Abstract

Thin-films of copper oxide $({{Cu}}_{x}{{O}})$ were produced by thermal oxidation of metallic copper (Cu) at different temperatures (150–450$\ ^{\circ}{{C}}$). The films produced at temperatures of 200, 250 and 300$\ ^{\circ}{{C}}$ showed high Hall motilities of 2.2, 1.9 and 1.6 ${{cm}}^{2}\ {{V}}^{-1}{{s}}^{-1}$, respectively. Single ${{Cu}}_{2}{{O}}$ phases were obtained at 200$\ ^{\circ}{{C}}$ and its conversion to CuO starts at 250$\ ^{\circ}{{C}}$. For lower thicknesses $\sim$40 nm, the films oxidized at 250$\ ^{\circ}{{C}}$ showed a complete conversion to CuO phase. Successful thin-film transistors (TFTs) were produce by thermal oxidation of a 20 nm Cu film, obtaining p-type ${{Cu}}_{2}{{O}}$ (at 200$\ ^{\circ}{{C}}$) and CuO (at 250$\ ^{\circ}{{C}}$) with On/Off ratios of ${{6}}\times {{10}}^{1}$ and ${{1}}\times {{10}}^{2}$, respectively.

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  1. E. Fortunato, R. Martins, "Where science fiction meets reality? With oxide semiconductors!," Phys. Stat. Solid. 5, 336-339 (2011).
  2. E. Fortunato, P. Barquinha, L. Pereira, R. Martins, Transparent Electronics: From Materials to Devices (Wiley, 2012).
  3. M. Nolan, S. D. Elliott, "The p-type conduction mechanism in ${{Cu}}_{2}{{O}}$ : A first principles study," Phys. Chemistry Chem. Phys. 8, 5350-5358 (2006).
  4. H. Raebiger, S. Lany, A. Zunger, "Origins of the p-type nature and cation deficiency in ${{Cu}}_{2}{{O}}$ and related materials," Phys. Rev. B 76, (2007).
  5. Y. Nakano, S. Saeki, T. Morikawa, "Optical bandgap widening of p-type ${{Cu}}_{2}{{O}}$ films by nitrogen doping," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 1-3 (2009).
  6. A. Mittiga, F. Biccari, C. Malerba, "Intrinsic defects and metastability effects in ${{Cu}}_{2}{{O}}$ ," Thin Solid Films 517, 2469-2472 (2009).
  7. J. Deuermeier, J. Gassmann, J. Broetz, A. Klein, "Reactive magnetron sputtering of ${{Cu}}_{2}{{O}}$ : Dependence on oxygen pressure and interface formation with indium tin oxide," J. Appl. Phys. 109, (2011).
  8. A. Mittiga, E. Salza, F. Sarto, M. Tucci, R. Vasanthi, "Heterojunction solar cell with 2% efficiency based on a ${{Cu}}_{2}{{O}}$ substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, (2006).
  9. M. K. Wu, J. R. Ashburn, C. J. Torng, P. H. Hor, R. L. Meng, L. Gao, Z. J. Huang, Y. Q. Wang, C. W. Chu, "Superconductivity at 93-K in a new mixed-phase Y-BA-Cu-O compound system at ambient pressure," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 908-910 (1987).
  10. G. Avgouropoulos, T. Ioannides, C. Papadopoulou, J. Batista, S. Hocevar, H. K. Matralis, "A comparative study of Pt/gamma-Al2O3, Au/alpha-Fe2O3 and ${{Cu}}{{O}}$ - ${{Ce}}{{O}}_{2}$ CeO2 catalysts for the selective oxidation of carbon monoxide in excess hydrogen," Catalysis Today 75, 157-167 (2002).
  11. X. P. Gao, J. L. Bao, G. L. Pan, H. Y. Zhu, P. X. Huang, F. Wu, D. Y. Song, "Preparation and electrochemical performance of polycrystalline and single crystalline CuO nanorods as anode materials for Li ion battery," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 5547-5551 (2004).
  12. J.-W. Han, M. Meyyappan, "Copper oxide transistor on copper wire for e-textile," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, (2011).
  13. B. S. Li, K. Akimoto, A. Shen, "Growth of ${{Cu}}_{2}{{O}}$ thin films with high hole mobility by introducing a low-temperature buffer layer," J. Cryst. Growth 311, 1102-1105 (2009).
  14. E. Fortunato, V. Figueiredo, P. Barquinha, E. Elamurugu, R. Barros, G. Goncalves, S. H. K. Park, C. S. Hwang, R. Martins, "Thin-film transistors based on p-type ${{Cu}}_{2}{{O}}$ thin films produced at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, (2010).
  15. K. Matsuzaki, K. Nomura, H. Yanagi, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Epitaxial growth of high mobility ${{Cu}}_{2}{{O}}$ thin films and application to p-channel thin film transistor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 1-3 (2008).
  16. K. Matsuzaki, K. Nomura, H. Yanagi, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Effects of post-annealing on (110) ${{Cu}}_{2}{{O}}$ epitaxial films and origin of low mobility in ${{Cu}}_{2}{{O}}$ thin-film transistor," Physica Status Solid. a-Appl. Mater. Sci. 206, 2192-2197 (2009).
  17. Z. Xiao, F. Guojia, Y. Longyan, L. Meiya, G. Wenjie, Z. Xingzhong, "Top-gate low-threshold voltage p- ${{Cu}}_{2}{{O}}$ thin-film transistor grown on ${{SiO}}_{2}/{{Si}}$ substrate using a high-kappa HfON gate dielectric," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31, 827-829 (2010).
  18. V. Figueiredo, E. Elangovan, G. Goncalves, N. Franco, E. Alves, S. H. K. Park, R. Martins, E. Fortunato, "Electrical, structural and optical characterization of copper oxide thin films as a function of post annealing temperature," Phys. Status Solid. a—Appl. Mater. Sci. 206, 2143-2148 (2009).
  19. V. Figueiredo, E. Elangovan, R. Barros, J. V. Pinto, T. Busani, R. Martins, E. Fortunato, "p-type Cu $_{x}$ O films deposited at room temperature for thin-film transistors," J. Display Technol. 8, 41-47 (2012).
  20. S. Y. Sung, S. Y. Kim, K. M. Jo, J. H. Lee, J. J. Kim, S. G. Kim, K. H. Chai, S. J. Pearton, D. P. Norton, Y. W. Heo, "Fabrication of p-channel thin-film transistors using CuO active layers deposited at low temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, (2010).
  21. V. Figueiredo, E. Elangovan, G. Goncalves, P. Barquinha, L. Pereira, N. Franco, E. Alves, R. Martins, E. Fortunato, "Effect of post-annealing on the properties of copper oxide thin films obtained from the oxidation of evaporated metallic copper," Appl. Surf. Science 254, 3949-3954 (2008).
  22. Planar Systems, Inc.EspooFinland“ITO/ATO-coated glass substrates,” (2004).
  23. W. Jaenicke, S. Leistikow, A. Stadler, "Mechanical stresses during the oxidation of copper and their influence on oxidation kinetics," J. Electrochem. Soc. 111, 1031-1037 (1964).
  24. N. Cabrera, N. F. Mott, "Theory of the oxidation of metals," Rep. Progr. in Phys. 12, 163-184 (1948).
  25. J. Iijima, J. W. Lim, S. H. Hong, S. Suzuki, K. Mimura, M. Isshiki, "Native oxidation of ultra high purity Cu bulk and thin films," Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 2825-2829 (2006).
  26. V. V. Prisedsky, V. M. Vinogradov, "Fragmentation of diffusion zone in high-temperature oxidation of copper," J. Solid State Chem. 177, 4258-4268 (2004).
  27. V. S. Sastri, E. Ghali, M. Elboujdaini, Corrosion Prevention and Protection Practical Solutions (Wiley, 2007).
  28. M. Oreilly, X. Jiang, J. T. Beechinor, S. Lynch, C. N. Nidheasuna, J. C. Patterson, G. M. Crean, "Investigation of the oxidation behavior of thin-film and bulk copper," Appl. Surf. Sci. 91, 152-156 (1995).
  29. A. Njeh, T. Wieder, H. Fuess, "Reflectometry studies of the oxidation kinetics of thin copper films," Surf. Interface Anal. 33, 626-628 (2002).
  30. R. F. Tylecote, "The oxidation of copper at 350 $\ ^{\circ}{\hbox{C}}$–900 $\ ^{\circ}{\hbox{C}}$ in air," J. Inst. Metals 78, 327-350 (1950).
  31. Y. F. Zhu, K. Mimura, J. W. Lim, M. Isshiki, Q. Jiang, "Brief review of oxidation kinetics of copper at 350 degrees C to 1050 degrees C," Metall. Mater. Trans. a—Phys. Metall. Mater. Sci. 37A, 1231-1237 (2006).
  32. F. P. Koffyberg, F. A. Benko, "A photo-electrochemical determination of the position of the conduction and valence band edges of p-type CuO," J. Appl. Phys. 53, 1173-1177 (1982).
  33. L. C. Bourne, P. Y. Yu, A. Zettl, M. L. Cohen, "High-pressure electrical-conductivity measurements in the copper oxides," Phys. Rev. B 40, 10973-10976 (1989).
  34. A. Parretta, M. K. Jayaraj, A. Di Nocera, S. Loreti, L. Quercia, A. Agati, "Electrical and optical properties of copper oxide films prepared by reactive RF magnetron sputtering," Phys. Status Solid. (a) 155, 399-404 (1996).
  35. N. Serin, T. Serin, S. Horzum, Y. Celik, "Annealing effects on the properties of copper oxide thin films prepared by chemical deposition," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, 398-401 (2005).

2012

2011

E. Fortunato, R. Martins, "Where science fiction meets reality? With oxide semiconductors!," Phys. Stat. Solid. 5, 336-339 (2011).

J. Deuermeier, J. Gassmann, J. Broetz, A. Klein, "Reactive magnetron sputtering of ${{Cu}}_{2}{{O}}$ : Dependence on oxygen pressure and interface formation with indium tin oxide," J. Appl. Phys. 109, (2011).

J.-W. Han, M. Meyyappan, "Copper oxide transistor on copper wire for e-textile," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, (2011).

2010

E. Fortunato, V. Figueiredo, P. Barquinha, E. Elamurugu, R. Barros, G. Goncalves, S. H. K. Park, C. S. Hwang, R. Martins, "Thin-film transistors based on p-type ${{Cu}}_{2}{{O}}$ thin films produced at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, (2010).

Z. Xiao, F. Guojia, Y. Longyan, L. Meiya, G. Wenjie, Z. Xingzhong, "Top-gate low-threshold voltage p- ${{Cu}}_{2}{{O}}$ thin-film transistor grown on ${{SiO}}_{2}/{{Si}}$ substrate using a high-kappa HfON gate dielectric," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31, 827-829 (2010).

S. Y. Sung, S. Y. Kim, K. M. Jo, J. H. Lee, J. J. Kim, S. G. Kim, K. H. Chai, S. J. Pearton, D. P. Norton, Y. W. Heo, "Fabrication of p-channel thin-film transistors using CuO active layers deposited at low temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, (2010).

2009

V. Figueiredo, E. Elangovan, G. Goncalves, N. Franco, E. Alves, S. H. K. Park, R. Martins, E. Fortunato, "Electrical, structural and optical characterization of copper oxide thin films as a function of post annealing temperature," Phys. Status Solid. a—Appl. Mater. Sci. 206, 2143-2148 (2009).

K. Matsuzaki, K. Nomura, H. Yanagi, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Effects of post-annealing on (110) ${{Cu}}_{2}{{O}}$ epitaxial films and origin of low mobility in ${{Cu}}_{2}{{O}}$ thin-film transistor," Physica Status Solid. a-Appl. Mater. Sci. 206, 2192-2197 (2009).

B. S. Li, K. Akimoto, A. Shen, "Growth of ${{Cu}}_{2}{{O}}$ thin films with high hole mobility by introducing a low-temperature buffer layer," J. Cryst. Growth 311, 1102-1105 (2009).

Y. Nakano, S. Saeki, T. Morikawa, "Optical bandgap widening of p-type ${{Cu}}_{2}{{O}}$ films by nitrogen doping," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 1-3 (2009).

A. Mittiga, F. Biccari, C. Malerba, "Intrinsic defects and metastability effects in ${{Cu}}_{2}{{O}}$ ," Thin Solid Films 517, 2469-2472 (2009).

2008

K. Matsuzaki, K. Nomura, H. Yanagi, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Epitaxial growth of high mobility ${{Cu}}_{2}{{O}}$ thin films and application to p-channel thin film transistor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 1-3 (2008).

V. Figueiredo, E. Elangovan, G. Goncalves, P. Barquinha, L. Pereira, N. Franco, E. Alves, R. Martins, E. Fortunato, "Effect of post-annealing on the properties of copper oxide thin films obtained from the oxidation of evaporated metallic copper," Appl. Surf. Science 254, 3949-3954 (2008).

2007

H. Raebiger, S. Lany, A. Zunger, "Origins of the p-type nature and cation deficiency in ${{Cu}}_{2}{{O}}$ and related materials," Phys. Rev. B 76, (2007).

2006

A. Mittiga, E. Salza, F. Sarto, M. Tucci, R. Vasanthi, "Heterojunction solar cell with 2% efficiency based on a ${{Cu}}_{2}{{O}}$ substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, (2006).

M. Nolan, S. D. Elliott, "The p-type conduction mechanism in ${{Cu}}_{2}{{O}}$ : A first principles study," Phys. Chemistry Chem. Phys. 8, 5350-5358 (2006).

J. Iijima, J. W. Lim, S. H. Hong, S. Suzuki, K. Mimura, M. Isshiki, "Native oxidation of ultra high purity Cu bulk and thin films," Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 2825-2829 (2006).

Y. F. Zhu, K. Mimura, J. W. Lim, M. Isshiki, Q. Jiang, "Brief review of oxidation kinetics of copper at 350 degrees C to 1050 degrees C," Metall. Mater. Trans. a—Phys. Metall. Mater. Sci. 37A, 1231-1237 (2006).

2005

N. Serin, T. Serin, S. Horzum, Y. Celik, "Annealing effects on the properties of copper oxide thin films prepared by chemical deposition," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, 398-401 (2005).

2004

V. V. Prisedsky, V. M. Vinogradov, "Fragmentation of diffusion zone in high-temperature oxidation of copper," J. Solid State Chem. 177, 4258-4268 (2004).

X. P. Gao, J. L. Bao, G. L. Pan, H. Y. Zhu, P. X. Huang, F. Wu, D. Y. Song, "Preparation and electrochemical performance of polycrystalline and single crystalline CuO nanorods as anode materials for Li ion battery," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 5547-5551 (2004).

2002

G. Avgouropoulos, T. Ioannides, C. Papadopoulou, J. Batista, S. Hocevar, H. K. Matralis, "A comparative study of Pt/gamma-Al2O3, Au/alpha-Fe2O3 and ${{Cu}}{{O}}$ - ${{Ce}}{{O}}_{2}$ CeO2 catalysts for the selective oxidation of carbon monoxide in excess hydrogen," Catalysis Today 75, 157-167 (2002).

A. Njeh, T. Wieder, H. Fuess, "Reflectometry studies of the oxidation kinetics of thin copper films," Surf. Interface Anal. 33, 626-628 (2002).

1996

A. Parretta, M. K. Jayaraj, A. Di Nocera, S. Loreti, L. Quercia, A. Agati, "Electrical and optical properties of copper oxide films prepared by reactive RF magnetron sputtering," Phys. Status Solid. (a) 155, 399-404 (1996).

1995

M. Oreilly, X. Jiang, J. T. Beechinor, S. Lynch, C. N. Nidheasuna, J. C. Patterson, G. M. Crean, "Investigation of the oxidation behavior of thin-film and bulk copper," Appl. Surf. Sci. 91, 152-156 (1995).

1989

L. C. Bourne, P. Y. Yu, A. Zettl, M. L. Cohen, "High-pressure electrical-conductivity measurements in the copper oxides," Phys. Rev. B 40, 10973-10976 (1989).

1987

M. K. Wu, J. R. Ashburn, C. J. Torng, P. H. Hor, R. L. Meng, L. Gao, Z. J. Huang, Y. Q. Wang, C. W. Chu, "Superconductivity at 93-K in a new mixed-phase Y-BA-Cu-O compound system at ambient pressure," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 908-910 (1987).

1982

F. P. Koffyberg, F. A. Benko, "A photo-electrochemical determination of the position of the conduction and valence band edges of p-type CuO," J. Appl. Phys. 53, 1173-1177 (1982).

1964

W. Jaenicke, S. Leistikow, A. Stadler, "Mechanical stresses during the oxidation of copper and their influence on oxidation kinetics," J. Electrochem. Soc. 111, 1031-1037 (1964).

1950

R. F. Tylecote, "The oxidation of copper at 350 $\ ^{\circ}{\hbox{C}}$–900 $\ ^{\circ}{\hbox{C}}$ in air," J. Inst. Metals 78, 327-350 (1950).

1948

N. Cabrera, N. F. Mott, "Theory of the oxidation of metals," Rep. Progr. in Phys. 12, 163-184 (1948).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Y. Nakano, S. Saeki, T. Morikawa, "Optical bandgap widening of p-type ${{Cu}}_{2}{{O}}$ films by nitrogen doping," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 1-3 (2009).

E. Fortunato, V. Figueiredo, P. Barquinha, E. Elamurugu, R. Barros, G. Goncalves, S. H. K. Park, C. S. Hwang, R. Martins, "Thin-film transistors based on p-type ${{Cu}}_{2}{{O}}$ thin films produced at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, (2010).

S. Y. Sung, S. Y. Kim, K. M. Jo, J. H. Lee, J. J. Kim, S. G. Kim, K. H. Chai, S. J. Pearton, D. P. Norton, Y. W. Heo, "Fabrication of p-channel thin-film transistors using CuO active layers deposited at low temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, (2010).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

K. Matsuzaki, K. Nomura, H. Yanagi, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Epitaxial growth of high mobility ${{Cu}}_{2}{{O}}$ thin films and application to p-channel thin film transistor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 1-3 (2008).

J.-W. Han, M. Meyyappan, "Copper oxide transistor on copper wire for e-textile," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, (2011).

A. Mittiga, E. Salza, F. Sarto, M. Tucci, R. Vasanthi, "Heterojunction solar cell with 2% efficiency based on a ${{Cu}}_{2}{{O}}$ substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, (2006).

Appl. Surf. Sci.

J. Iijima, J. W. Lim, S. H. Hong, S. Suzuki, K. Mimura, M. Isshiki, "Native oxidation of ultra high purity Cu bulk and thin films," Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 2825-2829 (2006).

Appl. Surf. Sci.

M. Oreilly, X. Jiang, J. T. Beechinor, S. Lynch, C. N. Nidheasuna, J. C. Patterson, G. M. Crean, "Investigation of the oxidation behavior of thin-film and bulk copper," Appl. Surf. Sci. 91, 152-156 (1995).

Appl. Surf. Science

V. Figueiredo, E. Elangovan, G. Goncalves, P. Barquinha, L. Pereira, N. Franco, E. Alves, R. Martins, E. Fortunato, "Effect of post-annealing on the properties of copper oxide thin films obtained from the oxidation of evaporated metallic copper," Appl. Surf. Science 254, 3949-3954 (2008).

Catalysis Today

G. Avgouropoulos, T. Ioannides, C. Papadopoulou, J. Batista, S. Hocevar, H. K. Matralis, "A comparative study of Pt/gamma-Al2O3, Au/alpha-Fe2O3 and ${{Cu}}{{O}}$ - ${{Ce}}{{O}}_{2}$ CeO2 catalysts for the selective oxidation of carbon monoxide in excess hydrogen," Catalysis Today 75, 157-167 (2002).

IEEE Electron Device Lett.

Z. Xiao, F. Guojia, Y. Longyan, L. Meiya, G. Wenjie, Z. Xingzhong, "Top-gate low-threshold voltage p- ${{Cu}}_{2}{{O}}$ thin-film transistor grown on ${{SiO}}_{2}/{{Si}}$ substrate using a high-kappa HfON gate dielectric," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31, 827-829 (2010).

J. Solid State Chem.

V. V. Prisedsky, V. M. Vinogradov, "Fragmentation of diffusion zone in high-temperature oxidation of copper," J. Solid State Chem. 177, 4258-4268 (2004).

J. Appl. Phys.

J. Deuermeier, J. Gassmann, J. Broetz, A. Klein, "Reactive magnetron sputtering of ${{Cu}}_{2}{{O}}$ : Dependence on oxygen pressure and interface formation with indium tin oxide," J. Appl. Phys. 109, (2011).

F. P. Koffyberg, F. A. Benko, "A photo-electrochemical determination of the position of the conduction and valence band edges of p-type CuO," J. Appl. Phys. 53, 1173-1177 (1982).

J. Cryst. Growth

B. S. Li, K. Akimoto, A. Shen, "Growth of ${{Cu}}_{2}{{O}}$ thin films with high hole mobility by introducing a low-temperature buffer layer," J. Cryst. Growth 311, 1102-1105 (2009).

J. Display Technol.

J. Electrochem. Soc.

W. Jaenicke, S. Leistikow, A. Stadler, "Mechanical stresses during the oxidation of copper and their influence on oxidation kinetics," J. Electrochem. Soc. 111, 1031-1037 (1964).

J. Inst. Metals

R. F. Tylecote, "The oxidation of copper at 350 $\ ^{\circ}{\hbox{C}}$–900 $\ ^{\circ}{\hbox{C}}$ in air," J. Inst. Metals 78, 327-350 (1950).

J. Phys. Chem. B

X. P. Gao, J. L. Bao, G. L. Pan, H. Y. Zhu, P. X. Huang, F. Wu, D. Y. Song, "Preparation and electrochemical performance of polycrystalline and single crystalline CuO nanorods as anode materials for Li ion battery," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 5547-5551 (2004).

Metall. Mater. Trans. a—Phys. Metall. Mater. Sci.

Y. F. Zhu, K. Mimura, J. W. Lim, M. Isshiki, Q. Jiang, "Brief review of oxidation kinetics of copper at 350 degrees C to 1050 degrees C," Metall. Mater. Trans. a—Phys. Metall. Mater. Sci. 37A, 1231-1237 (2006).

Phys. Chemistry Chem. Phys.

M. Nolan, S. D. Elliott, "The p-type conduction mechanism in ${{Cu}}_{2}{{O}}$ : A first principles study," Phys. Chemistry Chem. Phys. 8, 5350-5358 (2006).

Phys. Rev. Lett.

M. K. Wu, J. R. Ashburn, C. J. Torng, P. H. Hor, R. L. Meng, L. Gao, Z. J. Huang, Y. Q. Wang, C. W. Chu, "Superconductivity at 93-K in a new mixed-phase Y-BA-Cu-O compound system at ambient pressure," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 908-910 (1987).

Phys. Stat. Solid.

E. Fortunato, R. Martins, "Where science fiction meets reality? With oxide semiconductors!," Phys. Stat. Solid. 5, 336-339 (2011).

Phys. Rev. B

H. Raebiger, S. Lany, A. Zunger, "Origins of the p-type nature and cation deficiency in ${{Cu}}_{2}{{O}}$ and related materials," Phys. Rev. B 76, (2007).

Phys. Rev. B

L. C. Bourne, P. Y. Yu, A. Zettl, M. L. Cohen, "High-pressure electrical-conductivity measurements in the copper oxides," Phys. Rev. B 40, 10973-10976 (1989).

Phys. Status Solid. (a)

A. Parretta, M. K. Jayaraj, A. Di Nocera, S. Loreti, L. Quercia, A. Agati, "Electrical and optical properties of copper oxide films prepared by reactive RF magnetron sputtering," Phys. Status Solid. (a) 155, 399-404 (1996).

Phys. Status Solid. a—Appl. Mater. Sci.

V. Figueiredo, E. Elangovan, G. Goncalves, N. Franco, E. Alves, S. H. K. Park, R. Martins, E. Fortunato, "Electrical, structural and optical characterization of copper oxide thin films as a function of post annealing temperature," Phys. Status Solid. a—Appl. Mater. Sci. 206, 2143-2148 (2009).

Physica Status Solid. a-Appl. Mater. Sci.

K. Matsuzaki, K. Nomura, H. Yanagi, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Effects of post-annealing on (110) ${{Cu}}_{2}{{O}}$ epitaxial films and origin of low mobility in ${{Cu}}_{2}{{O}}$ thin-film transistor," Physica Status Solid. a-Appl. Mater. Sci. 206, 2192-2197 (2009).

Rep. Progr. in Phys.

N. Cabrera, N. F. Mott, "Theory of the oxidation of metals," Rep. Progr. in Phys. 12, 163-184 (1948).

Semicond. Sci. Technol.

N. Serin, T. Serin, S. Horzum, Y. Celik, "Annealing effects on the properties of copper oxide thin films prepared by chemical deposition," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, 398-401 (2005).

Surf. Interface Anal.

A. Njeh, T. Wieder, H. Fuess, "Reflectometry studies of the oxidation kinetics of thin copper films," Surf. Interface Anal. 33, 626-628 (2002).

Thin Solid Films

A. Mittiga, F. Biccari, C. Malerba, "Intrinsic defects and metastability effects in ${{Cu}}_{2}{{O}}$ ," Thin Solid Films 517, 2469-2472 (2009).

Other

E. Fortunato, P. Barquinha, L. Pereira, R. Martins, Transparent Electronics: From Materials to Devices (Wiley, 2012).

V. S. Sastri, E. Ghali, M. Elboujdaini, Corrosion Prevention and Protection Practical Solutions (Wiley, 2007).

Planar Systems, Inc.EspooFinland“ITO/ATO-coated glass substrates,” (2004).

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