Abstract

Nitrogen doped ZnO (NZO) thin films, at different ${{N}} _{2}$ flow rates have been deposited on glass substrates by pulsed DC reactive magnetron sputtering technique. The effect of ${{N}} _{2}$ flow rate (1.0 sccm – 3.0 sccm) on the structural, optical, electrical and chemical state of N has been studied. With the effect of ${{N}} _{2}$ flow rate: the crystallinity of the films decreased, tensile stress is developed, optical transmittance decreased (80% to 60%), conductivity decreased till 1.5 sccm and films were n-type conducting. At 2.0 sccm and 2.5 sccm of ${{N}} _{2}$ flow rates, NZO thin films showed p-type conductivity. The changes in the magnitude and type of conductivity have a direct relation with the changes observed in N-chemical state in ZnO lattice. p- NZO thin films are electrically unstable; this instability has been explained based on the changes occurred in the N chemical states, resulting from the stress release in NZO lattice.

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  2. C. Klingshirn, "ZnO: From basics towards applications," Phys. Stat. Sol. (b) 244, 3027-3073 (2007).
  3. D. C. Look, B. Claflin, "p-type doping and devices based on ZnO," Phys. Stat. Sol. (b) 241, 624-630 (2004).
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  9. A. Janotti, C. G. Van de Walle, "Native point defects in ZnO," Phys. Rev. B 76, 165202 1-22 (2007).
  10. K. Minegishi, Y. Koiwai, K. Yukinobu, K. Yano, M. Kasuga, A. Shimizu, "Growth of p-type Zinc Oxide thin films by chemical vapour deposition," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 1453-1455 (1997).
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  15. L. T. Ming, K. S. Yan, Y. M. Chun, "Nitrogen-doped p-type ZnO films prepared from nitrogen gas radiofrequency magnetron sputtering," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 053705 1-4 (2006).
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  18. S. Maniv, W. D. Westwood, E. Colombini, "Pressure and angle of incidence effects in reactive planar magnetron sputtered ZnO layers," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 20, 162-170 (1982).
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  24. J. L. Lyons, A. Janotti, C. G. Van de Walle, "Why nitrogen cannot lead to p-type conductivity in ZnO," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 252105 1-3 (2009).
  25. D. C. Look, Electrical Characterization of GaAs and Related Materials (Wiley, 1989).
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  27. S. A. Lenotiev, S. V. Koshcheev, V. G. Devyatov, A. E. Cherkashin, E. P. Mikheeva, "Detailed XPS and UPS studies on the band structure of ZnO," J. Struct. Chem. 38, 726-731 (1997).
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  30. A. Subrahmanyam, C. Suresh Kumar, Kelvin Probe for Surface Engineering: Fundamentals and Design (CRC, 2009).

2009

A. Janotti, C. G. Van de Walle, "Fundamentals of zinc oxide as a semiconductor," Rep. Prog. Phys. 72, 126501 1-22 (2009).

J. L. Lyons, A. Janotti, C. G. Van de Walle, "Why nitrogen cannot lead to p-type conductivity in ZnO," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 252105 1-3 (2009).

2007

B. Yao, L. X. Guan, G. Z. Xing, Z. Z. Zhang, B. H. Li, Z. P. Wei, X. H. Wang, C. X. Cong, Y. P. Xie, Y. M. Lu, D. Z. Shen, "P-type conductivity and stability of nitrogen-doped zinc oxide prepared by magnetron sputtering," J. Luminesc. 122, 191-194 (2007).

C. Klingshirn, "ZnO: From basics towards applications," Phys. Stat. Sol. (b) 244, 3027-3073 (2007).

A. Janotti, C. G. Van de Walle, "Native point defects in ZnO," Phys. Rev. B 76, 165202 1-22 (2007).

2006

L. T. Ming, K. S. Yan, Y. M. Chun, "Nitrogen-doped p-type ZnO films prepared from nitrogen gas radiofrequency magnetron sputtering," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 053705 1-4 (2006).

M. Petravic, P. N. K. Deenapanray, V. A. Coleman, C. Jagadish, K. J. Kim, B. Kim, K. Koike, S. Sasa, M. Inoue, M. Yano, "Chemical states of nitrogen in ZnO studied by near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure and core-level photoemission spectroscopies," Surface Sci. 600, L81-L85 (2006).

2005

Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S. J. Cho, H. Morkoç, "A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and device," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 041301-1-041301-103 (2005).

D. C. Look, "Electrical and optical properties of p-type ZnO," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, 55-61 (2005).

2004

D. C. Look, B. Claflin, "p-type doping and devices based on ZnO," Phys. Stat. Sol. (b) 241, 624-630 (2004).

J. G. Lu, Z. Z. Ye, F. Zhuge, Y. J. Zeng, B. H. Zhao, L. P. Zhu, "p-type conduction in N–Al co-doped ZnO thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3134-3135 (2004).

2000

S. B. Zhang, S. H. Wei, A. Zunger, "Microscopic origin of the phenomenological equilibrium “Doping limit rule” in n-type III-V semiconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 1232-1235 (2000).

C. L. Perkins, S. H. Lee, X. Li, S. E. Asher, T. J. Coutts, "Identification of nitrogen chemical states in N-doped ZnO via x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 034907 1-7 (2000).

D. C. Look, D. C. Reynolds, C. W. Litton, R. L. Jones, D. B. Eason, G. Cantwell, "Characterization of homoepitaxial p-type ZnO grown by molecular beam epitaxy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1830-1832 (2000).

Y. R. Ryu, S. Zhu, D. C. Look, J. M. Wrobel, H. M. Joeng, H. W. White, "Synthesis of p-type ZnO films," J. Cryst. Growth 216, 330-334 (2000).

X. L. Guo, H. Tabata, T. Kawai, "Pulsed laser reactive deposition of p-type ZnO film enhanced by an electron cyclotron resonance source," J. Cryst. Growth 223, 135-139 (2000).

M. Joseph, H. Tabata, H. Saeki, K. Ueda, T. Kawai, "Fabrication of the low-resistive p-type ZnO by codoping method," Phys. B: Condensed Matter 302, 140-148 (2000).

D. C. Look, D. C. Reynolds, C. W. Litton, R. L. Jones, D. B. Eason, G. Cantwell, "Characterization of homoepitaxial p-type ZnO grown by molecular beam epitaxy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1830-1832 (2000).

1997

K. Minegishi, Y. Koiwai, K. Yukinobu, K. Yano, M. Kasuga, A. Shimizu, "Growth of p-type Zinc Oxide thin films by chemical vapour deposition," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 1453-1455 (1997).

S. A. Lenotiev, S. V. Koshcheev, V. G. Devyatov, A. E. Cherkashin, E. P. Mikheeva, "Detailed XPS and UPS studies on the band structure of ZnO," J. Struct. Chem. 38, 726-731 (1997).

1990

B. H. Choi, H. B. Im, J. S. Song, K. H. Yoon, "Optical and electrical properties of ${{Ga}}_{2}{{O}}_{3}$ -doped ZnO films prepared by r.f. sputtering," Thin Solid Films 193, 712-720 (1990).

1986

S. Major, S. Kumar, M. Bhatnagar, K. L. Chopra, "Effect of hydrogen plasma treatment on transparent conducting oxides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 394-396 (1986).

1984

T. Minami, H. Nanto, S. Takata, "Highly conductive and transparent aluminium doped zinc oxide thin films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 23, L280-L282 (1984).

1982

S. Maniv, W. D. Westwood, E. Colombini, "Pressure and angle of incidence effects in reactive planar magnetron sputtered ZnO layers," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 20, 162-170 (1982).

1958

L. J. van der Pauw, "A method of measuring specific resistivity and Hall effect of discs of arbitrary shape," Philips Res. Rep. 13, 1-9 (1958).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

D. C. Look, D. C. Reynolds, C. W. Litton, R. L. Jones, D. B. Eason, G. Cantwell, "Characterization of homoepitaxial p-type ZnO grown by molecular beam epitaxy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1830-1832 (2000).

D. C. Look, D. C. Reynolds, C. W. Litton, R. L. Jones, D. B. Eason, G. Cantwell, "Characterization of homoepitaxial p-type ZnO grown by molecular beam epitaxy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1830-1832 (2000).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. L. Lyons, A. Janotti, C. G. Van de Walle, "Why nitrogen cannot lead to p-type conductivity in ZnO," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 252105 1-3 (2009).

J. G. Lu, Z. Z. Ye, F. Zhuge, Y. J. Zeng, B. H. Zhao, L. P. Zhu, "p-type conduction in N–Al co-doped ZnO thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3134-3135 (2004).

S. Major, S. Kumar, M. Bhatnagar, K. L. Chopra, "Effect of hydrogen plasma treatment on transparent conducting oxides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 394-396 (1986).

J. Appl. Phys.

C. L. Perkins, S. H. Lee, X. Li, S. E. Asher, T. J. Coutts, "Identification of nitrogen chemical states in N-doped ZnO via x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 034907 1-7 (2000).

J. Luminesc.

B. Yao, L. X. Guan, G. Z. Xing, Z. Z. Zhang, B. H. Li, Z. P. Wei, X. H. Wang, C. X. Cong, Y. P. Xie, Y. M. Lu, D. Z. Shen, "P-type conductivity and stability of nitrogen-doped zinc oxide prepared by magnetron sputtering," J. Luminesc. 122, 191-194 (2007).

J. Appl. Phys.

L. T. Ming, K. S. Yan, Y. M. Chun, "Nitrogen-doped p-type ZnO films prepared from nitrogen gas radiofrequency magnetron sputtering," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 053705 1-4 (2006).

Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S. J. Cho, H. Morkoç, "A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and device," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 041301-1-041301-103 (2005).

J. Cryst. Growth

Y. R. Ryu, S. Zhu, D. C. Look, J. M. Wrobel, H. M. Joeng, H. W. White, "Synthesis of p-type ZnO films," J. Cryst. Growth 216, 330-334 (2000).

X. L. Guo, H. Tabata, T. Kawai, "Pulsed laser reactive deposition of p-type ZnO film enhanced by an electron cyclotron resonance source," J. Cryst. Growth 223, 135-139 (2000).

J. Struct. Chem.

S. A. Lenotiev, S. V. Koshcheev, V. G. Devyatov, A. E. Cherkashin, E. P. Mikheeva, "Detailed XPS and UPS studies on the band structure of ZnO," J. Struct. Chem. 38, 726-731 (1997).

J. Vac. Sci. Technol.

S. Maniv, W. D. Westwood, E. Colombini, "Pressure and angle of incidence effects in reactive planar magnetron sputtered ZnO layers," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 20, 162-170 (1982).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

T. Minami, H. Nanto, S. Takata, "Highly conductive and transparent aluminium doped zinc oxide thin films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 23, L280-L282 (1984).

K. Minegishi, Y. Koiwai, K. Yukinobu, K. Yano, M. Kasuga, A. Shimizu, "Growth of p-type Zinc Oxide thin films by chemical vapour deposition," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 1453-1455 (1997).

Philips Res. Rep.

L. J. van der Pauw, "A method of measuring specific resistivity and Hall effect of discs of arbitrary shape," Philips Res. Rep. 13, 1-9 (1958).

Phys. B: Condensed Matter

M. Joseph, H. Tabata, H. Saeki, K. Ueda, T. Kawai, "Fabrication of the low-resistive p-type ZnO by codoping method," Phys. B: Condensed Matter 302, 140-148 (2000).

Phys. Rev. B

A. Janotti, C. G. Van de Walle, "Native point defects in ZnO," Phys. Rev. B 76, 165202 1-22 (2007).

Phys. Rev. Lett.

S. B. Zhang, S. H. Wei, A. Zunger, "Microscopic origin of the phenomenological equilibrium “Doping limit rule” in n-type III-V semiconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 1232-1235 (2000).

Phys. Stat. Sol. (b)

C. Klingshirn, "ZnO: From basics towards applications," Phys. Stat. Sol. (b) 244, 3027-3073 (2007).

D. C. Look, B. Claflin, "p-type doping and devices based on ZnO," Phys. Stat. Sol. (b) 241, 624-630 (2004).

Rep. Prog. Phys.

A. Janotti, C. G. Van de Walle, "Fundamentals of zinc oxide as a semiconductor," Rep. Prog. Phys. 72, 126501 1-22 (2009).

Semicond. Sci. Technol.

D. C. Look, "Electrical and optical properties of p-type ZnO," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, 55-61 (2005).

Surface Sci.

M. Petravic, P. N. K. Deenapanray, V. A. Coleman, C. Jagadish, K. J. Kim, B. Kim, K. Koike, S. Sasa, M. Inoue, M. Yano, "Chemical states of nitrogen in ZnO studied by near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure and core-level photoemission spectroscopies," Surface Sci. 600, L81-L85 (2006).

Thin Solid Films

B. H. Choi, H. B. Im, J. S. Song, K. H. Yoon, "Optical and electrical properties of ${{Ga}}_{2}{{O}}_{3}$ -doped ZnO films prepared by r.f. sputtering," Thin Solid Films 193, 712-720 (1990).

Other

S. D. Ginley, H. Hosono, D. C. Paine, Hand Book of Transparent Conductors (Springer, 2010).

J. Tauc, Amorphous and Liquid Semiconductor (Plenum Press, 1974).

A. Subrahmanyam, C. Suresh Kumar, Kelvin Probe for Surface Engineering: Fundamentals and Design (CRC, 2009).

S. M. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices (Wiley, 1981).

D. C. Look, Electrical Characterization of GaAs and Related Materials (Wiley, 1989).

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