzi, M. Fice, C. Renaud, D. C. Rogers, I. F. Lealman, D. G. Moodie, P. J. Cannard, C. Lynch, L. Johnston, M. J. Robertson, R. Cronin, L. Pavlovic, L. Naglic, M. Vidmar, and A. J. Seeds, “Monolithically integrated heterodyne optical phase-lock loop with RF XOR phase detector”, Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 21, pp. 20048 20053, 2011.

L. Ponnampalam, M. Fice, F. Pozzi, C. Renaud, D. Rogers, I. F. Lealman, D. G. Moodie, P. J. Cannard, C. Lynch, L. Johnston, M. J. Robertson, R. Cronin, L. Pavlovic, L. Naglic, M. Vidmar, and A. Seeds, “Monolithically integrated photonic heterodyne system”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 15, pp. 2229 2234, 2011.

R. J. Steed, L. Ponnampalam, M. J. Fice, C. C. Renaud, D. C. Rogers, D. G. Moodie, G. D. Maxwell, I. F. Lealman, M. J. Robertson, L. Pavlovic, N. Luka, V. Matjaz, and A. J. Seeds, “Hybrid integrated optical phase-lock loops for photonic terahertz sources”, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 210 217, 2011.

Rodwell, M. J.

M. Lu, H. Park, E. Bloch, A. Sivananthan, A. Bhardwaj, Z. Griffith, L. A. Johansson, M. J. Rodwell, and L. A. Coldren, “Highly integrated optical heterodyne phase-locked loop with phase / frequency detection”, Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 9, pp. 1090 1092, 2012.

S. Ristic, A. Bhardwaj, M. J. Rodwell, L. A. Coldren, and L. A. Johansson, “An optical phase-locked loop photonic integrated circuit”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 526 538, 2010.

Rogers, D.

L. Ponnampalam, M. Fice, F. Pozzi, C. Renaud, D. Rogers, I. F. Lealman, D. G. Moodie, P. J. Cannard, C. Lynch, L. Johnston, M. J. Robertson, R. Cronin, L. Pavlovic, L. Naglic, M. Vidmar, and A. Seeds, “Monolithically integrated photonic heterodyne system”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 15, pp. 2229 2234, 2011.

Rogers, D. C.

R. J. Steed, L. Ponnampalam, M. J. Fice, C. C. Renaud, D. C. Rogers, D. G. Moodie, G. D. Maxwell, I. F. Lealman, M. J. Robertson, L. Pavlovic, N. Luka, V. Matjaz, and A. J. Seeds, “Hybrid integrated optical phase-lock loops for photonic terahertz sources”, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 210 217, 2011.

R. J. Steed, F. Pozzi, M. Fice, C. Renaud, D. C. Rogers, I. F. Lealman, D. G. Moodie, P. J. Cannard, C. Lynch, L. Johnston, M. J. Robertson, R. Cronin, L. Pavlovic, L. Naglic, M. Vidmar, and A. J. Seeds, “Monolithically integrated heterodyne optical phase-lock loop with RF XOR phase detector”, Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 21, pp. 20048 20053, 2011.

A. J. Seeds, F. Pozzi, C. C. Renaud, M. J. Fice, L. Ponnampalam, D. C. Rogers, I. F. Lealman, and R. Gwilliam, “Microwave photonics: Opportunities for photonic integration”, Proc. Eur. Conf. Integr. Opt., 2008, pp. 123 132.

Rouvalis, E.

E. Rouvalis, C. C. Renaud, D. G. Moodie, M. J. Robertson, and A. J. Seeds, “Continuous wave terahertz generation from ultra-fast InP-Based photodiodes”, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 509 517, 2012.

Schell, M.

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, E. Bente, J. Van der Tol, H. Ambrosius, D. Robbins, M. Wale, N. Grote, and M. Schell, “Generic foundry model for InP-based photonics”, IET Optoelectron., vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 187 194, 2011.

Seeds, A.

L. Ponnampalam, M. Fice, F. Pozzi, C. Renaud, D. Rogers, I. F. Lealman, D. G. Moodie, P. J. Cannard, C. Lynch, L. Johnston, M. J. Robertson, R. Cronin, L. Pavlovic, L. Naglic, M. Vidmar, and A. Seeds, “Monolithically integrated photonic heterodyne system”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 15, pp. 2229 2234, 2011.

Seeds, A. J.

E. Rouvalis, C. C. Renaud, D. G. Moodie, M. J. Robertson, and A. J. Seeds, “Continuous wave terahertz generation from ultra-fast InP-Based photodiodes”, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 509 517, 2012.

R. J. Steed, F. Pozzi, M. Fice, C. Renaud, D. C. Rogers, I. F. Lealman, D. G. Moodie, P. J. Cannard, C. Lynch, L. Johnston, M. J. Robertson, R. Cronin, L. Pavlovic, L. Naglic, M. Vidmar, and A. J. Seeds, “Monolithically integrated heterodyne optical phase-lock loop with RF XOR phase detector”, Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 21, pp. 20048 20053, 2011.

M. J. Fice, A. Chiuchiarelli, E. Ciaramella, and A. J. Seeds, “Homodyne coherent optical receiver using an optical injection phase-lock loop”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 1152 1164, 2011.

R. J. Steed, L. Ponnampalam, M. J. Fice, C. C. Renaud, D. C. Rogers, D. G. Moodie, G. D. Maxwell, I. F. Lealman, M. J. Robertson, L. Pavlovic, N. Luka, V. Matjaz, and A. J. Seeds, “Hybrid integrated optical phase-lock loops for photonic terahertz sources”, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 210 217, 2011.

A. J. Seeds, and K. J. Williams, “Microwave photonics”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 4628 4641, 2006.

S. Fukushima, C. Silva, Y. Muramoto, and A. J. Seeds, “Optoelectronic millimeter-wave synthesis using an optical frequency comb generator, optically injection locked lasers, and a unitraveling-carrier photodiode”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 12, pp. 3043 3051, 2003.

A. J. Seeds, “Microwave photonics”, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 877 887, 2002.

L. N. Langley, M. D. Elkin, C. Edge, M. J. Wale, U. Gliese, X. Huang, and A. J. Seeds, “Packaged semiconductor laser optical phase-locked loop (OPLL) for photonic generation, processing and transmission of microwave signals”, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 47, no. 7, pp. 1257 1264, 1999.

A. C. Bordonalli, C. Walton, and A. J. Seeds, “High-performance phase locking of wide linewidth semiconductor lasers by combined use of optical injection locking and optical phase-lock loop”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 328 342, 1999.

S. Bennett, B. Cai, E. Burr, O. Gough, and A. J. Seeds, “1.8-THz bandwidth, zero-frequency error, tunable optical comb generator for DWDM applications”, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 551 553, 1999.

R. T. Ramos, and A. J. Seeds, “Comparison between first-order and second-order optical phase-lock loops”, IEEE Microw. Guided Wave Lett., vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 7 9, 1994.

R. T. Ramos, and A. J. Seeds, “Delay, linewidth and bandwidth limitations in optical phase-locked loop design”, Electron. Lett., vol. 3, pp. 389 391, 1990.

A. J. Seeds, F. Pozzi, C. C. Renaud, M. J. Fice, L. Ponnampalam, D. C. Rogers, I. F. Lealman, and R. Gwilliam, “Microwave photonics: Opportunities for photonic integration”, Proc. Eur. Conf. Integr. Opt., 2008, pp. 123 132.

K. Balakier, M. J. Fice, L. Ponnampalam, C. C. Renaud, and A. J. Seeds, “Tuneable monolithically integrated photonic THz heterodyne system”, Proc. IEEE Int. Top. Meeting Microw. Photon., 2012, pp. 286 289.

K. Balakier, M. J. Fice, L. Ponnampalam, A. J. Seeds, and C. C. Renaud, “Tuneability of monolithically integrated optical phase lock loop for THz generation”, Proc. IEEE Int. Top. Meeting Microw. Photon., 2013, pp. 182 185.

Shin, C.-H.

M. Kourogi, C.-H. Shin, and M. Ohtsu, “A 134 MHz bandwidth homodyne optical phase-locked-loop of semiconductor laser diodes”, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 270 272, 1991.

Silva, C.

S. Fukushima, C. Silva, Y. Muramoto, and A. J. Seeds, “Optoelectronic millimeter-wave synthesis using an optical frequency comb generator, optically injection locked lasers, and a unitraveling-carrier photodiode”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 12, pp. 3043 3051, 2003.

Sivananthan, A.

M. Lu, H. Park, E. Bloch, A. Sivananthan, A. Bhardwaj, Z. Griffith, L. A. Johansson, M. J. Rodwell, and L. A. Coldren, “Highly integrated optical heterodyne phase-locked loop with phase / frequency detection”, Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 9, pp. 1090 1092, 2012.

Smit, M.

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, E. Bente, J. Van der Tol, H. Ambrosius, D. Robbins, M. Wale, N. Grote, and M. Schell, “Generic foundry model for InP-based photonics”, IET Optoelectron., vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 187 194, 2011.

Steed, R. J.

R. J. Steed, L. Ponnampalam, M. J. Fice, C. C. Renaud, D. C. Rogers, D. G. Moodie, G. D. Maxwell, I. F. Lealman, M. J. Robertson, L. Pavlovic, N. Luka, V. Matjaz, and A. J. Seeds, “Hybrid integrated optical phase-lock loops for photonic terahertz sources”, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 210 217, 2011.

R. J. Steed, F. Pozzi, M. Fice, C. Renaud, D. C. Rogers, I. F. Lealman, D. G. Moodie, P. J. Cannard, C. Lynch, L. Johnston, M. J. Robertson, R. Cronin, L. Pavlovic, L. Naglic, M. Vidmar, and A. J. Seeds, “Monolithically integrated heterodyne optical phase-lock loop with RF XOR phase detector”, Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 21, pp. 20048 20053, 2011.

Stubkjaer, K. E.

U. Gliese, T. Nielsen, M. Bruun, E. L. Christensen, and K. E. Stubkjaer, “A 3-18 GHz microwave signal generator based on optical phase locked semiconductor DFB lasers”, Proc. Lasers Electro-Opt. Soc., 1993, pp. 5 6.

Van der Tol, J.

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, E. Bente, J. Van der Tol, H. Ambrosius, D. Robbins, M. Wale, N. Grote, and M. Schell, “Generic foundry model for InP-based photonics”, IET Optoelectron., vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 187 194, 2011.

Vidal, B.

B. Vidal, T. Nagatsuma, N. J. Gomes, and T. E. Darcie, “Photonic technologies for millimeter- and submillimeter-wave signals”, Adv. Opt. Technol., vol. 2012, pp. 1 18, 2012.

Vidmar, M.

L. Ponnampalam, M. Fice, F. Pozzi, C. Renaud, D. Rogers, I. F. Lealman, D. G. Moodie, P. J. Cannard, C. Lynch, L. Johnston, M. J. Robertson, R. Cronin, L. Pavlovic, L. Naglic, M. Vidmar, and A. Seeds, “Monolithically integrated photonic heterodyne system”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 15, pp. 2229 2234, 2011.

R. J. Steed, F. Pozzi, M. Fice, C. Renaud, D. C. Rogers, I. F. Lealman, D. G. Moodie, P. J. Cannard, C. Lynch, L. Johnston, M. J. Robertson, R. Cronin, L. Pavlovic, L. Naglic, M. Vidmar, and A. J. Seeds, “Monolithically integrated heterodyne optical phase-lock loop with RF XOR phase detector”, Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 21, pp. 20048 20053, 2011.

L. Naglic, L. Pavlovic, B. Batagelj, and M. Vidmar, “Improved phase detector for electro-optical phase-locked loops”, Electron. Lett., vol. 44, no. 12, pp. 44 45, 2008.

Wale, M.

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, E. Bente, J. Van der Tol, H. Ambrosius, D. Robbins, M. Wale, N. Grote, and M. Schell, “Generic foundry model for InP-based photonics”, IET Optoelectron., vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 187 194, 2011.

Wale, M. J.

L. N. Langley, M. D. Elkin, C. Edge, M. J. Wale, U. Gliese, X. Huang, and A. J. Seeds, “Packaged semiconductor laser optical phase-locked loop (OPLL) for photonic generation, processing and transmission of microwave signals”, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 47, no. 7, pp. 1257 1264, 1999.

Walton, C.

A. C. Bordonalli, C. Walton, and A. J. Seeds, “High-performance phase locking of wide linewidth semiconductor lasers by combined use of optical injection locking and optical phase-lock loop”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 328 342, 1999.

Williams, K. J.

A. J. Seeds, and K. J. Williams, “Microwave photonics”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 4628 4641, 2006.

Adv. Opt. Technol. (1)

B. Vidal, T. Nagatsuma, N. J. Gomes, and T. E. Darcie, “Photonic technologies for millimeter- and submillimeter-wave signals”, Adv. Opt. Technol., vol. 2012, pp. 1 18, 2012.

Electron. Lett. (2)

L. Naglic, L. Pavlovic, B. Batagelj, and M. Vidmar, “Improved phase detector for electro-optical phase-locked loops”, Electron. Lett., vol. 44, no. 12, pp. 44 45, 2008.

R. T. Ramos, and A. J. Seeds, “Delay, linewidth and bandwidth limitations in optical phase-locked loop design”, Electron. Lett., vol. 3, pp. 389 391, 1990.

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

R. J. Steed, L. Ponnampalam, M. J. Fice, C. C. Renaud, D. C. Rogers, D. G. Moodie, G. D. Maxwell, I. F. Lealman, M. J. Robertson, L. Pavlovic, N. Luka, V. Matjaz, and A. J. Seeds, “Hybrid integrated optical phase-lock loops for photonic terahertz sources”, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 210 217, 2011.

IEEE Microw. Guided Wave Lett. (1)

R. T. Ramos, and A. J. Seeds, “Comparison between first-order and second-order optical phase-lock loops”, IEEE Microw. Guided Wave Lett., vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 7 9, 1994.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

M. Kourogi, C.-H. Shin, and M. Ohtsu, “A 134 MHz bandwidth homodyne optical phase-locked-loop of semiconductor laser diodes”, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 270 272, 1991.

S. Bennett, B. Cai, E. Burr, O. Gough, and A. J. Seeds, “1.8-THz bandwidth, zero-frequency error, tunable optical comb generator for DWDM applications”, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 551 553, 1999.

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (3)

E. Rouvalis, C. C. Renaud, D. G. Moodie, M. J. Robertson, and A. J. Seeds, “Continuous wave terahertz generation from ultra-fast InP-Based photodiodes”, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 509 517, 2012.

A. J. Seeds, “Microwave photonics”, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 877 887, 2002.

L. N. Langley, M. D. Elkin, C. Edge, M. J. Wale, U. Gliese, X. Huang, and A. J. Seeds, “Packaged semiconductor laser optical phase-locked loop (OPLL) for photonic generation, processing and transmission of microwave signals”, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 47, no. 7, pp. 1257 1264, 1999.

IET Optoelectron. (1)

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, E. Bente, J. Van der Tol, H. Ambrosius, D. Robbins, M. Wale, N. Grote, and M. Schell, “Generic foundry model for InP-based photonics”, IET Optoelectron., vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 187 194, 2011.

J. Lightw. Technol. (7)

L. Ponnampalam, M. Fice, F. Pozzi, C. Renaud, D. Rogers, I. F. Lealman, D. G. Moodie, P. J. Cannard, C. Lynch, L. Johnston, M. J. Robertson, R. Cronin, L. Pavlovic, L. Naglic, M. Vidmar, and A. Seeds, “Monolithically integrated photonic heterodyne system”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 15, pp. 2229 2234, 2011.

S. Fukushima, C. Silva, Y. Muramoto, and A. J. Seeds, “Optoelectronic millimeter-wave synthesis using an optical frequency comb generator, optically injection locked lasers, and a unitraveling-carrier photodiode”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 12, pp. 3043 3051, 2003.

A. C. Bordonalli, C. Walton, and A. J. Seeds, “High-performance phase locking of wide linewidth semiconductor lasers by combined use of optical injection locking and optical phase-lock loop”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 328 342, 1999.

A. J. Seeds, and K. J. Williams, “Microwave photonics”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 4628 4641, 2006.

S. Ristic, A. Bhardwaj, M. J. Rodwell, L. A. Coldren, and L. A. Johansson, “An optical phase-locked loop photonic integrated circuit”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 526 538, 2010.

M. J. Fice, A. Chiuchiarelli, E. Ciaramella, and A. J. Seeds, “Homodyne coherent optical receiver using an optical injection phase-lock loop”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 1152 1164, 2011.

M. A. Grant, W. C. Michie, and M. J. Fletcher, “The performance of optical phase-locked loops in the presence of nonnegligible loop propagation delay”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. LT-5, no. 4, pp. 592 597, 1987.

Nature Photon. (1)

J. Capmany, and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds”, Nature Photon., vol. 1, pp. 319 330, 2007.

Opt. Exp. (2)

R. J. Steed, F. Pozzi, M. Fice, C. Renaud, D. C. Rogers, I. F. Lealman, D. G. Moodie, P. J. Cannard, C. Lynch, L. Johnston, M. J. Robertson, R. Cronin, L. Pavlovic, L. Naglic, M. Vidmar, and A. J. Seeds, “Monolithically integrated heterodyne optical phase-lock loop with RF XOR phase detector”, Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 21, pp. 20048 20053, 2011.

M. Lu, H. Park, E. Bloch, A. Sivananthan, A. Bhardwaj, Z. Griffith, L. A. Johansson, M. J. Rodwell, and L. A. Coldren, “Highly integrated optical heterodyne phase-locked loop with phase / frequency detection”, Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 9, pp. 1090 1092, 2012.

Other (9)

U. Gliese, T. Nielsen, M. Bruun, E. L. Christensen, and K. E. Stubkjaer, “A 3-18 GHz microwave signal generator based on optical phase locked semiconductor DFB lasers”, Proc. Lasers Electro-Opt. Soc., 1993, pp. 5 6.

J. Borner, G. Pillet, L. Morvan, D. Dolfi, K. Balakier, and C. Renaud, “Optical demodulation of THz signals”, Proc. IEEE Photon. Conf., 2013, vol. 5, pp. 209 210.

K. Balakier, M. J. Fice, L. Ponnampalam, A. J. Seeds, and C. C. Renaud, “Tuneability of monolithically integrated optical phase lock loop for THz generation”, Proc. IEEE Int. Top. Meeting Microw. Photon., 2013, pp. 182 185.

F. M. Gardner, Phaselock Techniques, Oxford, U.K.: Wiley, 2005.

T. Nagatsuma, “Generating millimeter and terahertz waves”, IEEE Microw. Mag., 2009, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 64 74.

L. A. Coldren, “Photonic integrated circuits for microwave photonics”, Proc. IEEE Top. Meeting Microw. Photon., 2010, pp. 1 4.

K. Balakier, M. J. Fice, L. Ponnampalam, C. C. Renaud, and A. J. Seeds, “Tuneable monolithically integrated photonic THz heterodyne system”, Proc. IEEE Int. Top. Meeting Microw. Photon., 2012, pp. 286 289.

M. C. Amann, and J. Buus, Tuneable Laser Diodes, Norwood, MA, USA: Artech House, 1998.

A. J. Seeds, F. Pozzi, C. C. Renaud, M. J. Fice, L. Ponnampalam, D. C. Rogers, I. F. Lealman, and R. Gwilliam, “Microwave photonics: Opportunities for photonic integration”, Proc. Eur. Conf. Integr. Opt., 2008, pp. 123 132.

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