Abstract

The light out-coupling efficiency of organic light-emitting devices was enhanced using microlens arrays fabricated by a direct printing technique. The high surface-free energy of a glass substrate was modified through the use of a hydrophobic silane coupling agent thus achieving a high contact angle for liquid droplets. A transparent monomer mixture of multifunctional thiol and ene was employed as a lens material. The light out-coupling efficiency was improved by 30% using printed microlens arrays without altering the electroluminescent spectrum.

© 2013 IEEE

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  36. C. E. Hoyle, C. N. Bowman, "Thiol-Ene click chemistry," Angew. Chem. Int. ed.49, 1540-1573 (2010).
  37. Y. Zheng, "Efficient deep-blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting device with improved electron and exciton confinement," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, (2008).
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  39. Y. Sun, S. R. Forrest, "Organic light emitting devices with enhanced outcoupling via microlenses fabricated by imprint lithography," J. Appl. Phys. 100, (2006) paper 073106.
  40. Y. Ee, "Light extraction efficiency enhancement of InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with polydimethylsiloxane concave microstructures," Opt. Express 17, 13747-13757 (2009).
  41. E. Rangel, "Directionality control through selective excitation of low-order guided modes in thin-film InGaN photonic crystal light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, (2011) Art. ID 081104.

2012 (1)

W. H. Koo, "Light extraction of organic light emitting diodes by defective hexagonal-close-packed array," Adv. Funct. Mater. 22, 3454-3459 (2012).

2011 (5)

P. Kumar, "Analysis of light out-coupling from microlens array," Opt. Commun. 284, 4279-4282 (2011).

X. Li, "Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios," IEEE Photon. J. 3, 89-499 (2011).

S.-H. Eom, E. Wrzesniewski, J. Xue, "Close-packed hemispherical microlens arrays for light extraction enhancement in organic light-emitting devices," Organ. Electron. 12, 472-476 (2011).

J. Zhou, "Roughening the white OLED substrate's surface through sandblasting to improve the external quantum efficiency," Organ. Electron. 12, 648-653 (2011).

E. Rangel, "Directionality control through selective excitation of low-order guided modes in thin-film InGaN photonic crystal light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, (2011) Art. ID 081104.

2010 (2)

2009 (6)

J. P. Lu, W. K. Huang, F. C. Chen, "Self-positioning microlens arrays prepared using ink-jet printing," Opt. Eng. 48, (2009) paper 073606.

Y. Ee, "Light extraction efficiency enhancement of InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with polydimethylsiloxane concave microstructures," Opt. Express 17, 13747-13757 (2009).

S. Reineke, "White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency," Nature 459, 234-U116 (2009).

Y. K. Ee, "Optimization of light extraction efficiency of III-nitride LEDs with self-assembled colloidal-based microlenses," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 1218-1225 (2009).

S.-H. Eom, "White phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices with dual triple-doped emissive layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, (2009) Art. 153303.

S.-H. Eom, "Effect of electron injection and transport materials on efficiency of deep-blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices," Organ. Electron. 10, 686-691 (2009).

2008 (4)

F. So, J. Kido, P. Burrows, "Organic light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting," MRS Bull. 33, 663-669 (2008).

Y. Sun, S. R. Forrest, "Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids," Nature Photon. 2, 483-487 (2008).

P. Kumnorkaew, "Investigation of the deposition of microsphere monolayers for fabrication of microlens arrays," Langmuir 24, 12150-12157 (2008).

Y. Zheng, "Efficient deep-blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting device with improved electron and exciton confinement," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, (2008).

2007 (2)

L. Malaquin, "Controlled particle placement through convective and capillary assembly," Langmuir 23, 11513-11521 (2007).

Y. K. Ee, "Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes using SiO2/polystyrene microlens arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, (2007) Art. ID 221107.

2006 (2)

C. C. Cheng, C. A. Chang, J. A. Yeh, "Variable focus dielectric liquid droplet lens," Opt. Exp. 14, 4101-4106 (2006).

Y. Sun, S. R. Forrest, "Organic light emitting devices with enhanced outcoupling via microlenses fabricated by imprint lithography," J. Appl. Phys. 100, (2006) paper 073106.

2005 (2)

H. J. Peng, "Coupling efficiency enhancement in organic light-emitting devices using microlens array-theory and experiment," J. Display Technol. 1, . 278-282 (2005).

H. Yabu, M. Shimomura, "Simple fabrication of micro lens arrays," Langmuir 21, 1709-1711 (2005).

2004 (3)

S. R. Forrest, "The path to ubiquitous and low-cost organic electronic appliances on plastic," Nature 428, 911-918 (2004).

B. W. D'Andrade, S. R. Forrest, "White organic light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting," Adv. Mater. 16, 1585-1595 (2004).

S. I. Chang, J. B. Yoon, "Shape-controlled, high fill-factor microlens arrays fabricated by a 3D diffuser lithography and plastic replication method," Opt. Express 12, 6366-6371 (2004).

2003 (2)

T. Shiga, H. Fujikawa, Y. Taga, "Design of multiwavelength resonant cavities for white organic light-emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 19-22 (2003).

Y. J. Lee, "A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3779-3781 (2003).

2002 (1)

S. Moller, S. R. Forrest, "Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3324-3327 (2002).

2001 (4)

M. Ikai, "Highly efficient phosphorescence from organic light-emitting devices with an exciton-block layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 156-158 (2001).

C. Adachi, "Nearly 100% internal phosphorescence efficiency in an organic light-emitting device," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5048-5051 (2001).

Y. Lu, Y. D. Yin, Y. N. Xia, "A self-assembly approach to the fabrication of patterned, two-dimensional arrays of microlenses of organic polymers," Adv. Mater. 13, 34-+ (2001).

R. Danzebrink, M. A. Aegerter, "Deposition of optical microlens arrays by ink-jet processes," Thin Solid Films 392, 223-225 (2001).

2000 (1)

K. Kabza, J. E. Gestwicki, J. L. McGrath, "Contact angle goniometry as a tool for surface tension measurements of solids, using Zisman plot method—A physical chemistry experiment," J. Chem. Edu. 77, 63-65 (2000).

1998 (2)

S. Biehl, "Refractive microlens fabrication by ink-jet process," J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 13, 177-182 (1998).

H. Benisty, H. De Neve, C. Weisbuch, "Impact of planar microcavity effects on light extraction—Part I: Basic concepts and analytical trends," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1612-1631 (1998).

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

R. H. Jordan, "Efficiency enhancement of microcavity organic light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1997-1999 (1996).

1805 (1)

T. Young, "An essay on the cohesion of fluids," Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. (London) 95, 65-87 (1805).

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

W. H. Koo, "Light extraction of organic light emitting diodes by defective hexagonal-close-packed array," Adv. Funct. Mater. 22, 3454-3459 (2012).

Adv. Mater. (2)

Y. Lu, Y. D. Yin, Y. N. Xia, "A self-assembly approach to the fabrication of patterned, two-dimensional arrays of microlenses of organic polymers," Adv. Mater. 13, 34-+ (2001).

B. W. D'Andrade, S. R. Forrest, "White organic light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting," Adv. Mater. 16, 1585-1595 (2004).

Angew. Chem. (1)

C. E. Hoyle, C. N. Bowman, "Thiol-Ene click chemistry," Angew. Chem. Int. ed.49, 1540-1573 (2010).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

R. H. Jordan, "Efficiency enhancement of microcavity organic light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1997-1999 (1996).

Y. J. Lee, "A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3779-3781 (2003).

E. Rangel, "Directionality control through selective excitation of low-order guided modes in thin-film InGaN photonic crystal light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, (2011) Art. ID 081104.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

Y. Zheng, "Efficient deep-blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting device with improved electron and exciton confinement," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, (2008).

S.-H. Eom, "White phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices with dual triple-doped emissive layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, (2009) Art. 153303.

M. Ikai, "Highly efficient phosphorescence from organic light-emitting devices with an exciton-block layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 156-158 (2001).

Y. K. Ee, "Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes using SiO2/polystyrene microlens arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, (2007) Art. ID 221107.

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

X. Li, "Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios," IEEE Photon. J. 3, 89-499 (2011).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. Benisty, H. De Neve, C. Weisbuch, "Impact of planar microcavity effects on light extraction—Part I: Basic concepts and analytical trends," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1612-1631 (1998).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. K. Ee, "Optimization of light extraction efficiency of III-nitride LEDs with self-assembled colloidal-based microlenses," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 1218-1225 (2009).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Shiga, H. Fujikawa, Y. Taga, "Design of multiwavelength resonant cavities for white organic light-emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 19-22 (2003).

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

C. Adachi, "Nearly 100% internal phosphorescence efficiency in an organic light-emitting device," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5048-5051 (2001).

Y. Sun, S. R. Forrest, "Organic light emitting devices with enhanced outcoupling via microlenses fabricated by imprint lithography," J. Appl. Phys. 100, (2006) paper 073106.

S. Moller, S. R. Forrest, "Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3324-3327 (2002).

J. Chem. Edu. (1)

K. Kabza, J. E. Gestwicki, J. L. McGrath, "Contact angle goniometry as a tool for surface tension measurements of solids, using Zisman plot method—A physical chemistry experiment," J. Chem. Edu. 77, 63-65 (2000).

J. Display Technol. (1)

H. J. Peng, "Coupling efficiency enhancement in organic light-emitting devices using microlens array-theory and experiment," J. Display Technol. 1, . 278-282 (2005).

J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. (1)

S. Biehl, "Refractive microlens fabrication by ink-jet process," J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 13, 177-182 (1998).

Langmuir (3)

P. Kumnorkaew, "Investigation of the deposition of microsphere monolayers for fabrication of microlens arrays," Langmuir 24, 12150-12157 (2008).

L. Malaquin, "Controlled particle placement through convective and capillary assembly," Langmuir 23, 11513-11521 (2007).

H. Yabu, M. Shimomura, "Simple fabrication of micro lens arrays," Langmuir 21, 1709-1711 (2005).

MRS Bull. (1)

F. So, J. Kido, P. Burrows, "Organic light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting," MRS Bull. 33, 663-669 (2008).

Nature (2)

S. Reineke, "White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency," Nature 459, 234-U116 (2009).

S. R. Forrest, "The path to ubiquitous and low-cost organic electronic appliances on plastic," Nature 428, 911-918 (2004).

Nature Photon. (1)

Y. Sun, S. R. Forrest, "Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids," Nature Photon. 2, 483-487 (2008).

Opt. Eng. (1)

J. P. Lu, W. K. Huang, F. C. Chen, "Self-positioning microlens arrays prepared using ink-jet printing," Opt. Eng. 48, (2009) paper 073606.

Opt. Commun. (1)

P. Kumar, "Analysis of light out-coupling from microlens array," Opt. Commun. 284, 4279-4282 (2011).

Opt. Exp. (1)

C. C. Cheng, C. A. Chang, J. A. Yeh, "Variable focus dielectric liquid droplet lens," Opt. Exp. 14, 4101-4106 (2006).

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Organ. Electron. (3)

S.-H. Eom, E. Wrzesniewski, J. Xue, "Close-packed hemispherical microlens arrays for light extraction enhancement in organic light-emitting devices," Organ. Electron. 12, 472-476 (2011).

J. Zhou, "Roughening the white OLED substrate's surface through sandblasting to improve the external quantum efficiency," Organ. Electron. 12, 648-653 (2011).

S.-H. Eom, "Effect of electron injection and transport materials on efficiency of deep-blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices," Organ. Electron. 10, 686-691 (2009).

Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. (London) (1)

T. Young, "An essay on the cohesion of fluids," Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. (London) 95, 65-87 (1805).

Thin Solid Films (1)

R. Danzebrink, M. A. Aegerter, "Deposition of optical microlens arrays by ink-jet processes," Thin Solid Films 392, 223-225 (2001).

Other (1)

C. Altman, "Microlens array fabrication via microjet printing technologies," Proc. Workshop Opt. Fabrication Technol. (2007).

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