Abstract

In this study, we modeled the transmitted and reflected light of a phosphor layer in light-emitting diode packages by coupling the revised Kubelka-Munk and Mie-Lorenz theories. Through analyzing the transmitted and reflected light separately, it is found that the transmitted and reflected blue light vary monotonically with the changes of phosphor particle size, concentration and thickness. While the trends of the transmitted and reflected yellow light are non-monotonic, which are influenced by the interactions among the phosphor particle size, concentration and thickness. The light extraction efficiency through a phosphor layer was discussed. The reasons behind these phenomena were also presented.

© 2013 IEEE

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  5. R. Hu, X. Luo, H. Zheng, Q. Zong, Z. Gan, B. Wu, S. Liu, "Design of a novel freeform lens for LED uniform illumination and conformal phosphor coating," Opt. Express 20, 13727-13737 (2012).
  6. C. Sommer, F. Reil, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, H. Hoschopf, F. P. Wenzl, "The impact of light scattering on the radiant flux of phosphor-converted high power white light-emitting diodes," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 2285-2291 (2011).
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  25. J. Zhang, H. P. Zhao, N. Tansu, "Effect of crystal-field split-off hole and heavy-hole bands crossover on gain characteristics of high Al-content AlGaN quantum well lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 111105 (2010).
  26. J. Zhang, H. P. Zhao, N. Tansu, "Large optical gain AlGaN-delta-GaN quantum wells laser active regions in mid- and deep-ultraviolet spectral regimes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 171111 (2011).
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  33. N. T. Tran, J. P. You, F. G. Shi, "Effect of phosphor particle size on luminous efficacy of phosphor-converted white LED," J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 5145-5150 (2009).
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2012 (9)

R. Hu, X. B. Luo, H. Feng, S. Liu, "Effect of phosphor settling on the optical performance of phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes," J. Luminesc. 132, 1252-1256 (2012).

R. Hu, X. Luo, H. Zheng, Q. Zong, Z. Gan, B. Wu, S. Liu, "Design of a novel freeform lens for LED uniform illumination and conformal phosphor coating," Opt. Express 20, 13727-13737 (2012).

H. K. Park, J. H. Oh, Y. R. Do, "Toward scatter-free phosphors in white phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes," Opt. Express 20, 10218-10228 (2012).

Y. Zhang, L. Wu, M. Y. Ji, B. Wang, Y. F. Kong, J. J. Xu, "Structure and photoluminescence properties of KSr4(BO3)3:Eu3+ red-emitting phosphor," Opt. Mater. Expr. 2, 92-102 (2012).

H. Y. Li, H. K. Yang, B. K. Moon, B. C. Choi, J. H. Jeong, K. W. Jang, H. S. Lee, S. S. Yi, "Tunable photoluminescence properties of Eu(II)- and Sm(III)- coactivated Ca9 Y(PO4)7 and energy transfer between Eu(II) and Sm(III)," Opt. Mater. Express 2, 443-451 (2012).

R. M. Farrel, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, "Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27, 024001 (2012).

I. L. Koslow, M. T. Hardy, P. S. Hsu, P. Y. Dang, F. Wu, A. Romanov, Y. R. Wu, E. C. Young, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, "Performance and polarization effects in (11–22) long wavelength light emitting diodes grown on stress relaxed InGaN buffer layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 121106 (2012).

S. K. K. Shaat, H. C. Swart, O. M. Ntwaeaborwa, "Synthesis and characterization of white light emitting CaxSr1-xAl2O4:Tb3+,Eu3+ phosphor for solid state lighting," Opt. Mater. Express 2, 962-968 (2012).

Z. Y. Liu, C. Li, B. H. Yu, Y. H. Wang, H. B. Niu, "Effects of YAG:Ce phosphor particle size on luminous flux and angular color uniformity of phosphor-converted white LEDs," J. Display Technol. 8, 329-335 (2012).

2011 (13)

R. Hu, X. B. Luo, S. Liu, "Study on the optical properties of conformal coating light-emitting diode by Monte Carlo simulation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1673-1675 (2011).

J. Zhang, H. P. Zhao, N. Tansu, "Large optical gain AlGaN-delta-GaN quantum wells laser active regions in mid- and deep-ultraviolet spectral regimes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 171111 (2011).

Y. Taniyasu, M. Kasu, "Polarization property of deep-ultraviolet light emission from C-plane AlN/GaN short-period superlattices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 251112 (2011).

Y. F. Li, S. You, M. W. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. T. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, C. Wetzel, "Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151102 (2011).

E. Rangel, E. Matioli, Y. S. Choi, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, E. L. Hu, "Directionality control through selective excitation of low-order guided modes in thin-film InGaN photonic crystal light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 081104 (2011).

X. H. Li, R. B. Song, Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, "Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios," IEEE Photon. J. 3, 489-499 (2011).

M. G. Brik, N. M. Avram, "Electron-vibrational interaction in the 5d states of Ce3+ ions in halosulphate phosphors," Mater. Chem. Phys. 128, 326-330 (2011).

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, N. Tansu, "Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells," Opt. Express 19, A991-A1007 (2011).

J. Zhang, N. Tansu, "Improvement in spontaneous emission rates for InGaN quantum wells on ternary InGaN substrates for light-emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 110, 113110 (2011).

H. C. Kuo, C. W. Hung, H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. H. Wang, C. W. Sher, C. C. Yeh, C. C. Lin, C. H. Chen, Y. J. Cheng, "Patterned structure of remote phosphor for phosphor-converted white LEDs," Opt. Expres 19, A930-A936 (2011).

S. E. Brinkley, N. Pfaff, K. A. Denault, Z. J. Zhang, H. T. Hintzen, R. Seshadri, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 241106 (2011).

C. Sommer, F. Reil, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, H. Hoschopf, F. P. Wenzl, "The impact of light scattering on the radiant flux of phosphor-converted high power white light-emitting diodes," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 2285-2291 (2011).

H. T. Huang, Y. P. Huang, C. C. Tsai, "Planar lighting system using array of blue LEDs to excite yellow remote phosphor film," J. Display Technol. 7, 44-51 (2011).

2010 (3)

D. Bera, S. Maslov, L. Qian, J. S. Yoo, P. H. Holloway, "Optimization of the yellow phosphor concentration and layer thickness for down-conversion of blue to white light," J. Disp;ay Technol. 6, 645-651 (2010).

Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. E. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, "Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire," J. Cryst. Growth 312, 1311-1315 (2010).

J. Zhang, H. P. Zhao, N. Tansu, "Effect of crystal-field split-off hole and heavy-hole bands crossover on gain characteristics of high Al-content AlGaN quantum well lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 111105 (2010).

2009 (3)

N. T. Tran, J. P. You, F. G. Shi, "Effect of phosphor particle size on luminous efficacy of phosphor-converted white LED," J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 5145-5150 (2009).

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, "Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 1066-1072 (2009).

H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, X. H. Li, R. A. Arif, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. T. Penn, V. Dierolf, N. Tansu, "Design and characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes in the green spectral regimes," IET Optoelectron. 3, 283-295 (2009).

2007 (2)

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, M. M. Regina, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, M. G. Craford, "Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting," J. Display Technol. 3, 160-175 (2007).

J. Andriessen, E. van der Kolk, P. Dorenbos, "Lattice relaxation study of the 4f-5d excitation of Ce3+-doped LaCl3, LaBr3, and NaLaF4: Stokes shift by pseudo Jahn–Teller effect," Phys. Rev. B 76, 075124 (2007).

2006 (2)

P. F. Liaparinos, I. S. Kandarakis, D. A. Cavouras, H. B. Delis, G. S. Panaylotakis, "Modeling granular phosphor screens by Monte Carlo methods," Med. Phys. 33, 4502-4514 (2006).

D. Y. Kang, E. B. Wu, D. M. Wang, "Modeling white light-emitting diodes with phosphor layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 231102 (2006).

2004 (1)

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

D. Y. Kang, E. B. Wu, D. M. Wang, "Modeling white light-emitting diodes with phosphor layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 231102 (2006).

I. L. Koslow, M. T. Hardy, P. S. Hsu, P. Y. Dang, F. Wu, A. Romanov, Y. R. Wu, E. C. Young, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, "Performance and polarization effects in (11–22) long wavelength light emitting diodes grown on stress relaxed InGaN buffer layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 121106 (2012).

Y. F. Li, S. You, M. W. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. T. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, C. Wetzel, "Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151102 (2011).

E. Rangel, E. Matioli, Y. S. Choi, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, E. L. Hu, "Directionality control through selective excitation of low-order guided modes in thin-film InGaN photonic crystal light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 081104 (2011).

J. Zhang, H. P. Zhao, N. Tansu, "Effect of crystal-field split-off hole and heavy-hole bands crossover on gain characteristics of high Al-content AlGaN quantum well lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 111105 (2010).

J. Zhang, H. P. Zhao, N. Tansu, "Large optical gain AlGaN-delta-GaN quantum wells laser active regions in mid- and deep-ultraviolet spectral regimes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 171111 (2011).

Y. Taniyasu, M. Kasu, "Polarization property of deep-ultraviolet light emission from C-plane AlN/GaN short-period superlattices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 251112 (2011).

S. E. Brinkley, N. Pfaff, K. A. Denault, Z. J. Zhang, H. T. Hintzen, R. Seshadri, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 241106 (2011).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, "Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 1066-1072 (2009).

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

X. H. Li, R. B. Song, Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, "Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios," IEEE Photon. J. 3, 489-499 (2011).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

R. Hu, X. B. Luo, S. Liu, "Study on the optical properties of conformal coating light-emitting diode by Monte Carlo simulation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1673-1675 (2011).

IET Optoelectron. (1)

H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, X. H. Li, R. A. Arif, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. T. Penn, V. Dierolf, N. Tansu, "Design and characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes in the green spectral regimes," IET Optoelectron. 3, 283-295 (2009).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. Zhang, N. Tansu, "Improvement in spontaneous emission rates for InGaN quantum wells on ternary InGaN substrates for light-emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 110, 113110 (2011).

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. E. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, "Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire," J. Cryst. Growth 312, 1311-1315 (2010).

J. Disp;ay Technol. (1)

D. Bera, S. Maslov, L. Qian, J. S. Yoo, P. H. Holloway, "Optimization of the yellow phosphor concentration and layer thickness for down-conversion of blue to white light," J. Disp;ay Technol. 6, 645-651 (2010).

J. Display Technol. (3)

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

C. Sommer, F. Reil, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, H. Hoschopf, F. P. Wenzl, "The impact of light scattering on the radiant flux of phosphor-converted high power white light-emitting diodes," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 2285-2291 (2011).

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

N. T. Tran, J. P. You, F. G. Shi, "Effect of phosphor particle size on luminous efficacy of phosphor-converted white LED," J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 5145-5150 (2009).

R. Hu, X. Luo, "A model for calculating the bidirectional scattering properties of phosphor layer in white light-emitting diodes," J. Lightwave Technol. (doi: 10.1109/JLT.2012.2218631).

J. Luminesc. (1)

R. Hu, X. B. Luo, H. Feng, S. Liu, "Effect of phosphor settling on the optical performance of phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes," J. Luminesc. 132, 1252-1256 (2012).

Mater. Chem. Phys. (1)

M. G. Brik, N. M. Avram, "Electron-vibrational interaction in the 5d states of Ce3+ ions in halosulphate phosphors," Mater. Chem. Phys. 128, 326-330 (2011).

Med. Phys. (1)

P. F. Liaparinos, I. S. Kandarakis, D. A. Cavouras, H. B. Delis, G. S. Panaylotakis, "Modeling granular phosphor screens by Monte Carlo methods," Med. Phys. 33, 4502-4514 (2006).

Opt. Expres (1)

H. C. Kuo, C. W. Hung, H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. H. Wang, C. W. Sher, C. C. Yeh, C. C. Lin, C. H. Chen, Y. J. Cheng, "Patterned structure of remote phosphor for phosphor-converted white LEDs," Opt. Expres 19, A930-A936 (2011).

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Mater. Expr. (1)

Y. Zhang, L. Wu, M. Y. Ji, B. Wang, Y. F. Kong, J. J. Xu, "Structure and photoluminescence properties of KSr4(BO3)3:Eu3+ red-emitting phosphor," Opt. Mater. Expr. 2, 92-102 (2012).

Opt. Mater. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

J. Andriessen, E. van der Kolk, P. Dorenbos, "Lattice relaxation study of the 4f-5d excitation of Ce3+-doped LaCl3, LaBr3, and NaLaF4: Stokes shift by pseudo Jahn–Teller effect," Phys. Rev. B 76, 075124 (2007).

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

R. M. Farrel, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, "Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27, 024001 (2012).

Other (2)

M. Zachau, D. Becker, D. Berben, T. Fiedler, F. Jermann, F. Zwaschka, "Phosphors for solid state lighting," Proc. SPIE (2008) pp. 691010.

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983) pp. 90-120.

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