Abstract

Lighting consumes a significant amount of generated electrical power in developing countries, and it uses over 20% of the energy supplied in developed countries. Therefore, semiconductor-based light sources with high energy efficiencies are critical technologies for the reduction of global carbon footprint. As an emerging lighting technology, organic light-emitting diode (OLED) has received huge worldwide attention in recent years, partially driven by its success in the flat-panel display market and partially driven by its technology virtues such as an unique thin, flat, foldable form factor. In this review, we will provide an overview on the current status of OLEDs for lighting applications. Specifically, a detailed overview of the state-of-the-art white OLED design concepts including their working principles will be presented. A brief overview on the current status of out-coupling techniques suitable for white OLEDs will also be discussed.

© 2013 IEEE

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2013 (2)

Y.-L. Chang, "Highly efficient warm white organic light-emitting diodes by triplet exciton conversion," Adv. Funct. Mater. 23, 705-712 (2013).

Y.-L. Chang, "Highly efficient greenish-yellow phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes based on interzone exciton transfer," Adv. Funct. Mater. (2013) published online DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201202944.

2012 (2)

B. Zhang, "High-efficiency single emissive layer white organic light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed dendritic host and new orange-emitting iridium complex," Adv. Mater. 24, 1873-1877 (2012).

J. W. Huh, "Directed emissive high efficient white transparent organic light emitting diodes with double layered capping layers," Org. Electron. 13, 1386-1391 (2012).

2011 (15)

W. H. Koo, "Polarization conversion in surface-plasmon-coupled emission from organic light-emitting diodes using spontaneously formed buckles," Adv. Mater. 23, 1003-1007 (2011).

S.-H. Eom, E. Wrzesniewski, J. Xue, "Close-packed hemispherical microlens arrays for light extraction enhancement in organic light-emitting devices," Org. Electron. 12, 472-476 (2011).

J. Jou, "Efficient very-high color rendering index organic light-emitting diode," Org. Electron. 12, 865-868 (2011).

S. Chen, G. Tan, W. Wong, H. Kwok, "White organic light-emitting diodes with evenly separated red, green, and blue colors for efficiency/color-rendition trade-off optimization," Adv. Funct. Mater. 21, 3785-3793 (2011).

Y. Zhao, J. Chen, D. Ma, "Realization of high efficiency orange and white organic light-emitting diodes by introducing an ultra-thin undoped orange emitting layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 4, 163303-1-163303-3 (2011).

Z. B. Wang, "Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic," Nature Photon. 5, 753-757 (2011).

S. Su, C. Cai, J. Kido, "RGB phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes by using host materials with heterocyclic cores: Effect of nitrogen atom orientations," Chem. Mater. 23, 274-284 (2011).

R. Wang, "Highly efficient orange and white organic light-emitting diodes based on new orange iridium complexes," Adv. Mater. 23, 2823-2827 (2011).

A. Chaskar, H. Chen, K. Wong, "Bipolar host materials: A chemical approach for highly efficient electrophosphorescent devices," Adv. Mater. 23, 3876-3895 (2011).

D. Guo, T. E. Knight, J. K. McCusker, "Angular momentum conservation in dipolar energy transfer," Science 334, 1684-1687 (2011).

S. Gong, "Bipolar tetraarylsilanes as universal hosts for blue, green, orange, and white electrophosphorescence with high efficiency and low efficiency roll-off," Adv. Funct. Mater. 21, 1168-1178 (2011).

D. H. Kim, "Highly efficient red phosphorescent dopants in organic light-emitting devices," Adv. Mater. 23, 2721-2726 (2011).

L. Xiao, "Recent progresses on materials for electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting devices," Adv. Mater. 23, 926-952 (2011).

M. C. Gather, A. Köhnen, K. Meerholz, "White organic light-emitting diodes," Adv. Mater. 23, 233-248 (2011).

S. O. Jeon, S. E. Jang, H. S. Son, J. Y. Lee, "External quantum efficiency above 20% in deep blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes," Adv. Mater. 23, 1436-1441 (2011).

2010 (7)

H. Sasabe, "High-efficiency blue and white organic light-emitting devices incorporating a blue iridium carbene complex," Adv. Mater. 22, 5003-5007 (2010).

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, K. Leo, "Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 253305-1-253305-3 (2010).

J. P. Yang, "Light out-coupling enhancement of organic light-emitting devices with microlens array," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 223303-1-223303-3 (2010).

W. H. Koo, "Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles," Nature Photon. 4, 222-226 (2010).

B. Riedel, "Enhancing outcoupling efficiency of indium-tin-oxide-free organic light-emitting diodes via nanostructured high index layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 243302-1-243302-3 (2010).

K. Hong, "Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting diodes: Spontaneously formed nanofacet-structured MgO as a refractive index modulation layer," Adv. Mater. 22, 4890-4894 (2010).

H. Cho, C. Yun, S. Yoo, "Multilayer transparent electrode for organic light-emitting diodes: Tuning its optical characteristics," Opt. Exp. 18, 3404-3414 (2010).

2009 (6)

M. Thomschke, R. Nitsche, M. Furno, K. Leo, "Optimized efficiency and angular emission characteristics of white top-emitting organic electroluminescent diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 083303-1-083303-3 (2009).

I. L. Azevedo, M. G. Morgan, F. Morgan, "The transition to solid-state lighting," Proc. IEEE 97, 481-510 (2009).

Q. Wang, "Manipulating charges and excitons within a single-host system to accomplish efficiency/CRI/color-stability trade-off for high-performance OWLEDs," Adv. Mater. 21, 2397-2401 (2009).

S.-H. Eom, "White phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices with dual triple-doped emissive layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 53303-1-53303-3 (2009).

G. Schwartz, S. Reineke, T. C. Rosenow, K. Walzer, K. Leo, "Triplet harvesting in hybrid white organic light-emitting diodes," Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 1319-1333 (2009).

S. Reineke, "White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency," Nature 459, 234-238 (2009).

2008 (7)

R. Meerheim, "Influence of charge balance and exciton distribution on efficiency and lifetime of phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices," J. Appl. Phys. 104, 014510-1-014510-8 (2008).

S. Su, E. Gonmori, H. Sasabe, J. Kido, "Highly efficient organic blue-and white light-emitting devices having a carrier- and exciton-confining structure for reduced efficiency roll-off," Adv. Mater. 20, 4189-4194 (2008).

X. Qi, M. Slootsky, S. Forrest, "Stacked white organic light emitting devices consisting of separate red, green, and blue elements," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 193306-1-193306-3 (2008).

T. Lee, "High-efficiency stacked white organic light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 043301-1-043301-3 (2008).

S. M. Jeong, "Enhancement of normally directed light outcoupling from organic light-emitting diodes using nanoimprinted low-refractive-index layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 083307-1-083307-3 (2008).

S. M. Jeong, "Enhancement of light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional hexagonally nanoimprinted periodic structures using sequential surface relief grating," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 4566-4571 (2008).

Y. Sun, S. R. Forrest, "Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids," Nature Photon. 2, 483-487 (2008).

2007 (3)

J. M. Phillips, "Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting," Laser & Photon. Rev. 1, 307-333 (2007).

K. Ishihara, "Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 111114-1-111114-3 (2007).

G. Schwartz, M. Pfeiffer, S. Reineke, K. Walzer, K. Leo, "Harvesting triplet excitons from fluorescent blue emitters in white organic light-emitting diodes," Adv. Mater. 19, 3672-3676 (2007).

2006 (3)

Y. Sun, "Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices," Nature 440, 908-912 (2006).

H. Kanno, R. Holmes, Y. Sun, S. Kena-Cohen, S. Forrest, "White stacked electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting devices employing MoO3 as a charge-generation layer," Adv. Mater. 18, 339-342 (2006).

Y. Sun, S. R. Forrest, "Organic light emitting devices with enhanced outcoupling via microlenses fabricated by imprint lithography," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 073106-1-073106-6 (2006).

2004 (3)

J. M. Ziebarth, A. K. Saafir, S. Fan, M. D. McGehee, "Extracting light form polymer light-emitting diodes using stamped bragg gratings," Adv. Funct. Mater. 14, 451-456 (2004).

B. D'Andrade, R. Holmes, S. Forrest, "Efficient organic electrophosphorescent white light-emitting device with a triple doped emissive layer," Adv. Mater. 16, 624-628 (2004).

Y. Kawamura, H. Sasabe, C. Adachi, "Simple accurate system for measuring absolute photoluminescence quantum efficiency in organic solid-state thin films," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 7729-7730 (2004).

2003 (1)

G. D. Scholes, "Long-range resonance energy transfer in molecular systems," Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 54, 57-87 (2003).

2001 (1)

S. Lamansky, "Highly phosphorescent bis-cyclometalated iridium complexes: Synthesis photophysical characterization and use in organic light emitting diodes," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 4304-4312 (2001).

1998 (1)

M. A. Baldo, "Highly efficient phosphorescent emission from organic electroluminescent devices," Nature 395, 151-154 (1998).

1996 (1)

A. Dodabalapur, "Physics and applications of organic microcavity light emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 80, 6954-1-6954-12 (1996).

1995 (1)

J. Kido, M. Kimura, K. Nagai, "Multilayer white light-emitting organic electroluminescent device," Science 267, 1332-1334 (1995).

1987 (1)

C. W. Tang, S. A. VanSlyke, "Organic electroluminescent diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 913-915 (1987).

1959 (1)

T. Förster, "Transfer mechanisms of electronic excitation," Discus. Faraday Soc. 27, 7-17 (1959) 10th Spiers Memorial Lecture..

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

S. Gong, "Bipolar tetraarylsilanes as universal hosts for blue, green, orange, and white electrophosphorescence with high efficiency and low efficiency roll-off," Adv. Funct. Mater. 21, 1168-1178 (2011).

Adv. Mater. (5)

H. Kanno, R. Holmes, Y. Sun, S. Kena-Cohen, S. Forrest, "White stacked electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting devices employing MoO3 as a charge-generation layer," Adv. Mater. 18, 339-342 (2006).

G. Schwartz, M. Pfeiffer, S. Reineke, K. Walzer, K. Leo, "Harvesting triplet excitons from fluorescent blue emitters in white organic light-emitting diodes," Adv. Mater. 19, 3672-3676 (2007).

Q. Wang, "Manipulating charges and excitons within a single-host system to accomplish efficiency/CRI/color-stability trade-off for high-performance OWLEDs," Adv. Mater. 21, 2397-2401 (2009).

K. Hong, "Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting diodes: Spontaneously formed nanofacet-structured MgO as a refractive index modulation layer," Adv. Mater. 22, 4890-4894 (2010).

W. H. Koo, "Polarization conversion in surface-plasmon-coupled emission from organic light-emitting diodes using spontaneously formed buckles," Adv. Mater. 23, 1003-1007 (2011).

Adv. Funct. Mater. (2)

J. M. Ziebarth, A. K. Saafir, S. Fan, M. D. McGehee, "Extracting light form polymer light-emitting diodes using stamped bragg gratings," Adv. Funct. Mater. 14, 451-456 (2004).

Y.-L. Chang, "Highly efficient greenish-yellow phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes based on interzone exciton transfer," Adv. Funct. Mater. (2013) published online DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201202944.

Adv. Funct. Mater. (3)

G. Schwartz, S. Reineke, T. C. Rosenow, K. Walzer, K. Leo, "Triplet harvesting in hybrid white organic light-emitting diodes," Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 1319-1333 (2009).

Y.-L. Chang, "Highly efficient warm white organic light-emitting diodes by triplet exciton conversion," Adv. Funct. Mater. 23, 705-712 (2013).

S. Chen, G. Tan, W. Wong, H. Kwok, "White organic light-emitting diodes with evenly separated red, green, and blue colors for efficiency/color-rendition trade-off optimization," Adv. Funct. Mater. 21, 3785-3793 (2011).

Adv. Mater. (10)

M. C. Gather, A. Köhnen, K. Meerholz, "White organic light-emitting diodes," Adv. Mater. 23, 233-248 (2011).

S. O. Jeon, S. E. Jang, H. S. Son, J. Y. Lee, "External quantum efficiency above 20% in deep blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes," Adv. Mater. 23, 1436-1441 (2011).

H. Sasabe, "High-efficiency blue and white organic light-emitting devices incorporating a blue iridium carbene complex," Adv. Mater. 22, 5003-5007 (2010).

L. Xiao, "Recent progresses on materials for electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting devices," Adv. Mater. 23, 926-952 (2011).

B. D'Andrade, R. Holmes, S. Forrest, "Efficient organic electrophosphorescent white light-emitting device with a triple doped emissive layer," Adv. Mater. 16, 624-628 (2004).

D. H. Kim, "Highly efficient red phosphorescent dopants in organic light-emitting devices," Adv. Mater. 23, 2721-2726 (2011).

A. Chaskar, H. Chen, K. Wong, "Bipolar host materials: A chemical approach for highly efficient electrophosphorescent devices," Adv. Mater. 23, 3876-3895 (2011).

R. Wang, "Highly efficient orange and white organic light-emitting diodes based on new orange iridium complexes," Adv. Mater. 23, 2823-2827 (2011).

S. Su, E. Gonmori, H. Sasabe, J. Kido, "Highly efficient organic blue-and white light-emitting devices having a carrier- and exciton-confining structure for reduced efficiency roll-off," Adv. Mater. 20, 4189-4194 (2008).

B. Zhang, "High-efficiency single emissive layer white organic light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed dendritic host and new orange-emitting iridium complex," Adv. Mater. 24, 1873-1877 (2012).

Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. (1)

G. D. Scholes, "Long-range resonance energy transfer in molecular systems," Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 54, 57-87 (2003).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

T. Lee, "High-efficiency stacked white organic light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 043301-1-043301-3 (2008).

S. M. Jeong, "Enhancement of normally directed light outcoupling from organic light-emitting diodes using nanoimprinted low-refractive-index layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 083307-1-083307-3 (2008).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (9)

K. Ishihara, "Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 111114-1-111114-3 (2007).

M. Thomschke, R. Nitsche, M. Furno, K. Leo, "Optimized efficiency and angular emission characteristics of white top-emitting organic electroluminescent diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 083303-1-083303-3 (2009).

B. Riedel, "Enhancing outcoupling efficiency of indium-tin-oxide-free organic light-emitting diodes via nanostructured high index layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 243302-1-243302-3 (2010).

Y. Zhao, J. Chen, D. Ma, "Realization of high efficiency orange and white organic light-emitting diodes by introducing an ultra-thin undoped orange emitting layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 4, 163303-1-163303-3 (2011).

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, K. Leo, "Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 253305-1-253305-3 (2010).

J. P. Yang, "Light out-coupling enhancement of organic light-emitting devices with microlens array," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 223303-1-223303-3 (2010).

S.-H. Eom, "White phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices with dual triple-doped emissive layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 53303-1-53303-3 (2009).

X. Qi, M. Slootsky, S. Forrest, "Stacked white organic light emitting devices consisting of separate red, green, and blue elements," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 193306-1-193306-3 (2008).

C. W. Tang, S. A. VanSlyke, "Organic electroluminescent diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 913-915 (1987).

Chem. Mater. (1)

S. Su, C. Cai, J. Kido, "RGB phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes by using host materials with heterocyclic cores: Effect of nitrogen atom orientations," Chem. Mater. 23, 274-284 (2011).

Discus. Faraday Soc. (1)

T. Förster, "Transfer mechanisms of electronic excitation," Discus. Faraday Soc. 27, 7-17 (1959) 10th Spiers Memorial Lecture..

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

S. Lamansky, "Highly phosphorescent bis-cyclometalated iridium complexes: Synthesis photophysical characterization and use in organic light emitting diodes," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 4304-4312 (2001).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. Dodabalapur, "Physics and applications of organic microcavity light emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 80, 6954-1-6954-12 (1996).

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

Y. Sun, S. R. Forrest, "Organic light emitting devices with enhanced outcoupling via microlenses fabricated by imprint lithography," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 073106-1-073106-6 (2006).

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