Abstract

We proposed an optical model for phosphor-converted white LEDs (pc-WLEDs) that utilized Ce:YAG doped glasses as novel phosphor-converted materials. In this model, precise simulation of the chromatic performance of the glass-based pc-WLEDs was conducted. Between optical simulation and experimental measurement, the color difference Δ<i>E</i> was 1.2%. Meanwhile, the difference of correlated color temperature limited from 1 wt% to 5 wt% phosphor concentration between the simulation and measurement was 184 K. Such a model for glass phosphors will be helpful to design high-power glass-based pc-WLEDs.

© 2013 IEEE

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  1. Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, "Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 1066-1072 (2009).
  2. Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, "Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III–nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire," J. Cryst. Growth 312, 1311-1315 (2010).
  3. Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, C. Wetzel, "Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151102 (2011).
  4. R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, "Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27, 024001 (2012).
  5. H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, N. Tansu, "Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells," Opt. Express 19, A991-A1007 (2011).
  6. J. Zhang, N. Tansu, "Improvement in spontaneous emission rates for InGaN quantum wells on ternary InGaN substrate for light-emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 110, (2011) Art. 113110.
  7. H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, X.-H. Li, R. A. Arif, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. T. Penn, V. Dierolf, N. Tansu, "Design and characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes in the green spectral regime," Optoelectron. 3, 283-295 (2009).
  8. X. H. Li, R. Song, Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, "Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios," IEEE Photon. J. 3, 489-499 (2011).
  9. E. Rangel, E. Matioli, Y. S. Choi, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, E. L. Hu, "Directionality control through selective excitation of low-order guided modes in thin-film InGaN photonic crystal light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 081104 (2011).
  10. Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, "Light extraction efficiency enhancement of InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with polydimethylsiloxane concave micro- structures," Opt. Express 17, 13747-13757 (2009).
  11. J. Zhang, H. Zhao, N. Tansu, "Effect of crystal-field split-off hole and heavy-hole bands crossover on gain characteristics of high Al-content AlGaN quantum well lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, (2010) Art. 111105.
  12. J. Zhang, H. Zhao, N. Tansu, "Large optical gain AlGaN-delta-GaN quantum wells laser active regions in mid- and deep-ultraviolet spectral regimes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, (2011) Art. 171111.
  13. Y. Taniyasu, M. Kasu, "Polarization property of deep-ultraviolet light emission from C-plane AlN/GaN short-period superlattices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 251112 (2011).
  14. S. K. K. Shaat, H. C. Swart, O. M. Ntwaeaborwa, "Synthesis and characterization of white light emitting CaxSr1-xAl2O4:Tb3+, Eu3+ phosphor for solid state lighting," Opt. Mater. Express 2, 962-968 (2012).
  15. H. C. Kuo, C. W. Hung, H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. H. Wang, C. W. Sher, C. C. Yeh, C. C. Lin, C. H. Chen, Y. J. Cheng, "Patterned structure of remote phosphor for phosphor-converted white LEDs," Opt. Express 19, (2011).
  16. S. E. Brinkley, N. Pfaff, K. A. Denault, Z. Zhang, H. T. Hintzen, R. Seshadri, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, "Robust thermal performance of Sr2Si5N8:Eu2+: An efficient red emitting phosphor for light emitting diode based white lighting," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 241106 (2011).
  17. Y. Zhang, L. Wu, M. Ji, B. Wang, Y. Kong, J. Xu, "Structure and photoluminescence properties of KSr4(BO3)3:Eu3+ red-emitting phosphor," Opt. Express 2, (2012).
  18. H. Li, H. K. Yang, B. K. Moon, B. C. Choi, J. H. Jeong, K. Jang, H. S. Lee, S. S. Yi, "Tunable photoluminescence properties of Eu(II)- and Sm(III)-coactivated Ca9Y(PO4)7 and energy transfer between Eu(II) and Sm(III)," Opt. Express 2, (2012).
  19. M. Meneghini, A. Tazzoli, G. Mura, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, "A review on the physical mechanisms that limit the reliability of GaN-based LEDs," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 57, 108-118 (2010).
  20. T. Yanagisawa, T. Kojima, "Long-term accelerated current operation of white light-emitting diodes," J. Luminesc. 114, 39-42 (2005).
  21. W. H. Cheng, C. C. Tsai, J. Wang, "Lumen degradation and chromaticity shift in glass and silicone based high-power phosphor-converted white-emitting diodes under thermal tests," Proc. SPIE 8123 (2011) pp. 81230F.
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  23. C. C. Tsai, J. Wang, M. H. Chen, Y. C. Hsu, Y. J. Lin, C. W. Lee, S. B. Huang, H. L. Hu, W. H. Cheng'', "Investigation of Ce:YAG doping effect on thermal aging for high-power phosphor-converted white light- emitting diodes," IEEE Trans. Devices Mater. Rel. 9, 367-371 (2009).
  24. C. C. Tsai, J. S. Liou, W. C. Cheng, C. H. Chung, M. H. Chen, J. Wang, W. H. Cheng, "High humidity resistance of high-power white-light-emitting diode modules employing Ce:YAG doped glass," 61th Electron. Commun. and Tech. Conf. (2011) pp. 1626-1630.
  25. C. C. Tsai, W. C. Cheng, J. K. Chang, L. Y. Chen, J. H. Chen, Y. C. Hsu, W. H. Cheng, "Ultra-high thermal-stable glass phosphor layer for phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes," J. Display Technol. 9, (2013).
  26. C. C. Sun, C. Y. Chen, H. Y. He, C. C. Chen, W. T. Chien, T. X. Lee, T. H. Yang, "Precise optical modeling for silicate-based white LEDs," Opt. Express 16, (2008).
  27. D. Kang, E. Wu, D. Wang, "Modeling white light-emitting diodes with phosphor layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 231102 (2006).
  28. W. C. Cheng, S. Y. Huang, C. C. Tsai, J. S. Liou, J. H. Chang, J. Wang, W. H. Cheng, "The efficacy study of Ce:YAG doped low-temperature glass for white LED modules," 16th Opto-Ele. and Comm. Conf. (2011) pp. 490-491.
  29. W. C. Cheng, C. C. Tsai, J. K. Chang, S. Y. Huang, J. H. Chen, S. S. Hu, Y. C. Huang, W. H. Cheng, "Fabrication of low-temperature Ce3+:YAG doped glass for phosphor-converted white-light-emitting diodes," 17th Opto-Electron. Commun. Conf. (2012) pp. 603-604.
  30. S. Fujita, A. Sakamoto, S. Tanabe'', "Luminescence characteristics of YAG glass-ceramic phosphor for white LED," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 14, 1387-1391 (2008).
  31. S. Tanabe, S. Fujita, S. Yoshihara, A. Sakamoto, S. Yamamoto, "YAG glass-ceramic phosphor for white LED (II): Luminescence characteristics," Proc. SPIE (2005) pp. 594112.
  32. Y. H. Won, H. S. Jang, K. W. Cho, Y. S. Song, D. Y. Jeon, H. K. Kwon, "Effect of phosphor geometry on the luminous efficiency of high-power white light-emitting diodes with excellent color rendering property," Opt. Lett. 34, (2009).
  33. A. Borbely, S. G. Johnson, "Performance of phosphor-coated light-emitting diode optics in ray-trace simulations," Opt. Eng. 44, 111308 (2005).
  34. N. T. Tran, J. P. You, F. G. Shi, "Effect of phosphor particle size on luminous efficacy of phosphor-converted white LED," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 5145-5150 (2009).
  35. N. T. Tran, F. G. Shi, "Studies of phosphor concentration and thickness for phosphor-based white light-emitting-diodes," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 3556-3559 (2008).
  36. C. Sommer, F. Reil, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, S. Tasch, F. P. Wenzl, "The impact of inhomogeneities in the phosphor distribution on the device performance of phosphor-converted high-power white LED light sources," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 3226-3232 (2010).
  37. C. Sommer, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, F. P. Wenzl, "The effect of the phosphor particle sizes on the angular homogeneity of phosphor-converted high-power white LED light sources," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 1181-1188 (2009).
  38. Y. Shuai, N. T. Tran, F. G. Shi, "Nonmonotonic phosphor size dependence of luminous efficacy for typical white LED emitters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 552-554 (2011).
  39. L. Y. Chen, J. K. Chang, Y. R. Wu, W. C. Cheng, J. H. Chen, C. C. Tsai, W. H. Cheng, "Influences of package geometry on color rendering properties of phosphor-converted glass based white light emitting diodes," 17th Opto-Electron. Commun. Conf. (2012) pp. 609-610.

2013 (1)

C. C. Tsai, W. C. Cheng, J. K. Chang, L. Y. Chen, J. H. Chen, Y. C. Hsu, W. H. Cheng, "Ultra-high thermal-stable glass phosphor layer for phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes," J. Display Technol. 9, (2013).

2012 (4)

S. K. K. Shaat, H. C. Swart, O. M. Ntwaeaborwa, "Synthesis and characterization of white light emitting CaxSr1-xAl2O4:Tb3+, Eu3+ phosphor for solid state lighting," Opt. Mater. Express 2, 962-968 (2012).

R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, "Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27, 024001 (2012).

Y. Zhang, L. Wu, M. Ji, B. Wang, Y. Kong, J. Xu, "Structure and photoluminescence properties of KSr4(BO3)3:Eu3+ red-emitting phosphor," Opt. Express 2, (2012).

H. Li, H. K. Yang, B. K. Moon, B. C. Choi, J. H. Jeong, K. Jang, H. S. Lee, S. S. Yi, "Tunable photoluminescence properties of Eu(II)- and Sm(III)-coactivated Ca9Y(PO4)7 and energy transfer between Eu(II) and Sm(III)," Opt. Express 2, (2012).

2011 (11)

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, C. Wetzel, "Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151102 (2011).

J. Zhang, H. Zhao, N. Tansu, "Large optical gain AlGaN-delta-GaN quantum wells laser active regions in mid- and deep-ultraviolet spectral regimes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, (2011) Art. 171111.

Y. Taniyasu, M. Kasu, "Polarization property of deep-ultraviolet light emission from C-plane AlN/GaN short-period superlattices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 251112 (2011).

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, N. Tansu, "Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells," Opt. Express 19, A991-A1007 (2011).

J. Zhang, N. Tansu, "Improvement in spontaneous emission rates for InGaN quantum wells on ternary InGaN substrate for light-emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 110, (2011) Art. 113110.

X. H. Li, R. Song, Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, "Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios," IEEE Photon. J. 3, 489-499 (2011).

E. Rangel, E. Matioli, Y. S. Choi, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, E. L. Hu, "Directionality control through selective excitation of low-order guided modes in thin-film InGaN photonic crystal light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 081104 (2011).

H. C. Kuo, C. W. Hung, H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. H. Wang, C. W. Sher, C. C. Yeh, C. C. Lin, C. H. Chen, Y. J. Cheng, "Patterned structure of remote phosphor for phosphor-converted white LEDs," Opt. Express 19, (2011).

S. E. Brinkley, N. Pfaff, K. A. Denault, Z. Zhang, H. T. Hintzen, R. Seshadri, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, "Robust thermal performance of Sr2Si5N8:Eu2+: An efficient red emitting phosphor for light emitting diode based white lighting," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 241106 (2011).

J. Wang, C. C. Tsai, W. C. Cheng, M. H. Chen, C. H. Chung, W. H. Cheng, "High thermal stability of phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes employing Ce:YAG-doped glass," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 17, 741-746 (2011).

Y. Shuai, N. T. Tran, F. G. Shi, "Nonmonotonic phosphor size dependence of luminous efficacy for typical white LED emitters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 552-554 (2011).

2010 (4)

C. Sommer, F. Reil, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, S. Tasch, F. P. Wenzl, "The impact of inhomogeneities in the phosphor distribution on the device performance of phosphor-converted high-power white LED light sources," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 3226-3232 (2010).

Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, "Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III–nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire," J. Cryst. Growth 312, 1311-1315 (2010).

J. Zhang, H. Zhao, N. Tansu, "Effect of crystal-field split-off hole and heavy-hole bands crossover on gain characteristics of high Al-content AlGaN quantum well lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, (2010) Art. 111105.

M. Meneghini, A. Tazzoli, G. Mura, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, "A review on the physical mechanisms that limit the reliability of GaN-based LEDs," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 57, 108-118 (2010).

2009 (7)

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, "Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 1066-1072 (2009).

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, "Light extraction efficiency enhancement of InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with polydimethylsiloxane concave micro- structures," Opt. Express 17, 13747-13757 (2009).

H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, X.-H. Li, R. A. Arif, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. T. Penn, V. Dierolf, N. Tansu, "Design and characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes in the green spectral regime," Optoelectron. 3, 283-295 (2009).

C. Sommer, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, F. P. Wenzl, "The effect of the phosphor particle sizes on the angular homogeneity of phosphor-converted high-power white LED light sources," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 1181-1188 (2009).

N. T. Tran, J. P. You, F. G. Shi, "Effect of phosphor particle size on luminous efficacy of phosphor-converted white LED," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 5145-5150 (2009).

C. C. Tsai, J. Wang, M. H. Chen, Y. C. Hsu, Y. J. Lin, C. W. Lee, S. B. Huang, H. L. Hu, W. H. Cheng'', "Investigation of Ce:YAG doping effect on thermal aging for high-power phosphor-converted white light- emitting diodes," IEEE Trans. Devices Mater. Rel. 9, 367-371 (2009).

Y. H. Won, H. S. Jang, K. W. Cho, Y. S. Song, D. Y. Jeon, H. K. Kwon, "Effect of phosphor geometry on the luminous efficiency of high-power white light-emitting diodes with excellent color rendering property," Opt. Lett. 34, (2009).

2008 (3)

C. C. Sun, C. Y. Chen, H. Y. He, C. C. Chen, W. T. Chien, T. X. Lee, T. H. Yang, "Precise optical modeling for silicate-based white LEDs," Opt. Express 16, (2008).

N. T. Tran, F. G. Shi, "Studies of phosphor concentration and thickness for phosphor-based white light-emitting-diodes," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 3556-3559 (2008).

S. Fujita, A. Sakamoto, S. Tanabe'', "Luminescence characteristics of YAG glass-ceramic phosphor for white LED," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 14, 1387-1391 (2008).

2006 (1)

D. Kang, E. Wu, D. Wang, "Modeling white light-emitting diodes with phosphor layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 231102 (2006).

2005 (2)

A. Borbely, S. G. Johnson, "Performance of phosphor-coated light-emitting diode optics in ray-trace simulations," Opt. Eng. 44, 111308 (2005).

T. Yanagisawa, T. Kojima, "Long-term accelerated current operation of white light-emitting diodes," J. Luminesc. 114, 39-42 (2005).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, C. Wetzel, "Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151102 (2011).

J. Zhang, H. Zhao, N. Tansu, "Effect of crystal-field split-off hole and heavy-hole bands crossover on gain characteristics of high Al-content AlGaN quantum well lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, (2010) Art. 111105.

J. Zhang, H. Zhao, N. Tansu, "Large optical gain AlGaN-delta-GaN quantum wells laser active regions in mid- and deep-ultraviolet spectral regimes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, (2011) Art. 171111.

Y. Taniyasu, M. Kasu, "Polarization property of deep-ultraviolet light emission from C-plane AlN/GaN short-period superlattices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 251112 (2011).

E. Rangel, E. Matioli, Y. S. Choi, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, E. L. Hu, "Directionality control through selective excitation of low-order guided modes in thin-film InGaN photonic crystal light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 081104 (2011).

S. E. Brinkley, N. Pfaff, K. A. Denault, Z. Zhang, H. T. Hintzen, R. Seshadri, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, "Robust thermal performance of Sr2Si5N8:Eu2+: An efficient red emitting phosphor for light emitting diode based white lighting," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 241106 (2011).

D. Kang, E. Wu, D. Wang, "Modeling white light-emitting diodes with phosphor layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 231102 (2006).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (4)

J. Wang, C. C. Tsai, W. C. Cheng, M. H. Chen, C. H. Chung, W. H. Cheng, "High thermal stability of phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes employing Ce:YAG-doped glass," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 17, 741-746 (2011).

S. Fujita, A. Sakamoto, S. Tanabe'', "Luminescence characteristics of YAG glass-ceramic phosphor for white LED," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 14, 1387-1391 (2008).

C. Sommer, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, F. P. Wenzl, "The effect of the phosphor particle sizes on the angular homogeneity of phosphor-converted high-power white LED light sources," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 1181-1188 (2009).

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, "Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 1066-1072 (2009).

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

X. H. Li, R. Song, Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, "Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios," IEEE Photon. J. 3, 489-499 (2011).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Y. Shuai, N. T. Tran, F. G. Shi, "Nonmonotonic phosphor size dependence of luminous efficacy for typical white LED emitters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 552-554 (2011).

IEEE Trans. Devices Mater. Rel. (1)

C. C. Tsai, J. Wang, M. H. Chen, Y. C. Hsu, Y. J. Lin, C. W. Lee, S. B. Huang, H. L. Hu, W. H. Cheng'', "Investigation of Ce:YAG doping effect on thermal aging for high-power phosphor-converted white light- emitting diodes," IEEE Trans. Devices Mater. Rel. 9, 367-371 (2009).

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (1)

M. Meneghini, A. Tazzoli, G. Mura, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, "A review on the physical mechanisms that limit the reliability of GaN-based LEDs," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 57, 108-118 (2010).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. Zhang, N. Tansu, "Improvement in spontaneous emission rates for InGaN quantum wells on ternary InGaN substrate for light-emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 110, (2011) Art. 113110.

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, "Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III–nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire," J. Cryst. Growth 312, 1311-1315 (2010).

J. Display Technol. (1)

C. C. Tsai, W. C. Cheng, J. K. Chang, L. Y. Chen, J. H. Chen, Y. C. Hsu, W. H. Cheng, "Ultra-high thermal-stable glass phosphor layer for phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes," J. Display Technol. 9, (2013).

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

N. T. Tran, J. P. You, F. G. Shi, "Effect of phosphor particle size on luminous efficacy of phosphor-converted white LED," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 5145-5150 (2009).

N. T. Tran, F. G. Shi, "Studies of phosphor concentration and thickness for phosphor-based white light-emitting-diodes," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 3556-3559 (2008).

C. Sommer, F. Reil, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, S. Tasch, F. P. Wenzl, "The impact of inhomogeneities in the phosphor distribution on the device performance of phosphor-converted high-power white LED light sources," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 3226-3232 (2010).

J. Luminesc. (1)

T. Yanagisawa, T. Kojima, "Long-term accelerated current operation of white light-emitting diodes," J. Luminesc. 114, 39-42 (2005).

Opt. Eng. (1)

A. Borbely, S. G. Johnson, "Performance of phosphor-coated light-emitting diode optics in ray-trace simulations," Opt. Eng. 44, 111308 (2005).

Opt. Express (6)

C. C. Sun, C. Y. Chen, H. Y. He, C. C. Chen, W. T. Chien, T. X. Lee, T. H. Yang, "Precise optical modeling for silicate-based white LEDs," Opt. Express 16, (2008).

H. C. Kuo, C. W. Hung, H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. H. Wang, C. W. Sher, C. C. Yeh, C. C. Lin, C. H. Chen, Y. J. Cheng, "Patterned structure of remote phosphor for phosphor-converted white LEDs," Opt. Express 19, (2011).

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, N. Tansu, "Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells," Opt. Express 19, A991-A1007 (2011).

Y. Zhang, L. Wu, M. Ji, B. Wang, Y. Kong, J. Xu, "Structure and photoluminescence properties of KSr4(BO3)3:Eu3+ red-emitting phosphor," Opt. Express 2, (2012).

H. Li, H. K. Yang, B. K. Moon, B. C. Choi, J. H. Jeong, K. Jang, H. S. Lee, S. S. Yi, "Tunable photoluminescence properties of Eu(II)- and Sm(III)-coactivated Ca9Y(PO4)7 and energy transfer between Eu(II) and Sm(III)," Opt. Express 2, (2012).

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, "Light extraction efficiency enhancement of InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with polydimethylsiloxane concave micro- structures," Opt. Express 17, 13747-13757 (2009).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Y. H. Won, H. S. Jang, K. W. Cho, Y. S. Song, D. Y. Jeon, H. K. Kwon, "Effect of phosphor geometry on the luminous efficiency of high-power white light-emitting diodes with excellent color rendering property," Opt. Lett. 34, (2009).

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Optoelectron. (1)

H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, X.-H. Li, R. A. Arif, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. T. Penn, V. Dierolf, N. Tansu, "Design and characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes in the green spectral regime," Optoelectron. 3, 283-295 (2009).

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, "Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27, 024001 (2012).

Other (6)

S. Tanabe, S. Fujita, S. Yoshihara, A. Sakamoto, S. Yamamoto, "YAG glass-ceramic phosphor for white LED (II): Luminescence characteristics," Proc. SPIE (2005) pp. 594112.

L. Y. Chen, J. K. Chang, Y. R. Wu, W. C. Cheng, J. H. Chen, C. C. Tsai, W. H. Cheng, "Influences of package geometry on color rendering properties of phosphor-converted glass based white light emitting diodes," 17th Opto-Electron. Commun. Conf. (2012) pp. 609-610.

W. C. Cheng, S. Y. Huang, C. C. Tsai, J. S. Liou, J. H. Chang, J. Wang, W. H. Cheng, "The efficacy study of Ce:YAG doped low-temperature glass for white LED modules," 16th Opto-Ele. and Comm. Conf. (2011) pp. 490-491.

W. C. Cheng, C. C. Tsai, J. K. Chang, S. Y. Huang, J. H. Chen, S. S. Hu, Y. C. Huang, W. H. Cheng, "Fabrication of low-temperature Ce3+:YAG doped glass for phosphor-converted white-light-emitting diodes," 17th Opto-Electron. Commun. Conf. (2012) pp. 603-604.

W. H. Cheng, C. C. Tsai, J. Wang, "Lumen degradation and chromaticity shift in glass and silicone based high-power phosphor-converted white-emitting diodes under thermal tests," Proc. SPIE 8123 (2011) pp. 81230F.

C. C. Tsai, J. S. Liou, W. C. Cheng, C. H. Chung, M. H. Chen, J. Wang, W. H. Cheng, "High humidity resistance of high-power white-light-emitting diode modules employing Ce:YAG doped glass," 61th Electron. Commun. and Tech. Conf. (2011) pp. 1626-1630.

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