Abstract

We report the fabrication of zinc oxide (ZnO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) and simple integrated circuits by spray pyrolysis, and examine the role of beryllium (Be) as the chemical dopant. Doping is achieved through addition of Be-acetylacetonate into the parent Zn-acetate precursor solution followed by film deposition through spray pyrolysis. The microstructural properties of as-grown Be-ZnO films with different dopant concentrations are investigated using a combination of atomic force microscopy and x-ray diffraction techniques, which show the formation of polycrystalline films. Introduction of Be is found to impact the degree of crystallinity of ZnO films where a dramatic decrease in the average grain size is observed with increasing Be concentration. To assess the effects of Be-doping on the electrical properties of ZnO films we have fabricated Be-ZnO based TFTs using different doping concentrations. The average electron mobility calculated from these transistors is on the order of $\sim {{2}}\ {{cm}}^{2}\cdot{{V}}^{-1}\cdot{{s}}^{-1}$ with the threshold voltage $(V_{\rm TH})$ exhibiting a strong dependence on Be concentration. The ability to control ${V}_{\rm TH}$ through the introduction of Be has been exploited for the fabrication of unipolar inverters with symmetric trip-voltages and good noise margins.

© 2012 IEEE

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  1. E. M. C. Fortunato, "Fully transparent ZnO thin-film transistor produced at room temperature," Adv. Mater. 17, 590-594 (2008).
  2. K. Nomura, "Room-temperature fabrication of transparent flexible thin-film transistors using amorphous oxide semiconductors," Nature 432, 488-492 (2004).
  3. D. A. Mourey, D. L. A. Zhao, T. N. Jackson, "Self-aligned-gate ZnO TFT circuits," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31, 326-328 (2010).
  4. J. Kwon, "Bottom-gate gallium indium zinc oxide thin-film transistor array for high-resolution AMOLED display," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29, 1309-1311 (2008).
  5. E. Fortunato, "Amorphous IZO TTFTs with saturation mobilities exceeding 100 cm(2)/Vs," Phys. Status Solidi-Rapid Res. Lett. 1, 34-36 (2007).
  6. J. S. Park, "Flexible full color organic light-emitting diode display on polyimide plastic substrate driven by amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin-film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 013503-3 (2009).
  7. S. H. K. Park, C. S. Hwang, H. Y. Jeong, H. Y. Chu, K. I. Cho, "Transparent ZnO-TFT arrays fabricated by atomic layer deposition," Electrochem. Solid State Lett. 11, 10-14 (2008).
  8. P. K. Shin, Y. Aya, T. Ikegami, K. Ebihara, "Application of pulsed laser deposited zinc oxide films to thin film transistor device," Thin Solid Films 516, 3767-3771 (2008).
  9. J. Jo, "Improvement of on/off ratio in ZnO thin-film transistor by using growth interruptions during metalorganic chemical vapor deposition ," Thin Solid Films 517, 6337-6340 (2009).
  10. E. M. C. Fortunato, "Wide-bandgap high-mobility ZnO thin-film transistors produced at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2541-2543 (2004).
  11. G. Adamopoulos, "Structural and electrical characterization of ZnO films grown by spray pyrolysis and their application in thin-film transistors," Adv. Funct. Mater. 21, 525-531 (2011).
  12. M. G. Kim, "High-performance solution-processed amorphous zinc-indium-tin oxide thin-film transistors," J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 132, 10352-10364 (2010).
  13. Y. Ohya, T. Niwa, T. Ban, Y. Takahashi, Y. , "Thin film transistor of ZnO fabricated by chemical solution deposition," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Pt. 1—Reg. Papers Short Notes & Rev. Papers 40, 297-298 (2001).
  14. G. Adamopoulos, A. Bashir, P. H. Wobkenberg, D. D. C. Bradley, T. D. Anthopoulos, "Electronic properties of ZnO field-effect transistors fabricated by spray pyrolysis in ambient air," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 133507-3 (2009).
  15. H. S. Kim, "Low-temperature solution-processed amorphous indium tin oxide field-effect transistors," J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 131, 10826-10827 (2009).
  16. P. H. Wobkenberg, "TiO2 thin-film transistors fabricated by spray pyrolysis," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 082116-3 (2010).
  17. G. Adamopoulos, "Spray-deposited Li-doped ZnO transistors with electron mobility exceeding 50 cm $_{2}/{hbox{V}}\cdot{{s}}$ ," Adv. Mater. 22, 4764-4769 (2010).
  18. G. Adamopoulos, "High-mobility low-voltage ZnO and Li-doped ZnO transistors based on ZrO(2) high-k dielectric grown by spray pyrolysis in ambient air," Adv. Mater. 23, 1894-1899 (2011).
  19. D. A. Mourey, D. A. L. Zhao, J. Sun, T. N. Jackson, "Fast PEALD ZnO thin-film transistor circuits," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 52, 530-534 (2010).
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  21. J. S. Park, J. K. Jeong, Y. G. Mo, H. D. Kim, C. J. Kim, "Control of threshold voltage in ZnO-based oxide thin film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 033513-3 (2008).
  22. J.-K. Chung, "Structural and optical properties of Be-doped ZnO nanocrystalline films by pulsed laser deposition," Thin Solid Films 516, 4190-4193 (2008).
  23. A. Bashir, "High-performance zinc oxide transistors and circuits fabricated by spray pyrolysis in ambient atmosphere," Adv. Mater. 21, 2226-2231 (2009).
  24. A. L. Patterson, "The Scherrer formula for x-ray particle size determination," Phys. Rev. 56, 978-982 (1939).
  25. Y. R. Ryu, "Wide-band gap oxide alloy: BeZnO," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 052103 (2006).

2011 (2)

G. Adamopoulos, "Structural and electrical characterization of ZnO films grown by spray pyrolysis and their application in thin-film transistors," Adv. Funct. Mater. 21, 525-531 (2011).

G. Adamopoulos, "High-mobility low-voltage ZnO and Li-doped ZnO transistors based on ZrO(2) high-k dielectric grown by spray pyrolysis in ambient air," Adv. Mater. 23, 1894-1899 (2011).

2010 (5)

D. A. Mourey, D. A. L. Zhao, J. Sun, T. N. Jackson, "Fast PEALD ZnO thin-film transistor circuits," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 52, 530-534 (2010).

P. H. Wobkenberg, "TiO2 thin-film transistors fabricated by spray pyrolysis," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 082116-3 (2010).

G. Adamopoulos, "Spray-deposited Li-doped ZnO transistors with electron mobility exceeding 50 cm $_{2}/{hbox{V}}\cdot{{s}}$ ," Adv. Mater. 22, 4764-4769 (2010).

M. G. Kim, "High-performance solution-processed amorphous zinc-indium-tin oxide thin-film transistors," J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 132, 10352-10364 (2010).

D. A. Mourey, D. L. A. Zhao, T. N. Jackson, "Self-aligned-gate ZnO TFT circuits," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31, 326-328 (2010).

2009 (5)

J. S. Park, "Flexible full color organic light-emitting diode display on polyimide plastic substrate driven by amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin-film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 013503-3 (2009).

J. Jo, "Improvement of on/off ratio in ZnO thin-film transistor by using growth interruptions during metalorganic chemical vapor deposition ," Thin Solid Films 517, 6337-6340 (2009).

G. Adamopoulos, A. Bashir, P. H. Wobkenberg, D. D. C. Bradley, T. D. Anthopoulos, "Electronic properties of ZnO field-effect transistors fabricated by spray pyrolysis in ambient air," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 133507-3 (2009).

H. S. Kim, "Low-temperature solution-processed amorphous indium tin oxide field-effect transistors," J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 131, 10826-10827 (2009).

A. Bashir, "High-performance zinc oxide transistors and circuits fabricated by spray pyrolysis in ambient atmosphere," Adv. Mater. 21, 2226-2231 (2009).

2008 (6)

J. S. Park, J. K. Jeong, Y. G. Mo, H. D. Kim, C. J. Kim, "Control of threshold voltage in ZnO-based oxide thin film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 033513-3 (2008).

J.-K. Chung, "Structural and optical properties of Be-doped ZnO nanocrystalline films by pulsed laser deposition," Thin Solid Films 516, 4190-4193 (2008).

S. H. K. Park, C. S. Hwang, H. Y. Jeong, H. Y. Chu, K. I. Cho, "Transparent ZnO-TFT arrays fabricated by atomic layer deposition," Electrochem. Solid State Lett. 11, 10-14 (2008).

P. K. Shin, Y. Aya, T. Ikegami, K. Ebihara, "Application of pulsed laser deposited zinc oxide films to thin film transistor device," Thin Solid Films 516, 3767-3771 (2008).

J. Kwon, "Bottom-gate gallium indium zinc oxide thin-film transistor array for high-resolution AMOLED display," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29, 1309-1311 (2008).

E. M. C. Fortunato, "Fully transparent ZnO thin-film transistor produced at room temperature," Adv. Mater. 17, 590-594 (2008).

2007 (2)

E. Fortunato, "Amorphous IZO TTFTs with saturation mobilities exceeding 100 cm(2)/Vs," Phys. Status Solidi-Rapid Res. Lett. 1, 34-36 (2007).

P. F. Carcia, "A comparison of zinc oxide thin-film transistors on silicon oxide and silicon nitride gate dielectrics," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 074512-7 (2007).

2006 (1)

Y. R. Ryu, "Wide-band gap oxide alloy: BeZnO," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 052103 (2006).

2004 (2)

K. Nomura, "Room-temperature fabrication of transparent flexible thin-film transistors using amorphous oxide semiconductors," Nature 432, 488-492 (2004).

E. M. C. Fortunato, "Wide-bandgap high-mobility ZnO thin-film transistors produced at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2541-2543 (2004).

2001 (1)

Y. Ohya, T. Niwa, T. Ban, Y. Takahashi, Y. , "Thin film transistor of ZnO fabricated by chemical solution deposition," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Pt. 1—Reg. Papers Short Notes & Rev. Papers 40, 297-298 (2001).

1939 (1)

A. L. Patterson, "The Scherrer formula for x-ray particle size determination," Phys. Rev. 56, 978-982 (1939).

Adv. Mater. (1)

E. M. C. Fortunato, "Fully transparent ZnO thin-film transistor produced at room temperature," Adv. Mater. 17, 590-594 (2008).

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

G. Adamopoulos, "Structural and electrical characterization of ZnO films grown by spray pyrolysis and their application in thin-film transistors," Adv. Funct. Mater. 21, 525-531 (2011).

Adv. Mater. (3)

G. Adamopoulos, "Spray-deposited Li-doped ZnO transistors with electron mobility exceeding 50 cm $_{2}/{hbox{V}}\cdot{{s}}$ ," Adv. Mater. 22, 4764-4769 (2010).

G. Adamopoulos, "High-mobility low-voltage ZnO and Li-doped ZnO transistors based on ZrO(2) high-k dielectric grown by spray pyrolysis in ambient air," Adv. Mater. 23, 1894-1899 (2011).

A. Bashir, "High-performance zinc oxide transistors and circuits fabricated by spray pyrolysis in ambient atmosphere," Adv. Mater. 21, 2226-2231 (2009).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

P. H. Wobkenberg, "TiO2 thin-film transistors fabricated by spray pyrolysis," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 082116-3 (2010).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

E. M. C. Fortunato, "Wide-bandgap high-mobility ZnO thin-film transistors produced at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2541-2543 (2004).

J. S. Park, J. K. Jeong, Y. G. Mo, H. D. Kim, C. J. Kim, "Control of threshold voltage in ZnO-based oxide thin film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 033513-3 (2008).

Y. R. Ryu, "Wide-band gap oxide alloy: BeZnO," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 052103 (2006).

G. Adamopoulos, A. Bashir, P. H. Wobkenberg, D. D. C. Bradley, T. D. Anthopoulos, "Electronic properties of ZnO field-effect transistors fabricated by spray pyrolysis in ambient air," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 133507-3 (2009).

J. S. Park, "Flexible full color organic light-emitting diode display on polyimide plastic substrate driven by amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin-film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 013503-3 (2009).

Electrochem. Solid State Lett. (1)

S. H. K. Park, C. S. Hwang, H. Y. Jeong, H. Y. Chu, K. I. Cho, "Transparent ZnO-TFT arrays fabricated by atomic layer deposition," Electrochem. Solid State Lett. 11, 10-14 (2008).

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (2)

D. A. Mourey, D. L. A. Zhao, T. N. Jackson, "Self-aligned-gate ZnO TFT circuits," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31, 326-328 (2010).

J. Kwon, "Bottom-gate gallium indium zinc oxide thin-film transistor array for high-resolution AMOLED display," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29, 1309-1311 (2008).

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (1)

D. A. Mourey, D. A. L. Zhao, J. Sun, T. N. Jackson, "Fast PEALD ZnO thin-film transistor circuits," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 52, 530-534 (2010).

J. Amer. Chem. Soc. (2)

H. S. Kim, "Low-temperature solution-processed amorphous indium tin oxide field-effect transistors," J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 131, 10826-10827 (2009).

M. G. Kim, "High-performance solution-processed amorphous zinc-indium-tin oxide thin-film transistors," J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 132, 10352-10364 (2010).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

P. F. Carcia, "A comparison of zinc oxide thin-film transistors on silicon oxide and silicon nitride gate dielectrics," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 074512-7 (2007).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Pt. 1—Reg. Papers Short Notes & Rev. Papers (1)

Y. Ohya, T. Niwa, T. Ban, Y. Takahashi, Y. , "Thin film transistor of ZnO fabricated by chemical solution deposition," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Pt. 1—Reg. Papers Short Notes & Rev. Papers 40, 297-298 (2001).

Nature (1)

K. Nomura, "Room-temperature fabrication of transparent flexible thin-film transistors using amorphous oxide semiconductors," Nature 432, 488-492 (2004).

Phys. Status Solidi-Rapid Res. Lett. (1)

E. Fortunato, "Amorphous IZO TTFTs with saturation mobilities exceeding 100 cm(2)/Vs," Phys. Status Solidi-Rapid Res. Lett. 1, 34-36 (2007).

Phys. Rev. (1)

A. L. Patterson, "The Scherrer formula for x-ray particle size determination," Phys. Rev. 56, 978-982 (1939).

Thin Solid Films (1)

P. K. Shin, Y. Aya, T. Ikegami, K. Ebihara, "Application of pulsed laser deposited zinc oxide films to thin film transistor device," Thin Solid Films 516, 3767-3771 (2008).

Thin Solid Films (2)

J. Jo, "Improvement of on/off ratio in ZnO thin-film transistor by using growth interruptions during metalorganic chemical vapor deposition ," Thin Solid Films 517, 6337-6340 (2009).

J.-K. Chung, "Structural and optical properties of Be-doped ZnO nanocrystalline films by pulsed laser deposition," Thin Solid Films 516, 4190-4193 (2008).

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