Abstract

Thin-GaN light-emitting diodes were fabricated by Au-Si wafer bonding and laser lift-off. The relaxation process of the thermal strain in the transferred GaN films on a Si substrate was studied by varying the bonding film thickness of the Au over a wide range from 7 <i>µ</i>m to 40 <i>µ</i>m. The transferred GaN films were found to be strained by the biaxial compressive stress. A 10 <i>µ</i>m Au bonding layer thickness was proven to have the lowest residual compressive stress, and the complete compressive stress variation throughout the entire thin-GaN fabrication process is discussed. Finally, we changed the biaxial in-plane stress of the transferred GaN thin film by controlling the bonding conditions, including the bonding layer thickness and the bonding temperature.

© 2013 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |

  1. S. Nakamura, Y. Harada, M. Seno, "Novel metalorganic chemical vapor deposition system for GaN growth," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2021 (1991).
  2. S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, T. Mukai, "High-power lnGaN/GaN double-heterostructure violet light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2390 (1993).
  3. N. Tansu, H. Zhao, G. Liu, X.-H. Li, J. Zhang, H. Tong, Y.-K. Ee, "III-nitride photonics," IEEE Photon. J. 2, 241-248 (2010).
  4. S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, H. V. Demir, S. P. DenBaars, "Advances in the LED materials and architectures for energy-saving solid-state lighting toward lighting revolution," IEEE Photon. J. 4, 613-619 (2012).
  5. R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, "Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices," Semiconductor Sci. and Technol. 27, 024001 (2012).
  6. H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, N. Tansu, "Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells," Opt. Expr. 19, A991-A1007 (2011).
  7. J. Zhang, N. Tansu, "Improvement in spontaneous emission rates for InGaN quantum wells on ternary InGaN substrate for light-emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 110, 113110 (2011).
  8. G. Liu, H. Zhao, J. Zhang, J. H. Park, L. J. Mawst, N. Tansu, "Selective area epitaxy of ultra-high density InGaN guantum dots by diblock copolymer lithography," Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6, 342 (2011).
  9. H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, X.-H. Li, R. A. Arif, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. T. Penn, N. Tansu, "Design and characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes in the green spectral regime," IET Optoelectron. 3, 283-295 (2009).
  10. H. Zhao, N. Tansu, "Optical gain characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum wells lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 107, 113110 (2010).
  11. J. Zhang, H. Zhao, N. Tansu, "Large optical gain AlGaN-delta-GaN quantum wells laser active regions in mid-and deep-ultraviolet spectral regimes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 171111 (2011).
  12. H. Zhao, J. Zhang, G. Liu, N. Tansu, "Surface plasmon dispersion engineering via double-metallic Au/Ag layers for III-nitride based light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151115 (2011).
  13. H. Zhao, G. Liu, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, "Current injection efficiency induced efficiency-droop in InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes," Solid-State Electron. 54, 1119-1124 (2010).
  14. H. J. Kim, S. Choi, S.-S. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, "Improvement of quantum efficiency by employing active-layer-friendly lattice-matched InAlN electron blocking layer in green light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 101102 (2010).
  15. Y.-K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, "Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 1066-1072 (2009).
  16. Y.-K. Ee, X.-H. Li, J. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, "Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire," J. Cryst. Growth 312, 1311-131 (2010).
  17. Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, "Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151102 (2011).
  18. X.-H. Li, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, "Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios," IEEE Photon. J. 3, 489 (2011).
  19. Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, "Light extraction efficiency enhancement of InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with polydimethylsiloxane concave microstructures," Opt. Expr. 17, 13747 (2009).
  20. J. J. Wierer, A. David, Jr.M. M. Megens, "III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency," Nature Photon. 3, 163-169 (2009).
  21. A. Sztein, H. Ohta, J. Sonoda, A. Ramu, J. E. Bowers, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, "GaN-based integrated lateral thermoelectric device for micro-power generation," Appl. Phys. 109, 053706 (2011).
  22. J. Zhang, H. Tong, G. Liu, J. A. Herbsommer, G. S. Huang, N. Tansu, "Characterizations of seebeck coefficients and thermoelectric figures of merit for AlInN alloys with various In-contents," J. Appl. Phys. 109, 053706 (2011).
  23. B. N. Pantha, I.-W. Feng, K. Aryal, J. Li, J.-Y. Lin, H.-X. Jiang, "Erbium-doped AlInGaN alloys as high-temperature thermoelectric materials," Appl. Phys. Express 4, 051001 (2011).
  24. W. S. Wong, T. Sands, "InxGa1-xN light emitting diodes on Si substrates fabricated by Pd-In metal bonding and laser lift-off," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2822 (2000).
  25. H. K. Cho, S.-K. Kim, D. K. Bae, B.-C. Kang, J. S. Lee, Y.-H. Lee, "Laser liftoff GaN thin-film photonic crystal GaN-based light-emitting diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2096-2098 (2008).
  26. A. David, T. Fujii, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, "Photonic crystal laser lift-off GaN light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 133514 (2006).
  27. M. H. Doan, S. Kim, J. J. Lee, H. Lim, F. Rotermund, "Influence of laser lift-off on optical and structural properties of InGaN/GaN vertical blue light emitting diodes," AIP Adv. 2, 022122 (2012).
  28. A. Bykhovski, B. Gelmont, M. Shur, A. Khan, "Current-voltage characteristics of strained piezoelectric structures," J. Appl. Phys. 77, 1616 (1995).
  29. S. C. Hsu, C. Y. Liu, "Fabrication of thin-GaN LED structures by Au-Si wafer bonding," Electrochem. and Solid-State Lett. 9, G171-G173 (2006).
  30. T. Kozawa, T. Kachi, H. Kano, H. Nagase, N. Koide, K. Manabe, "Thermal stress in GaN epitaxial layers grown on sapphire substrates," J. Appl. Phys. 77, 4389 (1995).
  31. V. Y. Davydov, N. S. Averkiev, I. N. Goncharuk, D. K. Nelson, I. P. Nikitina, A. S. Polkovnikov, A. N. Smirnov, M. A. Jacobson, O. K. Semchinova, "Raman and photoluminescence studies of biaxial strain in GaN epitaxial layers grown on 6H-SiC," J. Appl. Phys. 82, 5097 (1997).
  32. G. Attolini, L. Francesio, P. Franzosi, C. Pelosi, S. Gennari, P. P. Lottici, "Raman scattering study of residual strain in GaAs/InP heterostructures," J. Appl. Phys. 75, 4156 (1993).
  33. S. K. Tripathy, G. Xu, X. Mu, Y. J. Ding, M. Jamil, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, J. B. Khurgin, "Phonon-assisted ultraviolet anti-Stokes photoluminescence from GaN film grown on Si(111) substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 201107 (2008).
  34. B. Bokhonov, "Nanocrystalline powder formation during mechanical alloying of W and Si," J. Alloys and Compounds 199, (1993).

2012 (3)

S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, H. V. Demir, S. P. DenBaars, "Advances in the LED materials and architectures for energy-saving solid-state lighting toward lighting revolution," IEEE Photon. J. 4, 613-619 (2012).

R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, "Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices," Semiconductor Sci. and Technol. 27, 024001 (2012).

M. H. Doan, S. Kim, J. J. Lee, H. Lim, F. Rotermund, "Influence of laser lift-off on optical and structural properties of InGaN/GaN vertical blue light emitting diodes," AIP Adv. 2, 022122 (2012).

2011 (10)

A. Sztein, H. Ohta, J. Sonoda, A. Ramu, J. E. Bowers, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, "GaN-based integrated lateral thermoelectric device for micro-power generation," Appl. Phys. 109, 053706 (2011).

J. Zhang, H. Tong, G. Liu, J. A. Herbsommer, G. S. Huang, N. Tansu, "Characterizations of seebeck coefficients and thermoelectric figures of merit for AlInN alloys with various In-contents," J. Appl. Phys. 109, 053706 (2011).

B. N. Pantha, I.-W. Feng, K. Aryal, J. Li, J.-Y. Lin, H.-X. Jiang, "Erbium-doped AlInGaN alloys as high-temperature thermoelectric materials," Appl. Phys. Express 4, 051001 (2011).

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, N. Tansu, "Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells," Opt. Expr. 19, A991-A1007 (2011).

J. Zhang, N. Tansu, "Improvement in spontaneous emission rates for InGaN quantum wells on ternary InGaN substrate for light-emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 110, 113110 (2011).

G. Liu, H. Zhao, J. Zhang, J. H. Park, L. J. Mawst, N. Tansu, "Selective area epitaxy of ultra-high density InGaN guantum dots by diblock copolymer lithography," Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6, 342 (2011).

J. Zhang, H. Zhao, N. Tansu, "Large optical gain AlGaN-delta-GaN quantum wells laser active regions in mid-and deep-ultraviolet spectral regimes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 171111 (2011).

H. Zhao, J. Zhang, G. Liu, N. Tansu, "Surface plasmon dispersion engineering via double-metallic Au/Ag layers for III-nitride based light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151115 (2011).

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, "Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151102 (2011).

X.-H. Li, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, "Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios," IEEE Photon. J. 3, 489 (2011).

2010 (5)

H. Zhao, G. Liu, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, "Current injection efficiency induced efficiency-droop in InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes," Solid-State Electron. 54, 1119-1124 (2010).

H. J. Kim, S. Choi, S.-S. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, "Improvement of quantum efficiency by employing active-layer-friendly lattice-matched InAlN electron blocking layer in green light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 101102 (2010).

N. Tansu, H. Zhao, G. Liu, X.-H. Li, J. Zhang, H. Tong, Y.-K. Ee, "III-nitride photonics," IEEE Photon. J. 2, 241-248 (2010).

H. Zhao, N. Tansu, "Optical gain characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum wells lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 107, 113110 (2010).

Y.-K. Ee, X.-H. Li, J. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, "Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire," J. Cryst. Growth 312, 1311-131 (2010).

2009 (4)

H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, X.-H. Li, R. A. Arif, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. T. Penn, N. Tansu, "Design and characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes in the green spectral regime," IET Optoelectron. 3, 283-295 (2009).

Y.-K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, "Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 1066-1072 (2009).

Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, "Light extraction efficiency enhancement of InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with polydimethylsiloxane concave microstructures," Opt. Expr. 17, 13747 (2009).

J. J. Wierer, A. David, Jr.M. M. Megens, "III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency," Nature Photon. 3, 163-169 (2009).

2008 (2)

S. K. Tripathy, G. Xu, X. Mu, Y. J. Ding, M. Jamil, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, J. B. Khurgin, "Phonon-assisted ultraviolet anti-Stokes photoluminescence from GaN film grown on Si(111) substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 201107 (2008).

H. K. Cho, S.-K. Kim, D. K. Bae, B.-C. Kang, J. S. Lee, Y.-H. Lee, "Laser liftoff GaN thin-film photonic crystal GaN-based light-emitting diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2096-2098 (2008).

2006 (2)

A. David, T. Fujii, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, "Photonic crystal laser lift-off GaN light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 133514 (2006).

S. C. Hsu, C. Y. Liu, "Fabrication of thin-GaN LED structures by Au-Si wafer bonding," Electrochem. and Solid-State Lett. 9, G171-G173 (2006).

2000 (1)

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, "InxGa1-xN light emitting diodes on Si substrates fabricated by Pd-In metal bonding and laser lift-off," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2822 (2000).

1997 (1)

V. Y. Davydov, N. S. Averkiev, I. N. Goncharuk, D. K. Nelson, I. P. Nikitina, A. S. Polkovnikov, A. N. Smirnov, M. A. Jacobson, O. K. Semchinova, "Raman and photoluminescence studies of biaxial strain in GaN epitaxial layers grown on 6H-SiC," J. Appl. Phys. 82, 5097 (1997).

1995 (2)

T. Kozawa, T. Kachi, H. Kano, H. Nagase, N. Koide, K. Manabe, "Thermal stress in GaN epitaxial layers grown on sapphire substrates," J. Appl. Phys. 77, 4389 (1995).

A. Bykhovski, B. Gelmont, M. Shur, A. Khan, "Current-voltage characteristics of strained piezoelectric structures," J. Appl. Phys. 77, 1616 (1995).

1993 (3)

G. Attolini, L. Francesio, P. Franzosi, C. Pelosi, S. Gennari, P. P. Lottici, "Raman scattering study of residual strain in GaAs/InP heterostructures," J. Appl. Phys. 75, 4156 (1993).

B. Bokhonov, "Nanocrystalline powder formation during mechanical alloying of W and Si," J. Alloys and Compounds 199, (1993).

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, T. Mukai, "High-power lnGaN/GaN double-heterostructure violet light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2390 (1993).

1991 (1)

S. Nakamura, Y. Harada, M. Seno, "Novel metalorganic chemical vapor deposition system for GaN growth," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2021 (1991).

AIP Adv. (1)

M. H. Doan, S. Kim, J. J. Lee, H. Lim, F. Rotermund, "Influence of laser lift-off on optical and structural properties of InGaN/GaN vertical blue light emitting diodes," AIP Adv. 2, 022122 (2012).

Appl. Phys. (1)

A. Sztein, H. Ohta, J. Sonoda, A. Ramu, J. E. Bowers, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, "GaN-based integrated lateral thermoelectric device for micro-power generation," Appl. Phys. 109, 053706 (2011).

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

B. N. Pantha, I.-W. Feng, K. Aryal, J. Li, J.-Y. Lin, H.-X. Jiang, "Erbium-doped AlInGaN alloys as high-temperature thermoelectric materials," Appl. Phys. Express 4, 051001 (2011).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (9)

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, "InxGa1-xN light emitting diodes on Si substrates fabricated by Pd-In metal bonding and laser lift-off," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2822 (2000).

S. K. Tripathy, G. Xu, X. Mu, Y. J. Ding, M. Jamil, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, J. B. Khurgin, "Phonon-assisted ultraviolet anti-Stokes photoluminescence from GaN film grown on Si(111) substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 201107 (2008).

A. David, T. Fujii, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, "Photonic crystal laser lift-off GaN light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 133514 (2006).

S. Nakamura, Y. Harada, M. Seno, "Novel metalorganic chemical vapor deposition system for GaN growth," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2021 (1991).

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, T. Mukai, "High-power lnGaN/GaN double-heterostructure violet light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2390 (1993).

J. Zhang, H. Zhao, N. Tansu, "Large optical gain AlGaN-delta-GaN quantum wells laser active regions in mid-and deep-ultraviolet spectral regimes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 171111 (2011).

H. Zhao, J. Zhang, G. Liu, N. Tansu, "Surface plasmon dispersion engineering via double-metallic Au/Ag layers for III-nitride based light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151115 (2011).

H. J. Kim, S. Choi, S.-S. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, "Improvement of quantum efficiency by employing active-layer-friendly lattice-matched InAlN electron blocking layer in green light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 101102 (2010).

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, "Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151102 (2011).

Electrochem. and Solid-State Lett. (1)

S. C. Hsu, C. Y. Liu, "Fabrication of thin-GaN LED structures by Au-Si wafer bonding," Electrochem. and Solid-State Lett. 9, G171-G173 (2006).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

Y.-K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, "Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 1066-1072 (2009).

IEEE Photon. J. (3)

X.-H. Li, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, "Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios," IEEE Photon. J. 3, 489 (2011).

N. Tansu, H. Zhao, G. Liu, X.-H. Li, J. Zhang, H. Tong, Y.-K. Ee, "III-nitride photonics," IEEE Photon. J. 2, 241-248 (2010).

S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, H. V. Demir, S. P. DenBaars, "Advances in the LED materials and architectures for energy-saving solid-state lighting toward lighting revolution," IEEE Photon. J. 4, 613-619 (2012).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

H. K. Cho, S.-K. Kim, D. K. Bae, B.-C. Kang, J. S. Lee, Y.-H. Lee, "Laser liftoff GaN thin-film photonic crystal GaN-based light-emitting diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2096-2098 (2008).

IET Optoelectron. (1)

H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, X.-H. Li, R. A. Arif, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. T. Penn, N. Tansu, "Design and characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes in the green spectral regime," IET Optoelectron. 3, 283-295 (2009).

J. Alloys and Compounds (1)

B. Bokhonov, "Nanocrystalline powder formation during mechanical alloying of W and Si," J. Alloys and Compounds 199, (1993).

J. Appl. Phys. (7)

A. Bykhovski, B. Gelmont, M. Shur, A. Khan, "Current-voltage characteristics of strained piezoelectric structures," J. Appl. Phys. 77, 1616 (1995).

J. Zhang, H. Tong, G. Liu, J. A. Herbsommer, G. S. Huang, N. Tansu, "Characterizations of seebeck coefficients and thermoelectric figures of merit for AlInN alloys with various In-contents," J. Appl. Phys. 109, 053706 (2011).

T. Kozawa, T. Kachi, H. Kano, H. Nagase, N. Koide, K. Manabe, "Thermal stress in GaN epitaxial layers grown on sapphire substrates," J. Appl. Phys. 77, 4389 (1995).

V. Y. Davydov, N. S. Averkiev, I. N. Goncharuk, D. K. Nelson, I. P. Nikitina, A. S. Polkovnikov, A. N. Smirnov, M. A. Jacobson, O. K. Semchinova, "Raman and photoluminescence studies of biaxial strain in GaN epitaxial layers grown on 6H-SiC," J. Appl. Phys. 82, 5097 (1997).

G. Attolini, L. Francesio, P. Franzosi, C. Pelosi, S. Gennari, P. P. Lottici, "Raman scattering study of residual strain in GaAs/InP heterostructures," J. Appl. Phys. 75, 4156 (1993).

H. Zhao, N. Tansu, "Optical gain characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum wells lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 107, 113110 (2010).

J. Zhang, N. Tansu, "Improvement in spontaneous emission rates for InGaN quantum wells on ternary InGaN substrate for light-emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 110, 113110 (2011).

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

Y.-K. Ee, X.-H. Li, J. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, "Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire," J. Cryst. Growth 312, 1311-131 (2010).

Nanoscale Res. Lett. (1)

G. Liu, H. Zhao, J. Zhang, J. H. Park, L. J. Mawst, N. Tansu, "Selective area epitaxy of ultra-high density InGaN guantum dots by diblock copolymer lithography," Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6, 342 (2011).

Nature Photon. (1)

J. J. Wierer, A. David, Jr.M. M. Megens, "III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency," Nature Photon. 3, 163-169 (2009).

Opt. Expr. (2)

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, N. Tansu, "Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells," Opt. Expr. 19, A991-A1007 (2011).

Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, "Light extraction efficiency enhancement of InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with polydimethylsiloxane concave microstructures," Opt. Expr. 17, 13747 (2009).

Semiconductor Sci. and Technol. (1)

R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, "Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices," Semiconductor Sci. and Technol. 27, 024001 (2012).

Solid-State Electron. (1)

H. Zhao, G. Liu, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, "Current injection efficiency induced efficiency-droop in InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes," Solid-State Electron. 54, 1119-1124 (2010).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.