Abstract

Diluter effects on the phase transition temperatures, Debye relaxation frequency, and electro-optics of polymer- stabilized blue phase liquid crystal (BPLC) are investigated. Some diluters not only significantly decrease the BPLC response time but also slightly enhance the Kerr constant. For practical applications, optimal diluter concentration should be considered in order to balance the needs between response time and operation voltage.

© 2013 IEEE

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  1. H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, T. Kajiyama, "Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases," Nat. Mater. 1, 64-68 (2002).
  2. Y. Hisakado, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, T. Kajiyama, "Large electro-optic Kerr effect in polymer-stabilized liquid-crystalline blue phases," Adv. Mater. 17, 96-98 (2005).
  3. S. W. Choi, S. Yamamoto, Y. Haseba, H. Higuchi, H. Kikuchi, "Optically isotropic-nanostructured liquid crystal composite with high Kerr constant," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 043119 (2008).
  4. Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, S. T. Wu, "Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 101104 (2009).
  5. J. Yan, L. Rao, M. Jiao, Y. Li, H. C. Cheng, S. T. Wu, "Polymer-stabilized optically isotropic liquid crystals for next-generation display and photonics applications," J. Mater. Chem. 21, 7870-7877 (2011).
  6. L. Rao, Z. Ge, S. T. Wu, S. H. Lee, "Low voltage blue-phase liquid crystal displays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 231101 (2009).
  7. Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, H. C. Lin, Y. S. Tsou, H. K. Hsu, W. Y. Li, "Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 113505 (2010).
  8. J. Yan, Y. Li, S. T. Wu, "High-efficiency and fast-response tunable phase grating using a blue phase liquid crystal," Opt. Lett. 36, 1404-1406 (2011).
  9. Y. Chen, J. Yan, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, X. Liang, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, J. W. Shiu, "A microsecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 201105 (2011).
  10. K. M. Chen, S. Gauza, H. Xianyu, S. T. Wu, "Submillisecond gray-level response time of a polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal," J. Disp. Technol. 6, 49-51 (2010).
  11. M. Kim, M. S. Kim, B. G. Kang, M. K. Kim, S. Yoon, S. H. Lee, Z. Ge, L. Rao, S. Gauza, S. T. Wu, "Wall-shaped electrodes for reducing the operation voltage of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 42, 235502 (2009).
  12. M. Jiao, Y. Li, S. T. Wu, "Low voltage and high transmittance blue-phase liquid crystal displays with corrugated electrodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 011102 (2010).
  13. L. Rao, J. Yan, S. T. Wu, S. I. Yamamoto, Y. Haseba, "A large Kerr constant polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 081109 (2011).
  14. P. R. Gerber, "Electro-optical effects of a small-pitch blue-phase system," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 116, 197-206 (1985).
  15. M. Wittek, N. Tanaka, D. Wilkes, M. Bremer, D. Pauluth, J. Canisius, A. Yeh, R. Yan, K. Skjonnemand, M. Klasen-Memmer, "New materials for polymer-stabilized blue phase," SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers (2012) pp. 25-28.
  16. C.-D. Tu, C.-L. Lin, J. Yan, Y. Chen, P.-C. Lai, S.-T. Wu, "Driving scheme using bootstrapping method for blue-phase LCDs," J. Display Technol. 9, 3-6 (2013).
  17. Y. Li, Y. Chen, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, J. W. Shiu, "Dielectric dispersion on the Kerr constant of blue phase liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 181126 (2011).
  18. A. C. Metaxas, R. J. Meredith, Industrial Microwave Heating (IET, 1983).
  19. M. Schadt, "Dielectric heating and relaxations in nematic liquid-crystals," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 66, 639-656 (1981).
  20. C. H. Wen, S. T. Wu, "Dielectric heating effects of dual-frequency liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 231104 (2005).
  21. M. Heckmeier, D. Pauluth, Liquid-crystal medium having a low threshold voltage U.S. Patent 7?033?651?B2 (2006).
  22. M. Yanai, Y. Kubo, E. Nakagawa, Liquid crystal composition and liquid crystal display device U.S. Patent 6?572?938 B2 (2003).
  23. N. Hattori, H. Yamamoto, H. Fujita, Liquid crystal composition and liquid crystal display device U.S. Patent 7?608?310?B2 (2009).
  24. M. Schadt, R. Buchecker, F. Leenhouts, A. Boller, A. Villiger, M. Petrzilka, "New nematic liquid crystals: Influence of rigid cored, alkenyl side-chains and polarity on material and display properties," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 139, 1-25 (1986).
  25. M. Schadt, R. Buchecker, K. Müller, "Invited lecture. Material properties, structural relations with molecular ensembles and electro-optical performance of new bicyclohexane liquid crystals in field-effect liquid crystal displays," Liq. Cryst. 5, 293-312 (1989).
  26. J. Sun, H. Xianyu, S. Gauza, S. T. Wu, "High birefringence phenyl tolane positive compounds for dual frequency liquid crystals," Liq. Cryst. 36, 1401-1408 (2009).
  27. Q. Song, S. Gauza, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, X. Liang, "Diluters' effects on high $\Delta$ n and low-viscosity negative $\Delta \varepsilon$ terphenyl liquid crystals," Liq. Cryst. 36, 865-872 (2009).
  28. L. M. Blinov, Electro-Optical and Magneto-Optical Properties of Liquid Crystals (Wiley, 1983).
  29. J. Yan, Y. Chen, S. T. Wu, X. Song, "Figure of merit of polymer- stabilized blue phase liquid crystals," J. Display Technol. 9, 24-29 (2013).
  30. E. M. Averyanov, V. F. Shabanov, "Structural and optical anisotropy of liquid crystals," Sov. Phys. Crystallogr. 23, 177 (1978).
  31. S. T. Wu, "Birefringence dispersions of liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. A 33, 1270-1274 (1986).
  32. V. V. Belyayev, S. A. Ivanov, M. F. Grebenkin, "Temperature dependence of rotational viscosity of nematic liquid crystals," Sov. Phys. Crystallogr. 30, 674 (1985).
  33. A. Saupe, "Temperature-dependence and magnitudes of deformation constants in strained liquids," Z. Nat. Teil A 15, 810 (1960).
  34. S. T. Wu, C. S. Wu, "Experimental confirmation of the Osipov-Terentjev theory on the viscosity of nematic liquid-crystals," Phys. Rev. A 42, 2219-2227 (1990).
  35. I. Haller, "Thermodynamic and static properties of liquid crystals," Prog. Solid State Chem. 10, 103-118 (1975).
  36. S. T. Wu, "Infrared markers for determining the order parameters of uniaxial liquid-crystals," Appl. Opt. 26, 3434-3440 (1987).
  37. T. K. Bose, B. Campbell, S. Yagihara, J. Thoen, "Dielectric-relaxation study of alkylcyanobiphenyl liquid-crystals using time-domain spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. A 36, 5767-5773 (1987).
  38. F. C. Frank, "I. Liquid crystals. On the theory of liquid crystals," Discuss. Faraday Soc. 25, 19-28 (1958).
  39. H. Q. Xianyu, S. T. Wu, C. L. Lin, "Dual frequency liquid crystals: A review," Liq. Cryst. 36, 717-726 (2009).
  40. J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, S. T. Wu, "Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 071105 (2010).
  41. J. Sun, H. Q. Xianyu, Y. Chen, S. T. Wu, "Submillisecond-response polymer network liquid crystal phase modulators at 1.06- $\mu$ m wavelength," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 021106 (2011).
  42. L. Rao, J. Yan, S. T. Wu, "Prospects of emerging polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid-crystal displays," J. Soc. Inf. Displays 18, 954-959 (2010).

2013

2011

J. Yan, Y. Li, S. T. Wu, "High-efficiency and fast-response tunable phase grating using a blue phase liquid crystal," Opt. Lett. 36, 1404-1406 (2011).

Y. Chen, J. Yan, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, X. Liang, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, J. W. Shiu, "A microsecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 201105 (2011).

L. Rao, J. Yan, S. T. Wu, S. I. Yamamoto, Y. Haseba, "A large Kerr constant polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 081109 (2011).

J. Sun, H. Q. Xianyu, Y. Chen, S. T. Wu, "Submillisecond-response polymer network liquid crystal phase modulators at 1.06- $\mu$ m wavelength," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 021106 (2011).

J. Yan, L. Rao, M. Jiao, Y. Li, H. C. Cheng, S. T. Wu, "Polymer-stabilized optically isotropic liquid crystals for next-generation display and photonics applications," J. Mater. Chem. 21, 7870-7877 (2011).

Y. Li, Y. Chen, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, J. W. Shiu, "Dielectric dispersion on the Kerr constant of blue phase liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 181126 (2011).

2010

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, H. C. Lin, Y. S. Tsou, H. K. Hsu, W. Y. Li, "Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 113505 (2010).

L. Rao, J. Yan, S. T. Wu, "Prospects of emerging polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid-crystal displays," J. Soc. Inf. Displays 18, 954-959 (2010).

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, S. T. Wu, "Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 071105 (2010).

K. M. Chen, S. Gauza, H. Xianyu, S. T. Wu, "Submillisecond gray-level response time of a polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal," J. Disp. Technol. 6, 49-51 (2010).

M. Jiao, Y. Li, S. T. Wu, "Low voltage and high transmittance blue-phase liquid crystal displays with corrugated electrodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 011102 (2010).

2009

M. Kim, M. S. Kim, B. G. Kang, M. K. Kim, S. Yoon, S. H. Lee, Z. Ge, L. Rao, S. Gauza, S. T. Wu, "Wall-shaped electrodes for reducing the operation voltage of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 42, 235502 (2009).

H. Q. Xianyu, S. T. Wu, C. L. Lin, "Dual frequency liquid crystals: A review," Liq. Cryst. 36, 717-726 (2009).

J. Sun, H. Xianyu, S. Gauza, S. T. Wu, "High birefringence phenyl tolane positive compounds for dual frequency liquid crystals," Liq. Cryst. 36, 1401-1408 (2009).

Q. Song, S. Gauza, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, X. Liang, "Diluters' effects on high $\Delta$ n and low-viscosity negative $\Delta \varepsilon$ terphenyl liquid crystals," Liq. Cryst. 36, 865-872 (2009).

L. Rao, Z. Ge, S. T. Wu, S. H. Lee, "Low voltage blue-phase liquid crystal displays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 231101 (2009).

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, S. T. Wu, "Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 101104 (2009).

2008

S. W. Choi, S. Yamamoto, Y. Haseba, H. Higuchi, H. Kikuchi, "Optically isotropic-nanostructured liquid crystal composite with high Kerr constant," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 043119 (2008).

2005

Y. Hisakado, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, T. Kajiyama, "Large electro-optic Kerr effect in polymer-stabilized liquid-crystalline blue phases," Adv. Mater. 17, 96-98 (2005).

C. H. Wen, S. T. Wu, "Dielectric heating effects of dual-frequency liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 231104 (2005).

2002

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, T. Kajiyama, "Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases," Nat. Mater. 1, 64-68 (2002).

1990

S. T. Wu, C. S. Wu, "Experimental confirmation of the Osipov-Terentjev theory on the viscosity of nematic liquid-crystals," Phys. Rev. A 42, 2219-2227 (1990).

1989

M. Schadt, R. Buchecker, K. Müller, "Invited lecture. Material properties, structural relations with molecular ensembles and electro-optical performance of new bicyclohexane liquid crystals in field-effect liquid crystal displays," Liq. Cryst. 5, 293-312 (1989).

1987

S. T. Wu, "Infrared markers for determining the order parameters of uniaxial liquid-crystals," Appl. Opt. 26, 3434-3440 (1987).

T. K. Bose, B. Campbell, S. Yagihara, J. Thoen, "Dielectric-relaxation study of alkylcyanobiphenyl liquid-crystals using time-domain spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. A 36, 5767-5773 (1987).

1986

M. Schadt, R. Buchecker, F. Leenhouts, A. Boller, A. Villiger, M. Petrzilka, "New nematic liquid crystals: Influence of rigid cored, alkenyl side-chains and polarity on material and display properties," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 139, 1-25 (1986).

S. T. Wu, "Birefringence dispersions of liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. A 33, 1270-1274 (1986).

1985

V. V. Belyayev, S. A. Ivanov, M. F. Grebenkin, "Temperature dependence of rotational viscosity of nematic liquid crystals," Sov. Phys. Crystallogr. 30, 674 (1985).

P. R. Gerber, "Electro-optical effects of a small-pitch blue-phase system," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 116, 197-206 (1985).

1981

M. Schadt, "Dielectric heating and relaxations in nematic liquid-crystals," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 66, 639-656 (1981).

1978

E. M. Averyanov, V. F. Shabanov, "Structural and optical anisotropy of liquid crystals," Sov. Phys. Crystallogr. 23, 177 (1978).

1975

I. Haller, "Thermodynamic and static properties of liquid crystals," Prog. Solid State Chem. 10, 103-118 (1975).

1960

A. Saupe, "Temperature-dependence and magnitudes of deformation constants in strained liquids," Z. Nat. Teil A 15, 810 (1960).

1958

F. C. Frank, "I. Liquid crystals. On the theory of liquid crystals," Discuss. Faraday Soc. 25, 19-28 (1958).

Adv. Mater.

Y. Hisakado, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, T. Kajiyama, "Large electro-optic Kerr effect in polymer-stabilized liquid-crystalline blue phases," Adv. Mater. 17, 96-98 (2005).

Appl. Opt.

S. T. Wu, "Infrared markers for determining the order parameters of uniaxial liquid-crystals," Appl. Opt. 26, 3434-3440 (1987).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. W. Choi, S. Yamamoto, Y. Haseba, H. Higuchi, H. Kikuchi, "Optically isotropic-nanostructured liquid crystal composite with high Kerr constant," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 043119 (2008).

L. Rao, Z. Ge, S. T. Wu, S. H. Lee, "Low voltage blue-phase liquid crystal displays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 231101 (2009).

M. Jiao, Y. Li, S. T. Wu, "Low voltage and high transmittance blue-phase liquid crystal displays with corrugated electrodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 011102 (2010).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

L. Rao, J. Yan, S. T. Wu, S. I. Yamamoto, Y. Haseba, "A large Kerr constant polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 081109 (2011).

Y. Li, Y. Chen, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, J. W. Shiu, "Dielectric dispersion on the Kerr constant of blue phase liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 181126 (2011).

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, H. C. Lin, Y. S. Tsou, H. K. Hsu, W. Y. Li, "Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 113505 (2010).

Y. Chen, J. Yan, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, X. Liang, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, J. W. Shiu, "A microsecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 201105 (2011).

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, S. T. Wu, "Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 101104 (2009).

C. H. Wen, S. T. Wu, "Dielectric heating effects of dual-frequency liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 231104 (2005).

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, S. T. Wu, "Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 071105 (2010).

J. Sun, H. Q. Xianyu, Y. Chen, S. T. Wu, "Submillisecond-response polymer network liquid crystal phase modulators at 1.06- $\mu$ m wavelength," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 021106 (2011).

Discuss. Faraday Soc.

F. C. Frank, "I. Liquid crystals. On the theory of liquid crystals," Discuss. Faraday Soc. 25, 19-28 (1958).

J. Disp. Technol.

K. M. Chen, S. Gauza, H. Xianyu, S. T. Wu, "Submillisecond gray-level response time of a polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal," J. Disp. Technol. 6, 49-51 (2010).

J. Display Technol.

J. Mater. Chem.

J. Yan, L. Rao, M. Jiao, Y. Li, H. C. Cheng, S. T. Wu, "Polymer-stabilized optically isotropic liquid crystals for next-generation display and photonics applications," J. Mater. Chem. 21, 7870-7877 (2011).

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys.

M. Kim, M. S. Kim, B. G. Kang, M. K. Kim, S. Yoon, S. H. Lee, Z. Ge, L. Rao, S. Gauza, S. T. Wu, "Wall-shaped electrodes for reducing the operation voltage of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 42, 235502 (2009).

J. Soc. Inf. Displays

L. Rao, J. Yan, S. T. Wu, "Prospects of emerging polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid-crystal displays," J. Soc. Inf. Displays 18, 954-959 (2010).

Liq. Cryst.

H. Q. Xianyu, S. T. Wu, C. L. Lin, "Dual frequency liquid crystals: A review," Liq. Cryst. 36, 717-726 (2009).

M. Schadt, R. Buchecker, K. Müller, "Invited lecture. Material properties, structural relations with molecular ensembles and electro-optical performance of new bicyclohexane liquid crystals in field-effect liquid crystal displays," Liq. Cryst. 5, 293-312 (1989).

J. Sun, H. Xianyu, S. Gauza, S. T. Wu, "High birefringence phenyl tolane positive compounds for dual frequency liquid crystals," Liq. Cryst. 36, 1401-1408 (2009).

Q. Song, S. Gauza, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, X. Liang, "Diluters' effects on high $\Delta$ n and low-viscosity negative $\Delta \varepsilon$ terphenyl liquid crystals," Liq. Cryst. 36, 865-872 (2009).

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.

P. R. Gerber, "Electro-optical effects of a small-pitch blue-phase system," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 116, 197-206 (1985).

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.

M. Schadt, "Dielectric heating and relaxations in nematic liquid-crystals," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 66, 639-656 (1981).

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.

M. Schadt, R. Buchecker, F. Leenhouts, A. Boller, A. Villiger, M. Petrzilka, "New nematic liquid crystals: Influence of rigid cored, alkenyl side-chains and polarity on material and display properties," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 139, 1-25 (1986).

Nat. Mater.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, T. Kajiyama, "Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases," Nat. Mater. 1, 64-68 (2002).

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

T. K. Bose, B. Campbell, S. Yagihara, J. Thoen, "Dielectric-relaxation study of alkylcyanobiphenyl liquid-crystals using time-domain spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. A 36, 5767-5773 (1987).

S. T. Wu, C. S. Wu, "Experimental confirmation of the Osipov-Terentjev theory on the viscosity of nematic liquid-crystals," Phys. Rev. A 42, 2219-2227 (1990).

Phys. Rev. A

S. T. Wu, "Birefringence dispersions of liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. A 33, 1270-1274 (1986).

Prog. Solid State Chem.

I. Haller, "Thermodynamic and static properties of liquid crystals," Prog. Solid State Chem. 10, 103-118 (1975).

Sov. Phys. Crystallogr.

V. V. Belyayev, S. A. Ivanov, M. F. Grebenkin, "Temperature dependence of rotational viscosity of nematic liquid crystals," Sov. Phys. Crystallogr. 30, 674 (1985).

Sov. Phys. Crystallogr.

E. M. Averyanov, V. F. Shabanov, "Structural and optical anisotropy of liquid crystals," Sov. Phys. Crystallogr. 23, 177 (1978).

Z. Nat. Teil A

A. Saupe, "Temperature-dependence and magnitudes of deformation constants in strained liquids," Z. Nat. Teil A 15, 810 (1960).

Other

L. M. Blinov, Electro-Optical and Magneto-Optical Properties of Liquid Crystals (Wiley, 1983).

M. Heckmeier, D. Pauluth, Liquid-crystal medium having a low threshold voltage U.S. Patent 7?033?651?B2 (2006).

M. Yanai, Y. Kubo, E. Nakagawa, Liquid crystal composition and liquid crystal display device U.S. Patent 6?572?938 B2 (2003).

N. Hattori, H. Yamamoto, H. Fujita, Liquid crystal composition and liquid crystal display device U.S. Patent 7?608?310?B2 (2009).

A. C. Metaxas, R. J. Meredith, Industrial Microwave Heating (IET, 1983).

M. Wittek, N. Tanaka, D. Wilkes, M. Bremer, D. Pauluth, J. Canisius, A. Yeh, R. Yan, K. Skjonnemand, M. Klasen-Memmer, "New materials for polymer-stabilized blue phase," SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers (2012) pp. 25-28.

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