Abstract

For illumination-grade applications, the spatial homogeneity of the white light emitted is an important issue which is directly associated with the geometry and the composition of the color conversion layer in phosphor-converted LEDs. In order to create a phosphor coating of high quality surrounding the LED chip surface, an improved slurry method with self-exposure technique was applied and investigated. The conformal phosphor layer of self-adaptability to angular intensity distribution of LED emitting light was realized. Plasma treatment was introduced to improve the aging performance of white LEDs with this advanced slurry method. The effect of the self-adaptive coating on the improvement of angular color uniformity of white LEDs was measured and discussed.

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  1. T. Taguchi, "The light for the 21st century national project based on white light emitting diode (LED) lighting technology," Tran. Inst. Elec. Inf. Commun. Eng. C J84-C, 1040 (2001).
  2. R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, "Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27, 1-14 (2012) 024001.
  3. H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, N. Tansu, "Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells," Opt. Express 19, A991-A1007 (2011) (Suppl. 4).
  4. J. Zhang, N. Tansu, "Improvement in spontaneous emission rates for InGaN quantum wells on ternary InGaN substrate for light-emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 110, 113110 (2011).
  5. H. Zhao, J. Zhang, G. Liu, N. Tansu, "Surface plasmon dispersion engineering via double-metallic Au/Ag layers for III-nitride based light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151115 (2011).
  6. Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, "Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 1066-1072 (2009).
  7. Y. K. Ee, X. Li, J. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, "Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire source," J. Cryst. Growth 312, 1311-1315 (2010).
  8. Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, C. Wetzel, "Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151102-1-151102-3 (2011).
  9. X. H. Li, R. Song, Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, "Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios," IEEE Photon. J. 3, 489-499 (2011).
  10. E. Rangel, E. Matioli, Y. S. Choi, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, E. L. Hu, "Directionality control through selective excitation of low-order guided modes in thin-film InGaN photonic crystal light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 081104 (2011).
  11. Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tang, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, "Light extraction efficiency enhancement of InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with polydimethylsiloxane concave microstructures ," Opt. Expr. 17, 13747-13757 (2009).
  12. S. E. Brinkley, N. Pfaff, K. A. Denault, Z. Zhang, H. T. (Bert) Hintzen, R. Seshadri, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, "Robust thermal performance of Sr2Si5N8:Eu2+: An efficient red emitting phosphor for light emitting diode based white lighting," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 241106 (2011).
  13. Y. Zhang, L. Wu, M. Ji, B. Wang, Y. Kong, J. Xu, "Structure and photoluminescence properties of KSr4(BO3)3:Eu3+ red-emitting phosphor," Opt. Mater. Expr. 2, 92-102 (2012).
  14. H. Li, H. K. Yang, B. K. Moon, B. C. Choi, J. H. Jeong, K. Jang, H. S. Lee, S. S. Yi, "Tunable photoluminescence properties of Eu(II)- and Sm(III)-coactivated Ca9Y(PO4)7 and energy transfer between Eu(II) and Sm(III)," Opt. Materials Expr. 2, 443-451 (2012).
  15. S. K. K. Shaat, H. C. Swart, O. M. Ntwaeaborwa, "Synthesis and characterization of white light emitting CaxSr1-xAl2O4: Tb3+, Eu3+ phosphor for solid state lighting," Opt. Materials Expr. 2, 962-968 (2012).
  16. J. Zhang, H. Zhao, N. Tansu, "Effect of crystal-field split-off hole and heavy-hole bands crossover on gain characteristics of high Al-content AlGaN quantum well lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 111105 (2010).
  17. J. Zhang, H. Zhao, N. Tansu, "Large optical gain AlGaN-delta-GaN quantum wells laser active regions in mid- and deep-ultraviolet spectral regimes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 171111 (2011).
  18. Y. Taniyasu, M. Kasu, "Polarization property of deep-ultraviolet light emission from C-plane AlN/GaN short-period superlattices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 251112 (2011).
  19. G. Liu, J. Zhang, X. Li, G. S. Huang, T. Paskova, K. R. Evans, H. Zhao, N. Tansu, "Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy and characterizations of nearly-lattice-matched AlInN alloys on GaN/sapphire templates and free-standing GaN substrates," J. Cryst. Growth 340, 66-73 (2012).
  20. C. Sommer, F. P. Wenzl, F. Reil, J. R. Krenn, P. Pachler, S. Tasch, P. Hartmann, "A comprehensive study on the parameters effecting color conversion in phosphor converted white light-emitting diodes," Proc. SPIE (2010) pp. 77840D-1-77840D-7.
  21. M. R. Krames, J. Bhat, D. Collins, N. F. Gardner, W. Gotz, C. H. Lowery, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, D. A. Steigerwald, S. A. Stockman, J. J. Wierer, "High-power III-nitride emitters for solid-state lighting," Phys. Stat. Sol. (A) 192, 237-245 (2002).
  22. K. Chen, R. Zhang, S. W. R. Lee, "Integration of phosphor printing and encapsulant dispensing processes for wafer level LED array packaging," Proc. 2010 11th Int. Conf. Electron. Packag. Technol. High Density Packag. (ICEPT-HDP 2010) (2010) pp. 1386-1392.
  23. Y. Zhu, N. Narendran, "Optimizing the performance of remote phosphor LEDs," J. Light Vis. Env. 32, 115-119 (2008).
  24. H. C. Kuo, C. W. Hung, H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. H. Wang, C. W. Sher, C. C. Yeh, C. C. Lin, C. H. Chen, Y. J. Cheng, "Patterned structure of remote phosphor for phosphor-converted white LEDs," Opt. Expr. 19, A930-A936 (2011) (S4 Suppl. 4).
  25. B. Hou, H. Rao, J. Li, "Methods of increasing luminous efficiency of phosphor-converted LED realized by conformal phosphor coating," J. Display Technol. 5, 57-60 (2009).
  26. B. Hou, H. Rao, J. Li, "Phosphor coating technique with slurry method in application of white LED," Proc. SPIE V6841, 684106-1-684106-8 (2007).
  27. K. Y. Sasaki, J. B. Talbot, "Deposition of powder phosphors for information displays," Adv. Mater. 11, 91-105 (1999).
  28. J. K. Kim, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, Y. Park, "Strongly enhanced phosphor efficiency in GaInN white light-emitting diodes using remote phosphor configuration and diffuse reflector cup," Jap. J. Appl. Phy. 44, L649-651 (2005).

2012 (5)

R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, "Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27, 1-14 (2012) 024001.

Y. Zhang, L. Wu, M. Ji, B. Wang, Y. Kong, J. Xu, "Structure and photoluminescence properties of KSr4(BO3)3:Eu3+ red-emitting phosphor," Opt. Mater. Expr. 2, 92-102 (2012).

H. Li, H. K. Yang, B. K. Moon, B. C. Choi, J. H. Jeong, K. Jang, H. S. Lee, S. S. Yi, "Tunable photoluminescence properties of Eu(II)- and Sm(III)-coactivated Ca9Y(PO4)7 and energy transfer between Eu(II) and Sm(III)," Opt. Materials Expr. 2, 443-451 (2012).

S. K. K. Shaat, H. C. Swart, O. M. Ntwaeaborwa, "Synthesis and characterization of white light emitting CaxSr1-xAl2O4: Tb3+, Eu3+ phosphor for solid state lighting," Opt. Materials Expr. 2, 962-968 (2012).

G. Liu, J. Zhang, X. Li, G. S. Huang, T. Paskova, K. R. Evans, H. Zhao, N. Tansu, "Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy and characterizations of nearly-lattice-matched AlInN alloys on GaN/sapphire templates and free-standing GaN substrates," J. Cryst. Growth 340, 66-73 (2012).

2011 (10)

S. E. Brinkley, N. Pfaff, K. A. Denault, Z. Zhang, H. T. (Bert) Hintzen, R. Seshadri, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, "Robust thermal performance of Sr2Si5N8:Eu2+: An efficient red emitting phosphor for light emitting diode based white lighting," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 241106 (2011).

H. C. Kuo, C. W. Hung, H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. H. Wang, C. W. Sher, C. C. Yeh, C. C. Lin, C. H. Chen, Y. J. Cheng, "Patterned structure of remote phosphor for phosphor-converted white LEDs," Opt. Expr. 19, A930-A936 (2011) (S4 Suppl. 4).

J. Zhang, H. Zhao, N. Tansu, "Large optical gain AlGaN-delta-GaN quantum wells laser active regions in mid- and deep-ultraviolet spectral regimes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 171111 (2011).

Y. Taniyasu, M. Kasu, "Polarization property of deep-ultraviolet light emission from C-plane AlN/GaN short-period superlattices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 251112 (2011).

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, N. Tansu, "Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells," Opt. Express 19, A991-A1007 (2011) (Suppl. 4).

J. Zhang, N. Tansu, "Improvement in spontaneous emission rates for InGaN quantum wells on ternary InGaN substrate for light-emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 110, 113110 (2011).

H. Zhao, J. Zhang, G. Liu, N. Tansu, "Surface plasmon dispersion engineering via double-metallic Au/Ag layers for III-nitride based light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151115 (2011).

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, C. Wetzel, "Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151102-1-151102-3 (2011).

X. H. Li, R. Song, Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, "Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios," IEEE Photon. J. 3, 489-499 (2011).

E. Rangel, E. Matioli, Y. S. Choi, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, E. L. Hu, "Directionality control through selective excitation of low-order guided modes in thin-film InGaN photonic crystal light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 081104 (2011).

2010 (2)

Y. K. Ee, X. Li, J. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, "Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire source," J. Cryst. Growth 312, 1311-1315 (2010).

J. Zhang, H. Zhao, N. Tansu, "Effect of crystal-field split-off hole and heavy-hole bands crossover on gain characteristics of high Al-content AlGaN quantum well lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 111105 (2010).

2009 (3)

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tang, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, "Light extraction efficiency enhancement of InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with polydimethylsiloxane concave microstructures ," Opt. Expr. 17, 13747-13757 (2009).

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, "Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 1066-1072 (2009).

B. Hou, H. Rao, J. Li, "Methods of increasing luminous efficiency of phosphor-converted LED realized by conformal phosphor coating," J. Display Technol. 5, 57-60 (2009).

2008 (1)

Y. Zhu, N. Narendran, "Optimizing the performance of remote phosphor LEDs," J. Light Vis. Env. 32, 115-119 (2008).

2007 (1)

B. Hou, H. Rao, J. Li, "Phosphor coating technique with slurry method in application of white LED," Proc. SPIE V6841, 684106-1-684106-8 (2007).

2005 (1)

J. K. Kim, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, Y. Park, "Strongly enhanced phosphor efficiency in GaInN white light-emitting diodes using remote phosphor configuration and diffuse reflector cup," Jap. J. Appl. Phy. 44, L649-651 (2005).

2002 (1)

M. R. Krames, J. Bhat, D. Collins, N. F. Gardner, W. Gotz, C. H. Lowery, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, D. A. Steigerwald, S. A. Stockman, J. J. Wierer, "High-power III-nitride emitters for solid-state lighting," Phys. Stat. Sol. (A) 192, 237-245 (2002).

2001 (1)

T. Taguchi, "The light for the 21st century national project based on white light emitting diode (LED) lighting technology," Tran. Inst. Elec. Inf. Commun. Eng. C J84-C, 1040 (2001).

1999 (1)

K. Y. Sasaki, J. B. Talbot, "Deposition of powder phosphors for information displays," Adv. Mater. 11, 91-105 (1999).

Adv. Mater. (1)

K. Y. Sasaki, J. B. Talbot, "Deposition of powder phosphors for information displays," Adv. Mater. 11, 91-105 (1999).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

E. Rangel, E. Matioli, Y. S. Choi, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, E. L. Hu, "Directionality control through selective excitation of low-order guided modes in thin-film InGaN photonic crystal light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 081104 (2011).

H. Zhao, J. Zhang, G. Liu, N. Tansu, "Surface plasmon dispersion engineering via double-metallic Au/Ag layers for III-nitride based light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151115 (2011).

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, C. Wetzel, "Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151102-1-151102-3 (2011).

S. E. Brinkley, N. Pfaff, K. A. Denault, Z. Zhang, H. T. (Bert) Hintzen, R. Seshadri, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, "Robust thermal performance of Sr2Si5N8:Eu2+: An efficient red emitting phosphor for light emitting diode based white lighting," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 241106 (2011).

J. Zhang, H. Zhao, N. Tansu, "Effect of crystal-field split-off hole and heavy-hole bands crossover on gain characteristics of high Al-content AlGaN quantum well lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 111105 (2010).

J. Zhang, H. Zhao, N. Tansu, "Large optical gain AlGaN-delta-GaN quantum wells laser active regions in mid- and deep-ultraviolet spectral regimes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 171111 (2011).

Y. Taniyasu, M. Kasu, "Polarization property of deep-ultraviolet light emission from C-plane AlN/GaN short-period superlattices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 251112 (2011).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, "Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 1066-1072 (2009).

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

X. H. Li, R. Song, Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, "Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios," IEEE Photon. J. 3, 489-499 (2011).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. Zhang, N. Tansu, "Improvement in spontaneous emission rates for InGaN quantum wells on ternary InGaN substrate for light-emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 110, 113110 (2011).

J. Cryst. Growth (2)

Y. K. Ee, X. Li, J. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, "Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire source," J. Cryst. Growth 312, 1311-1315 (2010).

G. Liu, J. Zhang, X. Li, G. S. Huang, T. Paskova, K. R. Evans, H. Zhao, N. Tansu, "Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy and characterizations of nearly-lattice-matched AlInN alloys on GaN/sapphire templates and free-standing GaN substrates," J. Cryst. Growth 340, 66-73 (2012).

J. Display Technol. (1)

J. Light Vis. Env. (1)

Y. Zhu, N. Narendran, "Optimizing the performance of remote phosphor LEDs," J. Light Vis. Env. 32, 115-119 (2008).

Jap. J. Appl. Phy. (1)

J. K. Kim, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, Y. Park, "Strongly enhanced phosphor efficiency in GaInN white light-emitting diodes using remote phosphor configuration and diffuse reflector cup," Jap. J. Appl. Phy. 44, L649-651 (2005).

Opt. Expr. (2)

H. C. Kuo, C. W. Hung, H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. H. Wang, C. W. Sher, C. C. Yeh, C. C. Lin, C. H. Chen, Y. J. Cheng, "Patterned structure of remote phosphor for phosphor-converted white LEDs," Opt. Expr. 19, A930-A936 (2011) (S4 Suppl. 4).

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tang, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, "Light extraction efficiency enhancement of InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with polydimethylsiloxane concave microstructures ," Opt. Expr. 17, 13747-13757 (2009).

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Mater. Expr. (1)

Y. Zhang, L. Wu, M. Ji, B. Wang, Y. Kong, J. Xu, "Structure and photoluminescence properties of KSr4(BO3)3:Eu3+ red-emitting phosphor," Opt. Mater. Expr. 2, 92-102 (2012).

Opt. Materials Expr. (2)

H. Li, H. K. Yang, B. K. Moon, B. C. Choi, J. H. Jeong, K. Jang, H. S. Lee, S. S. Yi, "Tunable photoluminescence properties of Eu(II)- and Sm(III)-coactivated Ca9Y(PO4)7 and energy transfer between Eu(II) and Sm(III)," Opt. Materials Expr. 2, 443-451 (2012).

S. K. K. Shaat, H. C. Swart, O. M. Ntwaeaborwa, "Synthesis and characterization of white light emitting CaxSr1-xAl2O4: Tb3+, Eu3+ phosphor for solid state lighting," Opt. Materials Expr. 2, 962-968 (2012).

Phys. Stat. Sol. (A) (1)

M. R. Krames, J. Bhat, D. Collins, N. F. Gardner, W. Gotz, C. H. Lowery, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, D. A. Steigerwald, S. A. Stockman, J. J. Wierer, "High-power III-nitride emitters for solid-state lighting," Phys. Stat. Sol. (A) 192, 237-245 (2002).

Proc. SPIE (1)

B. Hou, H. Rao, J. Li, "Phosphor coating technique with slurry method in application of white LED," Proc. SPIE V6841, 684106-1-684106-8 (2007).

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, "Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27, 1-14 (2012) 024001.

Tran. Inst. Elec. Inf. Commun. Eng. C (1)

T. Taguchi, "The light for the 21st century national project based on white light emitting diode (LED) lighting technology," Tran. Inst. Elec. Inf. Commun. Eng. C J84-C, 1040 (2001).

Other (2)

C. Sommer, F. P. Wenzl, F. Reil, J. R. Krenn, P. Pachler, S. Tasch, P. Hartmann, "A comprehensive study on the parameters effecting color conversion in phosphor converted white light-emitting diodes," Proc. SPIE (2010) pp. 77840D-1-77840D-7.

K. Chen, R. Zhang, S. W. R. Lee, "Integration of phosphor printing and encapsulant dispensing processes for wafer level LED array packaging," Proc. 2010 11th Int. Conf. Electron. Packag. Technol. High Density Packag. (ICEPT-HDP 2010) (2010) pp. 1386-1392.

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