Abstract

The zinc tellurite glasses (TZO) codoped with ${Eu}^{3+}{{–}} {Yb}^{3+}$ ions have been prepared by the conventional melt and quenching technique. The photoluminescence spectra of the glass samples have been measured under 976-nm CW diode laser excitation. Several upconversion emission bands ranging from the blue to near infrared region have been detected in the codoped samples. The sensitized cooperative energy transfer process from the ${Yb}^{3+}$ to ${Eu}^{3+}$ ions and cross-relaxation process has been found to be responsible mechanism for the upconversion emissions in ${Eu}^{3+}$ ions.

© 2013 IEEE

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  2. G. H. Deike, Spectra and Energy Levels of Rare Earth Ions in Crystals (Inter Science, 1968).
  3. M. Yamane, Y. Asahara, Glasses for Photonics (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2004).
  4. V. K. Rai, "Temperature sensors and optical sensors," Appl. Phys. B 88, 297-303 (2007).
  5. N. Rakov, G. S. Maciel, M. L. Sundheimer, L. de S. Menezes, A. S. L. Gomes, Y. Messaddeq, F. C. Cassanjes, G. Poirier, S. J. L. Ribeiro, "Blue upconversion enhancement by a factor of 200 in ${{Tm}}^{3+}$ -doped tellurite glass by codoping with ${{Nd}}^{3+}$ ions’," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 6337-6339 (2002).
  6. B. R. Judd, "Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions," Phys. Rev. 127, 750-761 (1962).
  7. G. S. Ofelt, "Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions," J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511-520 (1962).
  8. V. K. Rai, "Local field effect of the host matrix on the decay time of doped emitters," Appl. Phys. B 100, 871-874 (2010).
  9. F. Su, Z. Deng, "Evidence of coordinate field index influence on upconversion properties in ${{Er}}^{3+}$ doped tellurite glasses," J. Fluoresc. 16, 541-545 (2006).
  10. V. K. Rai, A. Rai, "Temperature sensing behaviour in ${{Er}}^{3+}$ doped tellurite and calibo glasses," Appl. Phys. B 86, 333-335 (2007).
  11. Y. Dwivedi, S. N. Thakur, S. B. Rai, "Study of frequency upconversion in ${{Yb}}^{3+}/{{Er}}^{3+}$ by cooperative energy transfer in oxyfluoroborate glass matrix," Appl. Phys. B 89, 45-51 (2007).
  12. G. Tripathi, V. K. Rai, S. B. Rai, "Spectroscopic studies of ${{Eu}}^{3+}$ doped calibo glass: Effect of the addition of barium carbonate, energy transfer in the presence of ${{Sm}}^{3+}$ ," Opt. Commun. 264, 116-122 (2006).
  13. S. Shen, B. Richards, A. Jha, "Enhancement in pump inversion efficiency at 980 nm in ${{Er}}^{3+}$ , ${{Er}}^{3+}/{{Er}}^{3+}$ and ${{Er}}^{3+}/{{Ce}}^{3+}$ doped tellurite glass fibers," Opt. Express 5050-5054 (2006).
  14. A. Jha, P. Joshi, S. Shen, L. Huang, "Spectroscopic characterization of signal gain and pump ESA in short-lengths of RE-doped tellurite ?bers," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353, 1407-1413 (2007).
  15. Y. Dwivedi, A. Rai, S. B. Rai, "Energy transfer in ${{Er:Eu:Yb}}$ co-doped tellurite glasses: Yb as enhancer and quencher," J. Luminesc. 129, 629-633 (2009).
  16. R. Reisfield, "Spectra and energy transfer of rare earths in inorganic glasses," Structure and Bonding 13, 53-98 (1973).
  17. V. Singh, V. K. Rai, I. Ledoux-Kwak, H. Y. Kwak, "Visible up-conversion and NIR luminescence studies of ${{LiAl}}_{5}{{O}}_{8}{{:}}{{Er}}$ phosphor co-doped with ${{Yb}}^{3+}$ and ${{Zn}}^{2+}$ ," Appl. Phys. B 97, 107-103 (2009).
  18. P. V. dos Santosh, M. V. D. Vermelho, E. A. Gouveia, M. T. de Arujo, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, F. C. Cassenjes, S. J. L. Ribeiro, Y. Massaddeq, "Blue cooperative luminescence in ${{Yb}}^{3+}$ -doped tellurite glasses excited at 1.064 ?m," J. Chem. Phys. 16, 6772-6776 (2002).
  19. X. Chen, Z. Song, "Strong cooperative upconversion luminescence of ytterbium doped oxyfluoride nanophase vitroceramics," Solid State Commun. 136, 313-317 (2005).
  20. K. Xiao, Z. Yang, "Blue cooperative luminescence in ${{Yb}}^{3+}$ -doped barium gallogermanate glass excited at 976 nm," J. Flouresc. 16, 755-759 (2006).
  21. X. Xu, Z. Zhao, P. Song, B. Jiang, G. Zhou, J. Xu, P. Deng, G. Bourdet, J. C. Chanteloup, J. Zou, A. Fulop, "Upconversion luminescence in ${{Yb}}^{3+}$ -doped yttrium aluminum garnets," Phys. B 357, 365-369 (2005).
  22. K. Shioya, T. Kmatsu, H. G. Kim, R. Sato, K. Matusita, "Raman spectra of MO- ${{TeO}}_{2}$ (M=Mg, Sr, Ba, and Zn) glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 168, 106-114 (1994).
  23. M. A. P. Silva, Y. Messaddeq, S. J. L. Ribeiro, M. Poulain, F. Villain, V. Briois, "Structural studies on ${{TeO}}_{2} {{+}} {{PbO}}$ glasses," J. Phys. Chem. Solids 62, 1055-1060 (2001).
  24. D. Lezal, J. Pedlicova, P. Kostka, J. Bludska, M. Poulain, J. Zavadil, "Heavy metal oxide glasses: preparation and physical properties," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 284, 288-295 (2001).
  25. K. Richardson, D. Krol, K. Hirao, "Glasses for photonic applications," Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 74-86 (2010).
  26. R. El-Mallawany, I. A. Ahmed, "Thermal properties of multicomponent tellurite glass," J. Mater. Sci. 43, 5131-5138 (2008).
  27. A. Kanoun, N. Jaba, H. Mejri, H. Maaref, A. Selmi, "Effects of activator ion concentration on the upconversion processes in ${{Er}}_{3+}$ -doped ${{TeO}}_{2}{{--}}{{ZnO}}$ glass," Phys. Stat. Sol. 188, 1145-1151 (2001).
  28. F. Vetrone, J.-C. Boyer, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, M. Bettinelli, "980 nm upconversion in an Er - doped ${{ZnO}}{{--}}{{TeO}}_{2}$ glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1752-1754 (2002).
  29. F. Wang, X. Liu, "Recent advances in the chemistry of lanthanide-doped upconversion nanocrystals," Chem. Soc. Rev. 38, 976-989 (2009).
  30. S. K. Tripathy, G. Xu, X. Mu, Y. J. Ding, M. Jamil, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, J. B. Khurgin, "Phonon-assisted ultraviolet antistokes photoluminescence from GaN film grown on ${{Si}}(111) $ substrate’," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, (2008) Art. ID 201107.
  31. S. K. Tripathy, Y. J. Ding, J. B. Khurgin, "Anti-Stokes photoluminescence from n-type free-standing GaN at room temperature based on competition between phonon-assisted and two-photon absorption," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24, (2009) Art. ID 055010.
  32. Y. J. Ding, J. B. Khurgin, "From anti-stokes photoluminescence to resonant Raman scattering in GaN crystals and GaN based heterostructures," Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 660-667 (2012).
  33. K. K. Mahato, S. B. Rai, A. Rai, "Optical studies of Eu3+ doped oxyfluoroborate glass," Spectrochim. Acta A 60, 979-985 (2004).
  34. A. Kumar, D. K. Rai, S. B. Rai, "Optical studies of ${{Eu}}^{3+}$ ions doped in tellurite glass," Spectrochim. Acta A 58, 2115-2125 (2002).
  35. V. R. Kumar, N. Veeraiah, B. A. Rao, S. Bhuddudu, "Optical absorption and photoluminescence properties of ${{Eu}}^{3+}$ -doped ${{ZnF}}_{2}$ ${{PbO}}$ ${{TeO}}_{2}$ glasses," J. Mater. Sci. 33, 2659-2662 (1998).

2012 (1)

Y. J. Ding, J. B. Khurgin, "From anti-stokes photoluminescence to resonant Raman scattering in GaN crystals and GaN based heterostructures," Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 660-667 (2012).

2010 (2)

K. Richardson, D. Krol, K. Hirao, "Glasses for photonic applications," Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 74-86 (2010).

V. K. Rai, "Local field effect of the host matrix on the decay time of doped emitters," Appl. Phys. B 100, 871-874 (2010).

2009 (4)

Y. Dwivedi, A. Rai, S. B. Rai, "Energy transfer in ${{Er:Eu:Yb}}$ co-doped tellurite glasses: Yb as enhancer and quencher," J. Luminesc. 129, 629-633 (2009).

V. Singh, V. K. Rai, I. Ledoux-Kwak, H. Y. Kwak, "Visible up-conversion and NIR luminescence studies of ${{LiAl}}_{5}{{O}}_{8}{{:}}{{Er}}$ phosphor co-doped with ${{Yb}}^{3+}$ and ${{Zn}}^{2+}$ ," Appl. Phys. B 97, 107-103 (2009).

F. Wang, X. Liu, "Recent advances in the chemistry of lanthanide-doped upconversion nanocrystals," Chem. Soc. Rev. 38, 976-989 (2009).

S. K. Tripathy, Y. J. Ding, J. B. Khurgin, "Anti-Stokes photoluminescence from n-type free-standing GaN at room temperature based on competition between phonon-assisted and two-photon absorption," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24, (2009) Art. ID 055010.

2008 (2)

S. K. Tripathy, G. Xu, X. Mu, Y. J. Ding, M. Jamil, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, J. B. Khurgin, "Phonon-assisted ultraviolet antistokes photoluminescence from GaN film grown on ${{Si}}(111) $ substrate’," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, (2008) Art. ID 201107.

R. El-Mallawany, I. A. Ahmed, "Thermal properties of multicomponent tellurite glass," J. Mater. Sci. 43, 5131-5138 (2008).

2007 (4)

A. Jha, P. Joshi, S. Shen, L. Huang, "Spectroscopic characterization of signal gain and pump ESA in short-lengths of RE-doped tellurite ?bers," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353, 1407-1413 (2007).

V. K. Rai, "Temperature sensors and optical sensors," Appl. Phys. B 88, 297-303 (2007).

V. K. Rai, A. Rai, "Temperature sensing behaviour in ${{Er}}^{3+}$ doped tellurite and calibo glasses," Appl. Phys. B 86, 333-335 (2007).

Y. Dwivedi, S. N. Thakur, S. B. Rai, "Study of frequency upconversion in ${{Yb}}^{3+}/{{Er}}^{3+}$ by cooperative energy transfer in oxyfluoroborate glass matrix," Appl. Phys. B 89, 45-51 (2007).

2006 (4)

G. Tripathi, V. K. Rai, S. B. Rai, "Spectroscopic studies of ${{Eu}}^{3+}$ doped calibo glass: Effect of the addition of barium carbonate, energy transfer in the presence of ${{Sm}}^{3+}$ ," Opt. Commun. 264, 116-122 (2006).

S. Shen, B. Richards, A. Jha, "Enhancement in pump inversion efficiency at 980 nm in ${{Er}}^{3+}$ , ${{Er}}^{3+}/{{Er}}^{3+}$ and ${{Er}}^{3+}/{{Ce}}^{3+}$ doped tellurite glass fibers," Opt. Express 5050-5054 (2006).

F. Su, Z. Deng, "Evidence of coordinate field index influence on upconversion properties in ${{Er}}^{3+}$ doped tellurite glasses," J. Fluoresc. 16, 541-545 (2006).

K. Xiao, Z. Yang, "Blue cooperative luminescence in ${{Yb}}^{3+}$ -doped barium gallogermanate glass excited at 976 nm," J. Flouresc. 16, 755-759 (2006).

2005 (2)

X. Xu, Z. Zhao, P. Song, B. Jiang, G. Zhou, J. Xu, P. Deng, G. Bourdet, J. C. Chanteloup, J. Zou, A. Fulop, "Upconversion luminescence in ${{Yb}}^{3+}$ -doped yttrium aluminum garnets," Phys. B 357, 365-369 (2005).

X. Chen, Z. Song, "Strong cooperative upconversion luminescence of ytterbium doped oxyfluoride nanophase vitroceramics," Solid State Commun. 136, 313-317 (2005).

2004 (1)

K. K. Mahato, S. B. Rai, A. Rai, "Optical studies of Eu3+ doped oxyfluoroborate glass," Spectrochim. Acta A 60, 979-985 (2004).

2002 (4)

A. Kumar, D. K. Rai, S. B. Rai, "Optical studies of ${{Eu}}^{3+}$ ions doped in tellurite glass," Spectrochim. Acta A 58, 2115-2125 (2002).

F. Vetrone, J.-C. Boyer, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, M. Bettinelli, "980 nm upconversion in an Er - doped ${{ZnO}}{{--}}{{TeO}}_{2}$ glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1752-1754 (2002).

P. V. dos Santosh, M. V. D. Vermelho, E. A. Gouveia, M. T. de Arujo, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, F. C. Cassenjes, S. J. L. Ribeiro, Y. Massaddeq, "Blue cooperative luminescence in ${{Yb}}^{3+}$ -doped tellurite glasses excited at 1.064 ?m," J. Chem. Phys. 16, 6772-6776 (2002).

N. Rakov, G. S. Maciel, M. L. Sundheimer, L. de S. Menezes, A. S. L. Gomes, Y. Messaddeq, F. C. Cassanjes, G. Poirier, S. J. L. Ribeiro, "Blue upconversion enhancement by a factor of 200 in ${{Tm}}^{3+}$ -doped tellurite glass by codoping with ${{Nd}}^{3+}$ ions’," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 6337-6339 (2002).

2001 (3)

M. A. P. Silva, Y. Messaddeq, S. J. L. Ribeiro, M. Poulain, F. Villain, V. Briois, "Structural studies on ${{TeO}}_{2} {{+}} {{PbO}}$ glasses," J. Phys. Chem. Solids 62, 1055-1060 (2001).

D. Lezal, J. Pedlicova, P. Kostka, J. Bludska, M. Poulain, J. Zavadil, "Heavy metal oxide glasses: preparation and physical properties," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 284, 288-295 (2001).

A. Kanoun, N. Jaba, H. Mejri, H. Maaref, A. Selmi, "Effects of activator ion concentration on the upconversion processes in ${{Er}}_{3+}$ -doped ${{TeO}}_{2}{{--}}{{ZnO}}$ glass," Phys. Stat. Sol. 188, 1145-1151 (2001).

1998 (1)

V. R. Kumar, N. Veeraiah, B. A. Rao, S. Bhuddudu, "Optical absorption and photoluminescence properties of ${{Eu}}^{3+}$ -doped ${{ZnF}}_{2}$ ${{PbO}}$ ${{TeO}}_{2}$ glasses," J. Mater. Sci. 33, 2659-2662 (1998).

1994 (1)

K. Shioya, T. Kmatsu, H. G. Kim, R. Sato, K. Matusita, "Raman spectra of MO- ${{TeO}}_{2}$ (M=Mg, Sr, Ba, and Zn) glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 168, 106-114 (1994).

1973 (1)

R. Reisfield, "Spectra and energy transfer of rare earths in inorganic glasses," Structure and Bonding 13, 53-98 (1973).

1962 (2)

B. R. Judd, "Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions," Phys. Rev. 127, 750-761 (1962).

G. S. Ofelt, "Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions," J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511-520 (1962).

Appl. Phys. B (5)

V. K. Rai, "Temperature sensors and optical sensors," Appl. Phys. B 88, 297-303 (2007).

V. K. Rai, A. Rai, "Temperature sensing behaviour in ${{Er}}^{3+}$ doped tellurite and calibo glasses," Appl. Phys. B 86, 333-335 (2007).

Y. Dwivedi, S. N. Thakur, S. B. Rai, "Study of frequency upconversion in ${{Yb}}^{3+}/{{Er}}^{3+}$ by cooperative energy transfer in oxyfluoroborate glass matrix," Appl. Phys. B 89, 45-51 (2007).

V. K. Rai, "Local field effect of the host matrix on the decay time of doped emitters," Appl. Phys. B 100, 871-874 (2010).

V. Singh, V. K. Rai, I. Ledoux-Kwak, H. Y. Kwak, "Visible up-conversion and NIR luminescence studies of ${{LiAl}}_{5}{{O}}_{8}{{:}}{{Er}}$ phosphor co-doped with ${{Yb}}^{3+}$ and ${{Zn}}^{2+}$ ," Appl. Phys. B 97, 107-103 (2009).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

F. Vetrone, J.-C. Boyer, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, M. Bettinelli, "980 nm upconversion in an Er - doped ${{ZnO}}{{--}}{{TeO}}_{2}$ glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1752-1754 (2002).

S. K. Tripathy, G. Xu, X. Mu, Y. J. Ding, M. Jamil, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, J. B. Khurgin, "Phonon-assisted ultraviolet antistokes photoluminescence from GaN film grown on ${{Si}}(111) $ substrate’," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, (2008) Art. ID 201107.

Chem. Soc. Rev. (1)

F. Wang, X. Liu, "Recent advances in the chemistry of lanthanide-doped upconversion nanocrystals," Chem. Soc. Rev. 38, 976-989 (2009).

Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. (1)

K. Richardson, D. Krol, K. Hirao, "Glasses for photonic applications," Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 74-86 (2010).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

N. Rakov, G. S. Maciel, M. L. Sundheimer, L. de S. Menezes, A. S. L. Gomes, Y. Messaddeq, F. C. Cassanjes, G. Poirier, S. J. L. Ribeiro, "Blue upconversion enhancement by a factor of 200 in ${{Tm}}^{3+}$ -doped tellurite glass by codoping with ${{Nd}}^{3+}$ ions’," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 6337-6339 (2002).

J. Chem. Phys. (2)

P. V. dos Santosh, M. V. D. Vermelho, E. A. Gouveia, M. T. de Arujo, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, F. C. Cassenjes, S. J. L. Ribeiro, Y. Massaddeq, "Blue cooperative luminescence in ${{Yb}}^{3+}$ -doped tellurite glasses excited at 1.064 ?m," J. Chem. Phys. 16, 6772-6776 (2002).

G. S. Ofelt, "Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions," J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511-520 (1962).

J. Flouresc. (1)

K. Xiao, Z. Yang, "Blue cooperative luminescence in ${{Yb}}^{3+}$ -doped barium gallogermanate glass excited at 976 nm," J. Flouresc. 16, 755-759 (2006).

J. Fluoresc. (1)

F. Su, Z. Deng, "Evidence of coordinate field index influence on upconversion properties in ${{Er}}^{3+}$ doped tellurite glasses," J. Fluoresc. 16, 541-545 (2006).

J. Luminesc. (1)

Y. Dwivedi, A. Rai, S. B. Rai, "Energy transfer in ${{Er:Eu:Yb}}$ co-doped tellurite glasses: Yb as enhancer and quencher," J. Luminesc. 129, 629-633 (2009).

J. Mater. Sci. (2)

R. El-Mallawany, I. A. Ahmed, "Thermal properties of multicomponent tellurite glass," J. Mater. Sci. 43, 5131-5138 (2008).

V. R. Kumar, N. Veeraiah, B. A. Rao, S. Bhuddudu, "Optical absorption and photoluminescence properties of ${{Eu}}^{3+}$ -doped ${{ZnF}}_{2}$ ${{PbO}}$ ${{TeO}}_{2}$ glasses," J. Mater. Sci. 33, 2659-2662 (1998).

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (3)

D. Lezal, J. Pedlicova, P. Kostka, J. Bludska, M. Poulain, J. Zavadil, "Heavy metal oxide glasses: preparation and physical properties," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 284, 288-295 (2001).

K. Shioya, T. Kmatsu, H. G. Kim, R. Sato, K. Matusita, "Raman spectra of MO- ${{TeO}}_{2}$ (M=Mg, Sr, Ba, and Zn) glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 168, 106-114 (1994).

A. Jha, P. Joshi, S. Shen, L. Huang, "Spectroscopic characterization of signal gain and pump ESA in short-lengths of RE-doped tellurite ?bers," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353, 1407-1413 (2007).

J. Phys. Chem. Solids (1)

M. A. P. Silva, Y. Messaddeq, S. J. L. Ribeiro, M. Poulain, F. Villain, V. Briois, "Structural studies on ${{TeO}}_{2} {{+}} {{PbO}}$ glasses," J. Phys. Chem. Solids 62, 1055-1060 (2001).

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

Y. J. Ding, J. B. Khurgin, "From anti-stokes photoluminescence to resonant Raman scattering in GaN crystals and GaN based heterostructures," Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 660-667 (2012).

Opt. Commun. (1)

G. Tripathi, V. K. Rai, S. B. Rai, "Spectroscopic studies of ${{Eu}}^{3+}$ doped calibo glass: Effect of the addition of barium carbonate, energy transfer in the presence of ${{Sm}}^{3+}$ ," Opt. Commun. 264, 116-122 (2006).

Opt. Express (1)

S. Shen, B. Richards, A. Jha, "Enhancement in pump inversion efficiency at 980 nm in ${{Er}}^{3+}$ , ${{Er}}^{3+}/{{Er}}^{3+}$ and ${{Er}}^{3+}/{{Ce}}^{3+}$ doped tellurite glass fibers," Opt. Express 5050-5054 (2006).

Phys. B (1)

X. Xu, Z. Zhao, P. Song, B. Jiang, G. Zhou, J. Xu, P. Deng, G. Bourdet, J. C. Chanteloup, J. Zou, A. Fulop, "Upconversion luminescence in ${{Yb}}^{3+}$ -doped yttrium aluminum garnets," Phys. B 357, 365-369 (2005).

Phys. Rev. (1)

B. R. Judd, "Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions," Phys. Rev. 127, 750-761 (1962).

Phys. Stat. Sol. (1)

A. Kanoun, N. Jaba, H. Mejri, H. Maaref, A. Selmi, "Effects of activator ion concentration on the upconversion processes in ${{Er}}_{3+}$ -doped ${{TeO}}_{2}{{--}}{{ZnO}}$ glass," Phys. Stat. Sol. 188, 1145-1151 (2001).

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

S. K. Tripathy, Y. J. Ding, J. B. Khurgin, "Anti-Stokes photoluminescence from n-type free-standing GaN at room temperature based on competition between phonon-assisted and two-photon absorption," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24, (2009) Art. ID 055010.

Solid State Commun. (1)

X. Chen, Z. Song, "Strong cooperative upconversion luminescence of ytterbium doped oxyfluoride nanophase vitroceramics," Solid State Commun. 136, 313-317 (2005).

Spectrochim. Acta A (2)

K. K. Mahato, S. B. Rai, A. Rai, "Optical studies of Eu3+ doped oxyfluoroborate glass," Spectrochim. Acta A 60, 979-985 (2004).

A. Kumar, D. K. Rai, S. B. Rai, "Optical studies of ${{Eu}}^{3+}$ ions doped in tellurite glass," Spectrochim. Acta A 58, 2115-2125 (2002).

Structure and Bonding (1)

R. Reisfield, "Spectra and energy transfer of rare earths in inorganic glasses," Structure and Bonding 13, 53-98 (1973).

Other (3)

C. Kittle, Introduction to Solid State Physics (Wiley Student Edition, 2005).

G. H. Deike, Spectra and Energy Levels of Rare Earth Ions in Crystals (Inter Science, 1968).

M. Yamane, Y. Asahara, Glasses for Photonics (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2004).

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