Abstract

The bottom-gate nc-Si based thin-film-transistors (TFTs) grown by using the low-temperature plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (LT-PECVD) system with He diluted ${{SiH}} _{4}$ are demonstrated. With the RF plasma power increasing from 20 to 100 W, the crystalline volume ratio of the nc-Si inside the a-Si:H film significantly increases from 12.5% to 32%, and its deposition rate is also enhanced from 9.5 to 14.5 nm/min. The faster deposition at higher plasma greatly suppresses the residual oxygen content in nc-Si film to 4% or less, which reduces the flat-band shifted voltage of the MOS diode by 2 volts. The increased crystalline volume with suppressed oxide in nc-Si films contribute to the enhanced Hall mobility and conductivity. The nc:Si TFT decreases its threshold voltage from 3.3 V to 2.7 V, and enlarges its field mobility from 0.3 to 1.3 ${{cm}}^{2} /{{V}} \mathchar"702D {{s}}$. The defect density in the nc-Si TFTs further decrease by one order of magnitude to ${{7.5}}\times {{10}} ^{16}~{{cm}}^{-3}\mathchar"702D{{eV}} ^{-1}$, which causes a shrinkage on the sub-threshold operation range to make easier the operation of the nc-Si TFTs entering into the above-threshold regime at lower voltage. The hydrogen-free He diluted ${{SiH}} _{4}$ growth has shown its compatibility with the conventional recipe for the high-mobility nc-Si TFT fabrication.

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  32. F. Finger, R. Carius, T. Dylla, S. Klein, S. Okur, M. Günes, "Stability of microcrystalline silicon for thin fllm solar cell applications," Proc. IEE Circuits Devices Syst. 150, 300-308 (2003).
  33. B.-H. Lai, C.-H. Cheng, G.-R. Lin, "Improved emission efficiency of mutli-color metal-oxide-semiconductor light emitting diodes made on Si-rich ${{SiO}}_{x}$ with smaller quantum dots," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47, 698-704 (2011).
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  40. M. Oudwan, Y. Djeridane, A. Abramov, B. Aventurier, P. R. i. Cabarrocas, F. Templier, "Influence of process steps on the performance of microcrystalline silicon thin film transistors," Thin Solid Films 515, 7662-7666 (2007).
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2012 (2)

C.-H. Cheng, C.-L. Wu, C.-C. Chen, L.-H. Tsai, Y.-H. Lin, G.-R. Lin, "Si quantum dots doped Si-rich ${{Si}}_{x}{{C}}_{1-x}$ lighting emitting diodes," IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1762-1775 (2012).

C.-D. Lin, C.-H. Cheng, Y.-H. Lin, C.-L. Wu, Y.-H. Pai, G.-R. Lin, "Electrically injected carrier trapping and recombination in Si-QDs embedded silicon-rich silicon nitride films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 243501 (2012).

2011 (6)

G.-R. Lin, T.-C. Lo, L.-H. Tsai, Y.-H. Pai, C.-H. Cheng, C.-I. Wu, P.-S. Wang, "Finite silicon atom diffusion induced size limitation on self-assembled silicon quantum dots in silicon-rich silicon carbide," J. Electrochem. Soc. 159, K35-K41 (2011).

L. Xu, Z. P. Li, C. Wen, W. Z. Shen, "Bonded hydrogen in nanocrystalline silicon photovoltaic materials: Impact on structure and defect density," J. Appl. Phys. 110, 064315 (2011).

V. Thaiyalnayaki, M. F. Cerqueira, J. A. Ferreira, J. Tovar, "The influence of electric field on the microstructure of nc-Si:H films produced by RF magnetron sputtering," Vacuum 82, 1433-1436 (2011).

B.-H. Lai, C.-H. Cheng, G.-R. Lin, "Improved emission efficiency of mutli-color metal-oxide-semiconductor light emitting diodes made on Si-rich ${{SiO}}_{x}$ with smaller quantum dots," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47, 698-704 (2011).

I. K. Kim, J. H. Lim, G. Y. Yeom, "Characteristics of hydrogenated silicon thin film deposited by RF-PECVD using He- ${{SiH}}_{4}$ mixture," Vacuum 86, 82-86 (2011).

M. Hara, "High mobility bottom gate nanocrystalline-Si thin-film transistors," Thin Solid Films 519, 3922-3294 (2011).

2010 (3)

B.-H. Lai, C.-H. Cheng, Y.-H. Pai, G.-R. Lin, "Plasma power controlled deposition of ${{SiO}}_{x}$ with manipulated Si Quantum Dot size for photoluminescent wavelength tailoring," Opt. Express 18, 4449-4456 (2010).

Y.-A. Dai, H.-C. Chang, K.-Y. Lai, C.-A. Lin, R.-J. Chung, G.-R. Lin, J.-H. He, "Subwavelength Si nanowire arrays for self-cleaning antireflection coatings," J. Mater. Chem. 20, 10924-10930 (2010).

A. Parashar, S. Kumar, J. Gope, C. M. S. Rauthan, P. N. Dixit, S. A. Hashmi, "Influence of argon dilution on growth and properties of hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon films," Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94, 892-899 (2010).

2009 (1)

K. Y. Chan, A. Gordijn, H. Stiebig, D. Knipp, "Microcrystalline-silicon transistors and CMOS inverters fabricated near the transition to amorphous-growth regime," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 56, 1924-1929 (2009).

2008 (4)

G.-R. Lin, Y.-H. Pai, C.-T. Lin, "Microwatt MOSLED using ${{SiO}}_{x}$ with buried Si nanocrystals on Si nano-pillar array," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1486-1491 (2008).

A. M. Funde, N. A. Bakr, D. K. Kamble, R. R. Hawaldar, D. P. Amalnerkar, S. R. Jadkar, "Influence of hydrogen dilution on structural, electrical and optical properties of hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si:H) thin films prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PE-CVD)," Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 92, 1217-1223 (2008).

J. Z. Chen, I.-C. Cheng, "Abnormal temperature-dependent stability of on-plastic a-Si:H thin film transistors fabricated at 150 $^{\circ}{{C}}$ ," J. Appl. Phys. 104, 044508 (2008).

G.-R. Lin, Y.-H. Pai, C.-T. Lin, "Microwatt MOSLED using ${{SiO}}_{x}$ with buried Si nanocrystals on Si nano-pillar array," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1486-1491 (2008).

2007 (9)

G.-R. Lin, C.-J. Lin, C.-K. Lin, "Enhanced Fowler-Nordheim tunneling effect in nanocrystallite Si based LED with interfacial Si nano-pyramids," Opt. Express 15, 2555-2563 (2007).

G.-R. Lin, C.-J. Lin, C.-K. Lin, "Enhanced Fowler-Nordheim tunneling effect in nanocrystallite Si based LED with interfacial Si nano-pyramids," Opt. Express 15, 2555-2563 (2007).

K. Y. Chan, E. Bunte, H. Stiebig, D. Knipp, "Influence of low temperature thermal annealing on the performance of microcrystalline silicon thin-film transistors," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 074503 (2007).

K. Bhattacharya, D. Das, "Nanocrystalline silicon films prepared from silane plasma in RF-PECVD, using helium dilution without hydrogen: Structural and optical characterization," Nanotechnol. 18, 415704 (2007).

C. H. Lee, D. Striakhilev, A. Nathan, "Stability of nc-Si:H TFTs with silicon nitride gate dielectric," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 54, 45-51 (2007).

G.-R. Lin, C.-J. Lin, H.-C. Kuo, "Improving carrier transport and light emission in a silicon-nanocrystal based MOS light-emitting diode on silicon nanopillar array," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 093122 (2007).

T. Bronger, R. Carius, "Carrier mobilities in microstalline silicon films," Thin Solid Films 515, 7486-7489 (2007).

K. S. Girotra, Y.-M. Choi, B.-J. Kim, Y.-R. Song, B. Choi, S.-H. Yang, S. Kim, S. Lim, "PECVD-based nanocrystalline-silicon TFT backplanes for large-sized AMOLED displays," J. Soc. Inf. Displays 15, 113-118 (2007).

M. Oudwan, Y. Djeridane, A. Abramov, B. Aventurier, P. R. i. Cabarrocas, F. Templier, "Influence of process steps on the performance of microcrystalline silicon thin film transistors," Thin Solid Films 515, 7662-7666 (2007).

2006 (2)

K.-Y. Chan, E. Bunte, H. Stiebig, D. Knipp, "Influence of contact effect on the performance of microcrystalline silicon thin-film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 203509 (2006).

A. Z. Kattamis, R. J. Holmes, I. C. Cheng, K. Long, J. C. Sturm, S. R. Forrest, S. Wagner, "High mobility nanocrystalline silicon transistors on clear plastic substrates," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 27, 49-51 (2006).

2005 (1)

G.-R. Lin, C.-J. Lin, C.-K. Lin, L.-J. Chou, Y.-L. Chueh, "Oxygen defect and Si nanocrystal dependent white-light and near-infrared electroluminescence of Si-implanted and plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition-grown Si-rich ${{SiO}}_{2}$ ," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 094306 (2005).

2004 (2)

G.-R. Lin, C.-J. Lin, "Improved blue-green electroluminescence of metal-oxide-semiconductor diode fabricated on multirecipe Si-implanted and annealed SiO2/Si substrate," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 848-8486 (2004).

G.-R. Lin, C.-J. Lin, K.-C. Yu, "Time-resolved photoluminescence and capacitance-voltage analysis of the neutral vacancy defect in silicon implanted ${{SiO}}_{2}$ on silicon substrate," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 3025-3027 (2004).

2003 (2)

S. Kasouit, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, R. Vanderhaghen, Y. Bonnassieux, M. Elyaakoubi, I. D. French, J. Rocha, B. Vitoux, "Effect of deposition conditions and dielectric plasma treatments on the electrical properties of microcrystalline silicon TFTs," Thin Solid Films 427, 67-70 (2003).

F. Finger, R. Carius, T. Dylla, S. Klein, S. Okur, M. Günes, "Stability of microcrystalline silicon for thin fllm solar cell applications," Proc. IEE Circuits Devices Syst. 150, 300-308 (2003).

2000 (3)

S. Hazra, A. R. Middya, C. Longeaud, S. Ray, "Features of hydrogenated amorphous silicon films developed under an unexplored region of parameter space of radio-frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2340-2342 (2000).

O. Vetterl, F. Finger, R. Carius, P. Hapke, L. Houben, O. Kluth, A. Lambertz, A. Mück, B. Rech, H. Wagner, "Intrinsic microcrystalline silicon: A new material for photovoltaics," Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 62, 97-108 (2000).

O. Vetterl, F. Finger, R. Carius, P. Hapke, L. Houben, O. Kluth, A. Lambertz, A. MuKck, B. Rech, H. Wagner, "Intrinsic microcrystalline silicon: A new material for photovoltaics," Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 62, 97-108 (2000).

1996 (1)

P. Roca i Cabarrocas, N. Layadi, B. Drevillon, I. Solomon, "Microcrystalline silicon growth by the layer-by-layer technique: Long term evolution and nucleation mechanisms," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 198, 2871-874 (1996).

1995 (1)

D. Das, "Control of hydrogenation and modulation of the structural network in Si:H by interrupted growth and H-plasma treatment," Phys. Rev. B 51, 10729-10736 (1995).

1994 (1)

F. Finger, P. Hapke, M. Luysberg, R. Carius, H. Wagner, M. Scheib, "Improvement of grain size and deposition rate of microcrystalline silicon by use of very high frequency glow discharge," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2588-2590 (1994).

1989 (2)

M. J. Powell, C. van Berkel, J. R. Hughes, "Time and temperature dependence of instability mechanisms in amorphous silicon transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1323-1325 (1989).

M. J. Powell, "The physics of amorphous-silicon thin-film transistors," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 36, 2753-2763 (1989).

1987 (1)

M. J. Powell, C. van Berkel, I. D. French, D. H. Nicholls, "Bias dependence of instability mechanisms in amorphous silicon thin-film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1242-1244 (1987).

1984 (1)

B. C. Easton, J. A. Chapman, O. F. Hill, M. J. Powell, "The plasma-enhanced deposition of hydrogenated amorphous silicon," Vacuum 34, 371-376 (1984).

1983 (1)

A. Matsuda, "Formation kinetics and control of microcrystalline in $\mu {\rm c}$ -Si:H from glow discharge plasma," J. Non-Crystl. Solids 59–60, 2767-774 (1983).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

F. Finger, P. Hapke, M. Luysberg, R. Carius, H. Wagner, M. Scheib, "Improvement of grain size and deposition rate of microcrystalline silicon by use of very high frequency glow discharge," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2588-2590 (1994).

G.-R. Lin, C.-J. Lin, H.-C. Kuo, "Improving carrier transport and light emission in a silicon-nanocrystal based MOS light-emitting diode on silicon nanopillar array," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 093122 (2007).

K.-Y. Chan, E. Bunte, H. Stiebig, D. Knipp, "Influence of contact effect on the performance of microcrystalline silicon thin-film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 203509 (2006).

S. Hazra, A. R. Middya, C. Longeaud, S. Ray, "Features of hydrogenated amorphous silicon films developed under an unexplored region of parameter space of radio-frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2340-2342 (2000).

C.-D. Lin, C.-H. Cheng, Y.-H. Lin, C.-L. Wu, Y.-H. Pai, G.-R. Lin, "Electrically injected carrier trapping and recombination in Si-QDs embedded silicon-rich silicon nitride films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 243501 (2012).

M. J. Powell, C. van Berkel, I. D. French, D. H. Nicholls, "Bias dependence of instability mechanisms in amorphous silicon thin-film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1242-1244 (1987).

M. J. Powell, C. van Berkel, J. R. Hughes, "Time and temperature dependence of instability mechanisms in amorphous silicon transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1323-1325 (1989).

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (1)

A. Z. Kattamis, R. J. Holmes, I. C. Cheng, K. Long, J. C. Sturm, S. R. Forrest, S. Wagner, "High mobility nanocrystalline silicon transistors on clear plastic substrates," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 27, 49-51 (2006).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

B.-H. Lai, C.-H. Cheng, G.-R. Lin, "Improved emission efficiency of mutli-color metal-oxide-semiconductor light emitting diodes made on Si-rich ${{SiO}}_{x}$ with smaller quantum dots," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47, 698-704 (2011).

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

C.-H. Cheng, C.-L. Wu, C.-C. Chen, L.-H. Tsai, Y.-H. Lin, G.-R. Lin, "Si quantum dots doped Si-rich ${{Si}}_{x}{{C}}_{1-x}$ lighting emitting diodes," IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1762-1775 (2012).

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (3)

M. J. Powell, "The physics of amorphous-silicon thin-film transistors," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 36, 2753-2763 (1989).

C. H. Lee, D. Striakhilev, A. Nathan, "Stability of nc-Si:H TFTs with silicon nitride gate dielectric," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 54, 45-51 (2007).

K. Y. Chan, A. Gordijn, H. Stiebig, D. Knipp, "Microcrystalline-silicon transistors and CMOS inverters fabricated near the transition to amorphous-growth regime," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 56, 1924-1929 (2009).

J. Appl. Phys. (6)

G.-R. Lin, C.-J. Lin, C.-K. Lin, L.-J. Chou, Y.-L. Chueh, "Oxygen defect and Si nanocrystal dependent white-light and near-infrared electroluminescence of Si-implanted and plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition-grown Si-rich ${{SiO}}_{2}$ ," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 094306 (2005).

G.-R. Lin, C.-J. Lin, K.-C. Yu, "Time-resolved photoluminescence and capacitance-voltage analysis of the neutral vacancy defect in silicon implanted ${{SiO}}_{2}$ on silicon substrate," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 3025-3027 (2004).

L. Xu, Z. P. Li, C. Wen, W. Z. Shen, "Bonded hydrogen in nanocrystalline silicon photovoltaic materials: Impact on structure and defect density," J. Appl. Phys. 110, 064315 (2011).

G.-R. Lin, C.-J. Lin, "Improved blue-green electroluminescence of metal-oxide-semiconductor diode fabricated on multirecipe Si-implanted and annealed SiO2/Si substrate," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 848-8486 (2004).

J. Z. Chen, I.-C. Cheng, "Abnormal temperature-dependent stability of on-plastic a-Si:H thin film transistors fabricated at 150 $^{\circ}{{C}}$ ," J. Appl. Phys. 104, 044508 (2008).

K. Y. Chan, E. Bunte, H. Stiebig, D. Knipp, "Influence of low temperature thermal annealing on the performance of microcrystalline silicon thin-film transistors," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 074503 (2007).

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

G.-R. Lin, T.-C. Lo, L.-H. Tsai, Y.-H. Pai, C.-H. Cheng, C.-I. Wu, P.-S. Wang, "Finite silicon atom diffusion induced size limitation on self-assembled silicon quantum dots in silicon-rich silicon carbide," J. Electrochem. Soc. 159, K35-K41 (2011).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

G.-R. Lin, Y.-H. Pai, C.-T. Lin, "Microwatt MOSLED using ${{SiO}}_{x}$ with buried Si nanocrystals on Si nano-pillar array," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1486-1491 (2008).

G.-R. Lin, Y.-H. Pai, C.-T. Lin, "Microwatt MOSLED using ${{SiO}}_{x}$ with buried Si nanocrystals on Si nano-pillar array," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1486-1491 (2008).

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

Y.-A. Dai, H.-C. Chang, K.-Y. Lai, C.-A. Lin, R.-J. Chung, G.-R. Lin, J.-H. He, "Subwavelength Si nanowire arrays for self-cleaning antireflection coatings," J. Mater. Chem. 20, 10924-10930 (2010).

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

P. Roca i Cabarrocas, N. Layadi, B. Drevillon, I. Solomon, "Microcrystalline silicon growth by the layer-by-layer technique: Long term evolution and nucleation mechanisms," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 198, 2871-874 (1996).

J. Non-Crystl. Solids (1)

A. Matsuda, "Formation kinetics and control of microcrystalline in $\mu {\rm c}$ -Si:H from glow discharge plasma," J. Non-Crystl. Solids 59–60, 2767-774 (1983).

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