Abstract

A perpendicular InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum- wells structure on ZnO substrate for blue light emitting diode (LED) was successfully fabricated by use of Metal-organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD). During the growing process of GaN-based materials on ZnO substrates, the low-temperature-grown GaN buffer layer, inserted between ZnO substrate and undoped GaN layer, prevented the Zn and O from diffusing from ZnO substrate into the n-GaN layer. This thin GaN buffer layer, mainly as a insulating layer, was grown at relatively low temperature of 530 °C. By using our method, an integrated LED with ZnO substrate can be fabricated with a crack-free GaN film on (0001) ZnO substrate by MOCVD using this method. The epilayer crystalline structure has been measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM), and the optical properties of the LED were also characterized by photoluminescence and Current-Voltage characteristic curve.

© 2013 IEEE

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2012 (4)

R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Specket, "Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27, 1-14 (2012).

D. A. Browne, E. C. Young, J. R. Lang, C. A. Hurni, J. S. Speck, "Indium and impurity incorporation in InGaN films on polar, nonpolar, and semipolar GaN orientations grown by ammonia molecular beam epitaxy," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A. 30, 041513-1-041513-8 (2012).

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. poplawsky, V. Dierolf, N. Tansu, "Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells," Opt. Express 19, A991-A1007 (2012).

D. A. Zakheim, A. S. Pavluchenko, D. A. Bauman, K. A. Bulashevich, O. V. Khokhlev, S. Y. Karpov, "Efficiency droop suppression in InGaN-based blue LEDs: Experiment and numerical modeling," Phys. Status Solidi A 209, 456-460 (2012).

2011 (7)

J. Zhang, T. Nelson, "Improvement in spontaneous emission rates for InGaN quantum wells on ternary InGaN substrate for light-emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 110, 113110-113110-5 (2011).

G. Liu, H. Zhao, J. Zhang, J. H. Park, L. J. Mawst, N. Tansu, "Selective area epitaxy of ultra-high density InGaN quantum dots by diblock copolymer lithography," Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6, 1-10 (2011).

H. Zhao, J. Zhang, G. Liu, N. Tansu, "Surface plasmon dispersion engineering via double-metallic Au/Ag layers for III-nitride based light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151115-15115-3 (2011).

C. H. Lu, C. C. Lan, Y. L. Li, C. P. Liu, "Enhancement of green emission from InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells via coupling to surface plasmons in a two-dimensional silver array," Adv. Funct. Mater. 21, 4719-4723 (2011).

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, C. Wetzel, "Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151102-151102-3 (2011).

E. Rangel, E. Matioli, Y. S. Choi, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, E. L. Hu, "Directionality control through selective excitation of low-order guided modes in thin-film InGaN photonic crystal light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 081104-081104-3 (2011).

X. H. Li, R. B. Song, Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, "Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios," IEEE Photon. J. 3, 489-499 (2011).

2010 (6)

H. J. Kim, S. Choi, S. S. Kim, J. H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, K. Sun, F. A. Ponce, "Improvement of quantum efficiency by employing active-layer-friendly lattice-matched InAlN electron blocking layer in green light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 101102-101102-3 (2010).

H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, "Current injection efficiency induced efficiency-droop in InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes," Solid-State Electron. 54, 1119-1124 (2010).

Y. K. Ee, Y. H. Li, J. Bister, W. J. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, "Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emit- ting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire," J. Crys. Growth 312, 1311-1315 (2010).

S. C. Ling, T. C. Lu, S. P. Chang, J. R. Chen, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, "Low efficiency droop in blue-green m-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 231101-231101-3 (2010).

C. H. Wang, S. P. Chang, W. T. Chang, J. C. Li, Y. S. Lu, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, "Efficiency droop alleviation in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-thickness multiple quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 181101-181101-3 (2010).

W. J. Liu, T. Y. Tsai, C. H. Yen, L. Y. Chen, T. H. Tsai, W. C. Liu, "Characteristics of a GaN-based light-emitting diode with an inserted p-GaN/i-InGaN," IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 46, 492-498 (2010).

2009 (4)

J. J. Wierer, J. A. Fischer, K. Sun, F. A. Ponce, "III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency," Nat. Photonics. 3, 163-169 (2009).

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, "Light extraction efficiency enhancement of InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with polydimethylsiloxane concave microstructures," Opt. Express 17, 13747-13757 (2009).

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Bister, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, "Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 1066-1072 (2009).

H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, X. H. Li, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. T. Penn, N. Tansu, "Design and characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes in the green spectral regime," IET Optoelectron. 3, 283-295 (2009).

2008 (3)

H. Yu, S. Wang, N. Li, W. Fenwick, A. Melton, B. Klein, I. Ferguson, "MOVPE growth of AlGaN/GaN superlattices on ZnO substrates for green emitter applications," J. Cryst. Growth 310, 4904-4907 (2008).

X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, Ü. Ö. zgür, H. Morkoc, "Reduction of efficiency droop in InGaN light emitting diodes by coupled quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 171113-171113-3 (2008).

S. J. Wang, N. Li, E. Park, Z. C. Feng, A. Valencia, J. Nause, M. Kane, C. Summers, I. Ferguson, "MOCVD growth of GaN-based materials on ZnO substrates," Phys. Stat. Sol. 5, 1736-1739 (2008).

2007 (1)

S. J. Wang, N. Li, E. Park, S. L. Feng, A. Valencia, J. Nause, I. Ferguson, "MOVPE growth of AlGaN/GaN superlattices on ZnO substrates for green emitter applications," J. Appl. Phys. 310, 4904-4907 (2007).

2006 (2)

A. Kobayashi, J. Ohta, H. Fujioka, "Low temperature epitaxial growth of In0.25Ga0.75N on lattice-matched ZnO by pulsed laser deposition," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 1235-1-4 (2006).

S. C. Hsu, C. Y. Liu, "Electrochem, “Fabrication of thin-GaN LED structures by Au–Si wafer bonding”," Solid-State Lett. 9, G171-G173 (2006).

2005 (2)

G. Namkoong, S. Burnham, K. Lee, E. Trybus, W. A. Doolittle, M. Losurdo, P. Capezzuto, G. Bruno, B. Nemeth, J. Nause, "III-nitrides on oxygen- and zinc-face ZnO substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 184104-184104-3 (2005).

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, W. C. Shih, R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, W. Y. Lin, J. S. Fang, "Enhanced output power of near-ultraviolet InGaN–GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 288-290 (2005).

2004 (1)

X. Gu, M. A. Reshchikov, A. Teke, D. Johnstone, H. Morkoc, "GaN epitaxy on thermally treated c-plane bulk ZnO substrates with O and Zn faces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2268-2270 (2004).

2002 (1)

J. Wu, W. Walukievicz, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager, IIIE. E. Haller, H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, Y. Saito, Y. Nanishi, "Unusual properties of the fundamental band gap of InN," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3967-3969 (2002).

2001 (1)

R. Paszkiewicz, R. Paszkiewicz Dr, B. Paszkiewicz Dr, R. Korbutowicz Dr, J. Kozlowski Dr, M. Tlaczala Dr, L. Bryja Dr, R. Kudrawiec Mgr. inz., J. Misiewicz Prof. dr hab, "MOVPE GaN grown on alternative substrates," Cryst. Res. Technol. 36, 8-10 (2001).

2000 (1)

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, N. M. Johnson, "Inx Ga1-xN Inx Ga1-x light-emitting diodes on Si substrates fabricated by Pd–In metal bonding and laser lift-off," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2822-2824 (2000).

1998 (2)

F. Hamdani, M. Yeadon, H. Tang, W. Kim, A. Salvador, A. E. Botchkarev, J. M. Polyakov, A. Y. Skowronski, M. Morkoc, "Microstructure and optical properties of epitaxial GaN on ZnO (0001) grown by reactive molecular beam epitaxy," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 983-990 (1998).

T. Shibata, H. Sone, K. Yahashi, M. Yamaguchi, K. Hiramatsu, N. Sawaki, N. Itoh, "Hydride vapor-phase epitaxy growth of high-quality GaN bulk single crystal by epitaxial lateral overgrowth," J. Cryst. Growth 189, 67-71 (1998).

1997 (1)

I. Akasaki, H. Amano, "Crystal growth and conductivity control of group III nitride semiconductors, and their application to short wavelength light emitters," Appl. Phys. 36, 5393-5408 (1997).

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

C. H. Lu, C. C. Lan, Y. L. Li, C. P. Liu, "Enhancement of green emission from InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells via coupling to surface plasmons in a two-dimensional silver array," Adv. Funct. Mater. 21, 4719-4723 (2011).

Appl. Phys. (1)

I. Akasaki, H. Amano, "Crystal growth and conductivity control of group III nitride semiconductors, and their application to short wavelength light emitters," Appl. Phys. 36, 5393-5408 (1997).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (11)

J. Wu, W. Walukievicz, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager, IIIE. E. Haller, H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, Y. Saito, Y. Nanishi, "Unusual properties of the fundamental band gap of InN," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3967-3969 (2002).

X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, Ü. Ö. zgür, H. Morkoc, "Reduction of efficiency droop in InGaN light emitting diodes by coupled quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 171113-171113-3 (2008).

S. C. Ling, T. C. Lu, S. P. Chang, J. R. Chen, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, "Low efficiency droop in blue-green m-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 231101-231101-3 (2010).

C. H. Wang, S. P. Chang, W. T. Chang, J. C. Li, Y. S. Lu, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, "Efficiency droop alleviation in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-thickness multiple quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 181101-181101-3 (2010).

X. Gu, M. A. Reshchikov, A. Teke, D. Johnstone, H. Morkoc, "GaN epitaxy on thermally treated c-plane bulk ZnO substrates with O and Zn faces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2268-2270 (2004).

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, N. M. Johnson, "Inx Ga1-xN Inx Ga1-x light-emitting diodes on Si substrates fabricated by Pd–In metal bonding and laser lift-off," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2822-2824 (2000).

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, C. Wetzel, "Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151102-151102-3 (2011).

H. J. Kim, S. Choi, S. S. Kim, J. H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, K. Sun, F. A. Ponce, "Improvement of quantum efficiency by employing active-layer-friendly lattice-matched InAlN electron blocking layer in green light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 101102-101102-3 (2010).

E. Rangel, E. Matioli, Y. S. Choi, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, E. L. Hu, "Directionality control through selective excitation of low-order guided modes in thin-film InGaN photonic crystal light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 081104-081104-3 (2011).

H. Zhao, J. Zhang, G. Liu, N. Tansu, "Surface plasmon dispersion engineering via double-metallic Au/Ag layers for III-nitride based light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151115-15115-3 (2011).

G. Namkoong, S. Burnham, K. Lee, E. Trybus, W. A. Doolittle, M. Losurdo, P. Capezzuto, G. Bruno, B. Nemeth, J. Nause, "III-nitrides on oxygen- and zinc-face ZnO substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 184104-184104-3 (2005).

Cryst. Res. Technol. (1)

R. Paszkiewicz, R. Paszkiewicz Dr, B. Paszkiewicz Dr, R. Korbutowicz Dr, J. Kozlowski Dr, M. Tlaczala Dr, L. Bryja Dr, R. Kudrawiec Mgr. inz., J. Misiewicz Prof. dr hab, "MOVPE GaN grown on alternative substrates," Cryst. Res. Technol. 36, 8-10 (2001).

IEEE J. Quantum Elect. (1)

W. J. Liu, T. Y. Tsai, C. H. Yen, L. Y. Chen, T. H. Tsai, W. C. Liu, "Characteristics of a GaN-based light-emitting diode with an inserted p-GaN/i-InGaN," IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 46, 492-498 (2010).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Bister, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, "Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 1066-1072 (2009).

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

X. H. Li, R. B. Song, Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, "Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios," IEEE Photon. J. 3, 489-499 (2011).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, W. C. Shih, R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, W. Y. Lin, J. S. Fang, "Enhanced output power of near-ultraviolet InGaN–GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 288-290 (2005).

IET Optoelectron. (1)

H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, X. H. Li, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. T. Penn, N. Tansu, "Design and characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes in the green spectral regime," IET Optoelectron. 3, 283-295 (2009).

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J. Zhang, T. Nelson, "Improvement in spontaneous emission rates for InGaN quantum wells on ternary InGaN substrate for light-emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 110, 113110-113110-5 (2011).

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