Abstract

LED-based lamps that are currently on the market are expensive due to the complex packaging required to dissipate the heat generated. This also limits their performance and lifetime due to the degradation of the phosphor or individual LED chips, in the case of RGB sources. There is a strong commercial imperative to develop <i>in situ</i> technology to measure and ultimately compensate for the thermal environment of a luminaire.Utilizing the large Stoke's shift in InGaN green and blue emitting LEDs, a blue LED emitter pump can induce a photocurrent within devices which emit in either the blue or green region. Measurements have shown that green and blue emitters may be excited on the absorption edge in an effect which results in a rise in the open circuit voltage with increasing temperature. From these measurements the junction temperature of a device operating in quasi-cw mode at 80 mA is shown to result in a junction temperature of 86 (±2) °C which agrees well with a junction temperature of 87 (±2) °C measured using the more conventional forward voltage technique.This paper describes the technique utilized and the results achieved in driving a green emitting LED with a blue emitting pump LED and furthermore it discusses some of the benefits and issues associated with this technique for determining the junction temperature.

© 2013 IEEE

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  1. S. Nakamura, The Blue Laser Diode: The Complete Story (Springer, 2000) pp. 16-16.
  2. R. Haitz, J. Y. Tsao, "Solid-state lighting," Opt. & Photon. 6, 26-30 (2011).
  3. M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, Y. Park, "Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 183507-183507 (2007).
  4. A. Laubsch, M. Sabathil, W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, H. Lugauer, M. Peter, S. Lutgen, N. Linder, K. Streubel, J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, B. Pasenow, S. W. Koch, "On the origin of IQE-‘droop’ in InGaN LEDs," Phys. a Status Solid. (c) 6, S913-S916 (2009).
  5. R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, "Material and growth isssues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light emitting devices," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27, 024001-024001 (2012).
  6. D. A. Browne, E. C. Young, J. R. Lang, C. A. Hurni, J. S. Speck, "Indium and impurity incorporation in InGaN films on polar, nonpolar and semipolar GaN orientations grown by ammonia molecular beam epitaxy," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 30, 041513-041513 (2012).
  7. H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, N. Tansu, "Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells," Opt. Express 19, A991-A1007 (2011).
  8. H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, X.-H. Li, R. A. Arif, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. T. Penn, V. Dierolf, N. Tansu, "Desaign and characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum-well light-emittihng diodes in the green spectral regime," IET Optoelectron. 3, 283-295 (2009).
  9. H. Zhao, G. Liu, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, "Current injection efficiency induced efficiency-droop in InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes," Solid-State Electron. 54, 1119-1119 (2010).
  10. I. E. Titkov, D. A. Sannikov, Y. Park, J. Son, "Blue light emitiing diode internal injection efficiency," AIP Adv. 2, 032117-032117 (2012).
  11. K. T. Delaney, P. Rinke, C. G. Van de Walle, "Auger recombination rates in dilute Nitrides from first principles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 191109-191109 (2009).
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  13. J. Senawiratne, A. Chatterjee, T. Detchprohm, W. Zhao, Y. Li, M. Zhu, Y. Xia, X. Li, J. Plawsky, C. Wetzel, "Junction temperature, spectral shift, and efficiency in GaInN-based blue and green light emitting diodes," Thin Solid Films 518, 1732-1732 (2010).
  14. Xi, E. F. Schubert, "Junction-temperature measurement in GaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using diode forward voltage method," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2163-2163 (2004).
  15. L. K. Anderson, "Photodiode detection," Proc. Symp. Optical Masers. pp. 549-563.
  16. E. Miyazaki, S. Itami, T. Araki, "Using a light-emitting diode as a high-speed, wavelength selective photodetector," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3751-3751 (1998).
  17. S. Bent, A. Moloney, G. Farrell, "LEDs as both optical sources and detectors in bi-directional plastic optical fibre links," Proc. ISSC (2006) pp. 345-345.
  18. N. P. Fox, T. R. Prior, E. Theocharous, "Solid state detectors for infrared radiometry," Metrologia. 32, 609-613 (1995–96).
  19. K. P. O'Donnell, R. W. Martin, P. G. Middleton, S. C. Bayliss, I. Fletcher, W. Van der Stricht, P. Demeester, I. Moerman, "Spectroscopy and microscopy of localised and delocalised excitons in InGaN-based light emitting diodes and epilayers," Mater. Sci. Eng.: B 59, 288-291 (1999).
  20. F. Urbach, "The long wavelength edge of photographic sensitivity and of the electronic absorption of solids," Phys. Rev. 92, 1324-1324 (1953).
  21. E. Sari, S. Nizamoglu, J.-H. Choi, S.-J. Lee, K.-H. Baik, I.-H. Lee, J.-H. Baek, S.-M. Hwang, H. V. Demir, "Opposite carrier dynamics and optical absorption characteristics under external electric field in nonpolar vs. polar InGaN/GaN based quantum heterostructures," Opt. xpress 19, 5442-5442 (2011).
  22. Q. Shan, Q. Dai, S. Chhajed, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, "Analysis of thermal properties of GaInN light-emitting diodes and laser diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 108, 084504-084504 (2010).
  23. P. Vitta, A. Žukauskas, "Thermal characterization of light-emitting diodes in the frequency domain," Phys. Status Solidi C 6, S877-S877 (2009).
  24. Apparatus and method for monitoring LED efficiency Great Britain GB Patent Appl. 1207503.2 (2013).
  25. Apparatus and method for monitoring LED colour mix Great Britain GB Patent Appl. 1207505.7 (2013).

2012

R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, "Material and growth isssues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light emitting devices," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27, 024001-024001 (2012).

D. A. Browne, E. C. Young, J. R. Lang, C. A. Hurni, J. S. Speck, "Indium and impurity incorporation in InGaN films on polar, nonpolar and semipolar GaN orientations grown by ammonia molecular beam epitaxy," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 30, 041513-041513 (2012).

I. E. Titkov, D. A. Sannikov, Y. Park, J. Son, "Blue light emitiing diode internal injection efficiency," AIP Adv. 2, 032117-032117 (2012).

2011

E. Sari, S. Nizamoglu, J.-H. Choi, S.-J. Lee, K.-H. Baik, I.-H. Lee, J.-H. Baek, S.-M. Hwang, H. V. Demir, "Opposite carrier dynamics and optical absorption characteristics under external electric field in nonpolar vs. polar InGaN/GaN based quantum heterostructures," Opt. xpress 19, 5442-5442 (2011).

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, N. Tansu, "Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells," Opt. Express 19, A991-A1007 (2011).

R. Haitz, J. Y. Tsao, "Solid-state lighting," Opt. & Photon. 6, 26-30 (2011).

2010

H. Zhao, G. Liu, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, "Current injection efficiency induced efficiency-droop in InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes," Solid-State Electron. 54, 1119-1119 (2010).

Q. Shan, Q. Dai, S. Chhajed, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, "Analysis of thermal properties of GaInN light-emitting diodes and laser diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 108, 084504-084504 (2010).

J. Senawiratne, A. Chatterjee, T. Detchprohm, W. Zhao, Y. Li, M. Zhu, Y. Xia, X. Li, J. Plawsky, C. Wetzel, "Junction temperature, spectral shift, and efficiency in GaInN-based blue and green light emitting diodes," Thin Solid Films 518, 1732-1732 (2010).

2009

K. T. Delaney, P. Rinke, C. G. Van de Walle, "Auger recombination rates in dilute Nitrides from first principles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 191109-191109 (2009).

P. Vitta, A. Žukauskas, "Thermal characterization of light-emitting diodes in the frequency domain," Phys. Status Solidi C 6, S877-S877 (2009).

A. Laubsch, M. Sabathil, W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, H. Lugauer, M. Peter, S. Lutgen, N. Linder, K. Streubel, J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, B. Pasenow, S. W. Koch, "On the origin of IQE-‘droop’ in InGaN LEDs," Phys. a Status Solid. (c) 6, S913-S916 (2009).

H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, X.-H. Li, R. A. Arif, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. T. Penn, V. Dierolf, N. Tansu, "Desaign and characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum-well light-emittihng diodes in the green spectral regime," IET Optoelectron. 3, 283-295 (2009).

2008

Z. Vaitonis, P. Vitta, A. Žukauskas, "Measurement of the junction temperature in high-power light-emitting diodes from the high-energy wing of the electroluminescence band," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 093110-093110 (2008).

2007

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, Y. Park, "Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 183507-183507 (2007).

2004

Xi, E. F. Schubert, "Junction-temperature measurement in GaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using diode forward voltage method," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2163-2163 (2004).

1999

K. P. O'Donnell, R. W. Martin, P. G. Middleton, S. C. Bayliss, I. Fletcher, W. Van der Stricht, P. Demeester, I. Moerman, "Spectroscopy and microscopy of localised and delocalised excitons in InGaN-based light emitting diodes and epilayers," Mater. Sci. Eng.: B 59, 288-291 (1999).

1998

E. Miyazaki, S. Itami, T. Araki, "Using a light-emitting diode as a high-speed, wavelength selective photodetector," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3751-3751 (1998).

1953

F. Urbach, "The long wavelength edge of photographic sensitivity and of the electronic absorption of solids," Phys. Rev. 92, 1324-1324 (1953).

AIP Adv.

I. E. Titkov, D. A. Sannikov, Y. Park, J. Son, "Blue light emitiing diode internal injection efficiency," AIP Adv. 2, 032117-032117 (2012).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

K. T. Delaney, P. Rinke, C. G. Van de Walle, "Auger recombination rates in dilute Nitrides from first principles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 191109-191109 (2009).

Xi, E. F. Schubert, "Junction-temperature measurement in GaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using diode forward voltage method," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2163-2163 (2004).

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, Y. Park, "Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 183507-183507 (2007).

IET Optoelectron.

H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, X.-H. Li, R. A. Arif, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. T. Penn, V. Dierolf, N. Tansu, "Desaign and characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum-well light-emittihng diodes in the green spectral regime," IET Optoelectron. 3, 283-295 (2009).

J. Appl. Phys.

Z. Vaitonis, P. Vitta, A. Žukauskas, "Measurement of the junction temperature in high-power light-emitting diodes from the high-energy wing of the electroluminescence band," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 093110-093110 (2008).

Q. Shan, Q. Dai, S. Chhajed, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, "Analysis of thermal properties of GaInN light-emitting diodes and laser diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 108, 084504-084504 (2010).

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A

D. A. Browne, E. C. Young, J. R. Lang, C. A. Hurni, J. S. Speck, "Indium and impurity incorporation in InGaN films on polar, nonpolar and semipolar GaN orientations grown by ammonia molecular beam epitaxy," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 30, 041513-041513 (2012).

Mater. Sci. Eng.: B

K. P. O'Donnell, R. W. Martin, P. G. Middleton, S. C. Bayliss, I. Fletcher, W. Van der Stricht, P. Demeester, I. Moerman, "Spectroscopy and microscopy of localised and delocalised excitons in InGaN-based light emitting diodes and epilayers," Mater. Sci. Eng.: B 59, 288-291 (1999).

Metrologia.

N. P. Fox, T. R. Prior, E. Theocharous, "Solid state detectors for infrared radiometry," Metrologia. 32, 609-613 (1995–96).

Opt. & Photon.

R. Haitz, J. Y. Tsao, "Solid-state lighting," Opt. & Photon. 6, 26-30 (2011).

Opt. Express

Opt. xpress

E. Sari, S. Nizamoglu, J.-H. Choi, S.-J. Lee, K.-H. Baik, I.-H. Lee, J.-H. Baek, S.-M. Hwang, H. V. Demir, "Opposite carrier dynamics and optical absorption characteristics under external electric field in nonpolar vs. polar InGaN/GaN based quantum heterostructures," Opt. xpress 19, 5442-5442 (2011).

Phys. a Status Solid. (c)

A. Laubsch, M. Sabathil, W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, H. Lugauer, M. Peter, S. Lutgen, N. Linder, K. Streubel, J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, B. Pasenow, S. W. Koch, "On the origin of IQE-‘droop’ in InGaN LEDs," Phys. a Status Solid. (c) 6, S913-S916 (2009).

Phys. Rev.

F. Urbach, "The long wavelength edge of photographic sensitivity and of the electronic absorption of solids," Phys. Rev. 92, 1324-1324 (1953).

Phys. Status Solidi C

P. Vitta, A. Žukauskas, "Thermal characterization of light-emitting diodes in the frequency domain," Phys. Status Solidi C 6, S877-S877 (2009).

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

E. Miyazaki, S. Itami, T. Araki, "Using a light-emitting diode as a high-speed, wavelength selective photodetector," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3751-3751 (1998).

Semicond. Sci. Technol.

R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, "Material and growth isssues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light emitting devices," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27, 024001-024001 (2012).

Solid-State Electron.

H. Zhao, G. Liu, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, "Current injection efficiency induced efficiency-droop in InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes," Solid-State Electron. 54, 1119-1119 (2010).

Thin Solid Films

J. Senawiratne, A. Chatterjee, T. Detchprohm, W. Zhao, Y. Li, M. Zhu, Y. Xia, X. Li, J. Plawsky, C. Wetzel, "Junction temperature, spectral shift, and efficiency in GaInN-based blue and green light emitting diodes," Thin Solid Films 518, 1732-1732 (2010).

Other

S. Bent, A. Moloney, G. Farrell, "LEDs as both optical sources and detectors in bi-directional plastic optical fibre links," Proc. ISSC (2006) pp. 345-345.

L. K. Anderson, "Photodiode detection," Proc. Symp. Optical Masers. pp. 549-563.

S. Nakamura, The Blue Laser Diode: The Complete Story (Springer, 2000) pp. 16-16.

Apparatus and method for monitoring LED efficiency Great Britain GB Patent Appl. 1207503.2 (2013).

Apparatus and method for monitoring LED colour mix Great Britain GB Patent Appl. 1207505.7 (2013).

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