Abstract

We propose a method to evaluate the electrical properties of nanoscale layered materials. This study is important for the potential application of these structures in light emitting diode electrodes. For this purpose we measure the reflection coefficient of a microwave signal recorded by a near-field Scanning Microwave Microscope. This method allows the non-contact measurement of the sheet resistance of the material under analysis. It provides detailed maps of the electrical properties of a micrometric area under test to assay its uniformity. In particular, we have applied this technique to a multilayer material composed by an Indium–Tin–Oxide film and few layer graphene.

© 2013 IEEE

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  1. G. F. Farinola, "Electroluminescent materials for white organic light emitting diodes," Chem. Soc. Rev. 40, 3467-3482 (2011).
  2. F. So, "Organic light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting," MRS Bull. 33, 663-669 (2008).
  3. Y. Sun, "Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids," Nature Photon. 2, 483-487 (2008).
  4. W. H. Koo, "Light extraction of organic light emitting diodes by defective hexagonal-close-packed array," Adv. Funct. Mater. 2, 3454-3459 (2012).
  5. N. Chopra, "High-efficiency blue emitting phosphorescent OLEDs," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 57, 101-107 (2010).
  6. R. M. Farrell, "Materials and growth issues for high performance nonpolar and semipolar light emitting devices," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27, 4001-4001 (2012).
  7. N. Tansu, "III-Nitride photonics," IEEE Photon. J. 2, 241-248 (2010).
  8. H. Zhao, "Approaches for high-internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells," Opt. Express 19, A991-A1007 (2011).
  9. S. T. Tan, "Advances in the LED materials and architectures for energy-saving solid-state lighting toward “lighting revolution”," IEEE Photon. J. 4, 613-619 (2012).
  10. X.-H. Li, "Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-Nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratio," IEEE Photon. J. 3, 489-499 (2011).
  11. C. G. Granqvist, "Transparent and conducting ITO films: New developments and applications," Thin Solid Films 411, 1-5 (2002).
  12. J. Wu, "Organic light emitting diodes on solution-processed graphene transparent electrodes," ACSNano 4, 43-48 (2010).
  13. K.-M. Chang, "Investigation of indium-tin oxide ohmic contact to p-GaN and its application to high brightness GaN-based light emitting diodes," Solid-State Electron. 49, 1381-1386 (2005).
  14. K. Hong, "Review paper: Recent developments in light extraction technologies of organic light emitting diodes," Electron. Mater. Lett. 7, 77-91 (2011).
  15. T. H. Han, "Extremely efficient flexible organic light-emitting diodes with modified graphene anode," Nature Photon. 6, 105-110 (2012).
  16. S. Chandramohan, "Work-function-tuned multilayer graphene as current spreading electrode in blue light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 3502-3505 (2012).
  17. A. Tselev, "Near-Field microwave scanning probe imaging of conductivity inhomogeneities in CVD graphene," Nanotechnol. 23, 385706 (11)-385706 (11) (2012).
  18. S. Hwang, "A method for current spreading analysis and electrode pattern design in light-emitting diodes," IEEE Trans Electron Devices 55, 1123-1128 (2008).
  19. J. Park, "Luminance uniformity of large-area OLEDs with an auxiliary metal electrode," J. Display Technol. 5, 306-311 (2009).
  20. M. Farina, "Disentangling time in a near-field approach to scanning probe microscopy," Nanoscale 3, 3589-3593 (2011).
  21. E. J. Snyder, "Effects of tip size and asymmetry on scanning tunneling microscope topographs," Surf. Sci. Lett. 239, L487-L492 (1990).
  22. D. K. Schroder, Semiconductor Material and Device Characterization (Wiley, 2006) pp. 2-34.
  23. R. H. Horng, "Low-resistance and high-transparency Ni-indium tin oxide ohmic contacts to p-type GaN," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2925-2927 (2001).
  24. C.-H. Hong, "Improved electrode performance in gallium nitride LEDs," SPIE Newsroom (2012) pp. 1-3.
  25. A. Reina, "Large-area few layers graphene films on arbitrary substrates by chemical vapor deposition," Nano Lett. 9, 30-35 (2009).
  26. S. Yun, "Noncontact characterization of sheet resistance of indium-tin-oxide thin films by using a near-field microwave microprobe," Thin Solid Films 515, 1354-1357 (2006).
  27. W. Kundhikanjana, "Hierarchy of electronic properties of chemically derived and pristine graphene probed by microwave imaging," Nano Lett. 9, 3762-3765 (2009).
  28. V. Talanov, "Few-Layer graphene characterization by near-field scanning microwave microscopy," ACS Nano 4, 3831-3838 (2010).
  29. K. Neyts, "Inhomogenous luminance in organic light emitting diodes related to electrode resistivity," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 114513-1-114513-4 (2006).

2012 (6)

W. H. Koo, "Light extraction of organic light emitting diodes by defective hexagonal-close-packed array," Adv. Funct. Mater. 2, 3454-3459 (2012).

R. M. Farrell, "Materials and growth issues for high performance nonpolar and semipolar light emitting devices," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27, 4001-4001 (2012).

S. T. Tan, "Advances in the LED materials and architectures for energy-saving solid-state lighting toward “lighting revolution”," IEEE Photon. J. 4, 613-619 (2012).

T. H. Han, "Extremely efficient flexible organic light-emitting diodes with modified graphene anode," Nature Photon. 6, 105-110 (2012).

S. Chandramohan, "Work-function-tuned multilayer graphene as current spreading electrode in blue light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 3502-3505 (2012).

A. Tselev, "Near-Field microwave scanning probe imaging of conductivity inhomogeneities in CVD graphene," Nanotechnol. 23, 385706 (11)-385706 (11) (2012).

2011 (5)

H. Zhao, "Approaches for high-internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells," Opt. Express 19, A991-A1007 (2011).

K. Hong, "Review paper: Recent developments in light extraction technologies of organic light emitting diodes," Electron. Mater. Lett. 7, 77-91 (2011).

X.-H. Li, "Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-Nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratio," IEEE Photon. J. 3, 489-499 (2011).

G. F. Farinola, "Electroluminescent materials for white organic light emitting diodes," Chem. Soc. Rev. 40, 3467-3482 (2011).

M. Farina, "Disentangling time in a near-field approach to scanning probe microscopy," Nanoscale 3, 3589-3593 (2011).

2010 (4)

V. Talanov, "Few-Layer graphene characterization by near-field scanning microwave microscopy," ACS Nano 4, 3831-3838 (2010).

N. Chopra, "High-efficiency blue emitting phosphorescent OLEDs," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 57, 101-107 (2010).

N. Tansu, "III-Nitride photonics," IEEE Photon. J. 2, 241-248 (2010).

J. Wu, "Organic light emitting diodes on solution-processed graphene transparent electrodes," ACSNano 4, 43-48 (2010).

2009 (3)

A. Reina, "Large-area few layers graphene films on arbitrary substrates by chemical vapor deposition," Nano Lett. 9, 30-35 (2009).

J. Park, "Luminance uniformity of large-area OLEDs with an auxiliary metal electrode," J. Display Technol. 5, 306-311 (2009).

W. Kundhikanjana, "Hierarchy of electronic properties of chemically derived and pristine graphene probed by microwave imaging," Nano Lett. 9, 3762-3765 (2009).

2008 (3)

S. Hwang, "A method for current spreading analysis and electrode pattern design in light-emitting diodes," IEEE Trans Electron Devices 55, 1123-1128 (2008).

F. So, "Organic light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting," MRS Bull. 33, 663-669 (2008).

Y. Sun, "Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids," Nature Photon. 2, 483-487 (2008).

2006 (2)

S. Yun, "Noncontact characterization of sheet resistance of indium-tin-oxide thin films by using a near-field microwave microprobe," Thin Solid Films 515, 1354-1357 (2006).

K. Neyts, "Inhomogenous luminance in organic light emitting diodes related to electrode resistivity," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 114513-1-114513-4 (2006).

2005 (1)

K.-M. Chang, "Investigation of indium-tin oxide ohmic contact to p-GaN and its application to high brightness GaN-based light emitting diodes," Solid-State Electron. 49, 1381-1386 (2005).

2002 (1)

C. G. Granqvist, "Transparent and conducting ITO films: New developments and applications," Thin Solid Films 411, 1-5 (2002).

2001 (1)

R. H. Horng, "Low-resistance and high-transparency Ni-indium tin oxide ohmic contacts to p-type GaN," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2925-2927 (2001).

1990 (1)

E. J. Snyder, "Effects of tip size and asymmetry on scanning tunneling microscope topographs," Surf. Sci. Lett. 239, L487-L492 (1990).

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (1)

N. Chopra, "High-efficiency blue emitting phosphorescent OLEDs," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 57, 101-107 (2010).

ACS Nano (1)

V. Talanov, "Few-Layer graphene characterization by near-field scanning microwave microscopy," ACS Nano 4, 3831-3838 (2010).

ACSNano (1)

J. Wu, "Organic light emitting diodes on solution-processed graphene transparent electrodes," ACSNano 4, 43-48 (2010).

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

W. H. Koo, "Light extraction of organic light emitting diodes by defective hexagonal-close-packed array," Adv. Funct. Mater. 2, 3454-3459 (2012).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. H. Horng, "Low-resistance and high-transparency Ni-indium tin oxide ohmic contacts to p-type GaN," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2925-2927 (2001).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Chandramohan, "Work-function-tuned multilayer graphene as current spreading electrode in blue light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 3502-3505 (2012).

Chem. Soc. Rev. (1)

G. F. Farinola, "Electroluminescent materials for white organic light emitting diodes," Chem. Soc. Rev. 40, 3467-3482 (2011).

Electron. Mater. Lett. (1)

K. Hong, "Review paper: Recent developments in light extraction technologies of organic light emitting diodes," Electron. Mater. Lett. 7, 77-91 (2011).

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

X.-H. Li, "Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-Nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratio," IEEE Photon. J. 3, 489-499 (2011).

IEEE Photon. J. (2)

S. T. Tan, "Advances in the LED materials and architectures for energy-saving solid-state lighting toward “lighting revolution”," IEEE Photon. J. 4, 613-619 (2012).

N. Tansu, "III-Nitride photonics," IEEE Photon. J. 2, 241-248 (2010).

IEEE Trans Electron Devices (1)

S. Hwang, "A method for current spreading analysis and electrode pattern design in light-emitting diodes," IEEE Trans Electron Devices 55, 1123-1128 (2008).

J. Display Technol. (1)

J. Park, "Luminance uniformity of large-area OLEDs with an auxiliary metal electrode," J. Display Technol. 5, 306-311 (2009).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Neyts, "Inhomogenous luminance in organic light emitting diodes related to electrode resistivity," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 114513-1-114513-4 (2006).

MRS Bull. (1)

F. So, "Organic light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting," MRS Bull. 33, 663-669 (2008).

Nano Lett. (2)

W. Kundhikanjana, "Hierarchy of electronic properties of chemically derived and pristine graphene probed by microwave imaging," Nano Lett. 9, 3762-3765 (2009).

A. Reina, "Large-area few layers graphene films on arbitrary substrates by chemical vapor deposition," Nano Lett. 9, 30-35 (2009).

Nanoscale (1)

M. Farina, "Disentangling time in a near-field approach to scanning probe microscopy," Nanoscale 3, 3589-3593 (2011).

Nanotechnol. (1)

A. Tselev, "Near-Field microwave scanning probe imaging of conductivity inhomogeneities in CVD graphene," Nanotechnol. 23, 385706 (11)-385706 (11) (2012).

Nature Photon. (1)

Y. Sun, "Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids," Nature Photon. 2, 483-487 (2008).

Nature Photon. (1)

T. H. Han, "Extremely efficient flexible organic light-emitting diodes with modified graphene anode," Nature Photon. 6, 105-110 (2012).

Opt. Express (1)

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

R. M. Farrell, "Materials and growth issues for high performance nonpolar and semipolar light emitting devices," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27, 4001-4001 (2012).

Solid-State Electron. (1)

K.-M. Chang, "Investigation of indium-tin oxide ohmic contact to p-GaN and its application to high brightness GaN-based light emitting diodes," Solid-State Electron. 49, 1381-1386 (2005).

Surf. Sci. Lett. (1)

E. J. Snyder, "Effects of tip size and asymmetry on scanning tunneling microscope topographs," Surf. Sci. Lett. 239, L487-L492 (1990).

Thin Solid Films (1)

C. G. Granqvist, "Transparent and conducting ITO films: New developments and applications," Thin Solid Films 411, 1-5 (2002).

Thin Solid Films (1)

S. Yun, "Noncontact characterization of sheet resistance of indium-tin-oxide thin films by using a near-field microwave microprobe," Thin Solid Films 515, 1354-1357 (2006).

Other (2)

C.-H. Hong, "Improved electrode performance in gallium nitride LEDs," SPIE Newsroom (2012) pp. 1-3.

D. K. Schroder, Semiconductor Material and Device Characterization (Wiley, 2006) pp. 2-34.

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