Abstract

An optimization of light extraction efficiency (LEE) from light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is provided. The optimization is achieved when both the cavity and waveguide modes are in their best conditions and their emitted waves interfere constructively in the grating-assisted structures. In other words, high LEE appears when the structural parameters results in good cavity modes in both planar and grating structures, and also when the propagation direction of the fundamental waveguide mode is significantly converted to the direction normal to the grating surface by the gratings. In this paper, we use two simple equations, one for cavity modes and the other for waveguide modes, to predict the loci of the optimal structural parameters of gratings. The prediction is verified with the rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA). We systematically present an investigation of the various structural effects of gratings on the LEE of the thin film vertical gallium-nitride (GaN) based LEDs. The results show that ultra-high LEE can be achieved when the equivalent cavity thickness is good for fundamental cavity mode, the source is positioned around antinodes for both cavity and waveguide modes, there is significant diffraction, and the fundamental waveguide mode is largely converted to the normal direction to the air, and the emitted waves from fundamental cavity and waveguide modes interfere constructively.

© 2013 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |

  1. N. Holonyak, Jr."Is the light emitting diode (LED) an ultimate lamp?," Amer. J. Phys. 68, 864-866 (2000).
  2. D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, S. L. Rudaz, "Illumination with solid state lighting technology," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 310-320 (2002).
  3. Y. Narukawa, "Improvement of luminous efficiency in white light emitting diodes by reducing a forward-bias voltage," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 963-965 (2007).
  4. M. R. Krames, "Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting," J. Display Technol. 3, 160-175 (2007).
  5. H. Zhao, "Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells," Opt. Express 19, A991-A1007 (2011).
  6. O. B. Shchekin, "High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 071109 (2006).
  7. Gardner, "Blue-emitting InGaN–GaN double-heterostructure light emitting diodes reaching maximum quantum efficiency above 200 A/cm2," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243506 (2007).
  8. J. J. Wierer, "High-power AlGaInN flip-chip light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3379-3381 (2001).
  9. W. S. Wong, "Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1360-1362 (1999).
  10. H. Kim, "Design of high-efficiency GaN-based light emitting diodes with vertical injection geometry," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 023510-99 (2007).
  11. U. Zehnder, "GaInN LEDs-straight way for solid state lighting," Proc. SPIE 6797, 67970E-67970E-7 (2007).
  12. G. Chen, "Performance of high-power III-nitride light emitting diodes," Phys. Status Solid. A 205, 1086-1092 (2008).
  13. T. Fujii, "Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 855 (2004).
  14. C. C. Yang, "Improving light output power of InGaN-based light emitting diodes with pattern-nanoporous p-type GaN:Mg surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 203103 (2008).
  15. C. H. Chiu, "Oblique electron-beam evaporation of distinctive indium-tin-oxide nanorods for enhanced light extraction from InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes," Opt. Express 17, 21250-21256 (2009).
  16. C. C. Lin, C. T. Lee, "Enhanced light extraction mechanism of GaN-based light-emitting diodes using top surface and side-wall nanorod arrays," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1132-1134 (2010).
  17. H. K. Lee, M. S. Kim, J. S. Yu, "Light-extraction enhancement of large-area GaN-based LEDs with electrochemically grown ZnO nanorod arrays," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1204-1206 (2011).
  18. S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. F. Schubert, "High extraction efficiency of spontaneous emission from slabs of photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3294-3297 (1997).
  19. M. Fujita, S. Takahashi, Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, S. Noda, "Simultaneous inhibition and redistribution of spontaneous light emission in photonic crystals," Science 308, 1296-1298 (2005).
  20. S. Noda, M. Fujita, T. Asano, "Spontaneous-emission control by photonic crystals and nanocavities," Nat. Photon. 1, 449-458 (2007).
  21. J. J. Wierer, "InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodesemploying photonic crystal structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3885 (2004).
  22. J. J. Wierer, A. David, M. M. Megens, "III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency," Nat. Photon. 3, 163-169 (2009).
  23. C. F. Lai, "Directional light extraction enhancement from GaN-based film-transferred photonic crystal light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 123106 (2009).
  24. Y. K. Ee, "Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes using SiO2/polystyrene microlens arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 221107 (2007).
  25. Y. K. Ee, "Light extraction efficiency enhancement of InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with polydimethylsiloxane concave microstructures," Opt. Express 17, 13747-13757 (2009).
  26. A. David, "Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061124 (2006).
  27. A. David, "GaN/InGaN light emitting diodes with embedded photonic crystal obtained by lateral epitaxial overgrowth," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 113514 (2008).
  28. E. Matioli, "GaN-based embedded 2D photonic crystal LEDs: Numerical optimization and device characterization," Phys. Status Solid. C 6, 675-679 (2009).
  29. E. Matioli, "High extraction efficiency light-emitting diodes based on embedded air-gap photonic-crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 031108 (2010).
  30. S. Noda, M. Fujita, "Light-emitting diodes: Photonic crystal efficiency boost," Nat. Photon. 3, 129-130 (2009).
  31. A. David, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, "Optimization of light-diffracting photonic-crystals for high extraction efficiency LEDs," J. Display Technol. 3, 133-148 (2007).
  32. H. Y. Ryu, J. I. Shim, "Structural parameter dependence of light extraction efficiency in photonic crystal in GaN vertical light-emitting diode structures," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 714-720 (2010).
  33. C. F. Lai, H. C. Kuo, C. H. Chao, P. Yu, W. Y. Yeh, "Structural effects on highly directional far-field emission patterns of GaN-based micro-cavity light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 2881-2889 (2010).
  34. D. Delbeke, P. Bienstman, R. Bockstaele, R. Baets, "Rigorous electromagnetic analysis of dipole emission in periodically corrugated layers: The grating assisted resonant-cavity light-emitting diode," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 19, 871-880 (2002).
  35. L. A. Coldren, S. W. Corzine, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits (Wiley, 1995) pp. 148-153.
  36. H. Benisty, H. De Neve, C. Weisbuch, "Impact of planar microcavity effects on light extraction—Part I: Basic concepts and analytical trends," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1612-1631 (1998).
  37. H. Benisty, H. De Neve, C. Weisbuch, "Impact of planar microcavity effects on light extraction—Part II: Selected exact simulations and role of photon recycling," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1612-1631 (1998).

2011

H. K. Lee, M. S. Kim, J. S. Yu, "Light-extraction enhancement of large-area GaN-based LEDs with electrochemically grown ZnO nanorod arrays," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1204-1206 (2011).

H. Zhao, "Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells," Opt. Express 19, A991-A1007 (2011).

2010

C. C. Lin, C. T. Lee, "Enhanced light extraction mechanism of GaN-based light-emitting diodes using top surface and side-wall nanorod arrays," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1132-1134 (2010).

H. Y. Ryu, J. I. Shim, "Structural parameter dependence of light extraction efficiency in photonic crystal in GaN vertical light-emitting diode structures," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 714-720 (2010).

C. F. Lai, H. C. Kuo, C. H. Chao, P. Yu, W. Y. Yeh, "Structural effects on highly directional far-field emission patterns of GaN-based micro-cavity light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 2881-2889 (2010).

E. Matioli, "High extraction efficiency light-emitting diodes based on embedded air-gap photonic-crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 031108 (2010).

2009

S. Noda, M. Fujita, "Light-emitting diodes: Photonic crystal efficiency boost," Nat. Photon. 3, 129-130 (2009).

E. Matioli, "GaN-based embedded 2D photonic crystal LEDs: Numerical optimization and device characterization," Phys. Status Solid. C 6, 675-679 (2009).

Y. K. Ee, "Light extraction efficiency enhancement of InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with polydimethylsiloxane concave microstructures," Opt. Express 17, 13747-13757 (2009).

C. H. Chiu, "Oblique electron-beam evaporation of distinctive indium-tin-oxide nanorods for enhanced light extraction from InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes," Opt. Express 17, 21250-21256 (2009).

J. J. Wierer, A. David, M. M. Megens, "III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency," Nat. Photon. 3, 163-169 (2009).

C. F. Lai, "Directional light extraction enhancement from GaN-based film-transferred photonic crystal light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 123106 (2009).

2008

G. Chen, "Performance of high-power III-nitride light emitting diodes," Phys. Status Solid. A 205, 1086-1092 (2008).

C. C. Yang, "Improving light output power of InGaN-based light emitting diodes with pattern-nanoporous p-type GaN:Mg surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 203103 (2008).

A. David, "GaN/InGaN light emitting diodes with embedded photonic crystal obtained by lateral epitaxial overgrowth," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 113514 (2008).

2007

S. Noda, M. Fujita, T. Asano, "Spontaneous-emission control by photonic crystals and nanocavities," Nat. Photon. 1, 449-458 (2007).

Y. Narukawa, "Improvement of luminous efficiency in white light emitting diodes by reducing a forward-bias voltage," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 963-965 (2007).

M. R. Krames, "Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting," J. Display Technol. 3, 160-175 (2007).

A. David, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, "Optimization of light-diffracting photonic-crystals for high extraction efficiency LEDs," J. Display Technol. 3, 133-148 (2007).

Gardner, "Blue-emitting InGaN–GaN double-heterostructure light emitting diodes reaching maximum quantum efficiency above 200 A/cm2," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243506 (2007).

H. Kim, "Design of high-efficiency GaN-based light emitting diodes with vertical injection geometry," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 023510-99 (2007).

U. Zehnder, "GaInN LEDs-straight way for solid state lighting," Proc. SPIE 6797, 67970E-67970E-7 (2007).

Y. K. Ee, "Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes using SiO2/polystyrene microlens arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 221107 (2007).

2006

A. David, "Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061124 (2006).

O. B. Shchekin, "High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 071109 (2006).

2005

M. Fujita, S. Takahashi, Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, S. Noda, "Simultaneous inhibition and redistribution of spontaneous light emission in photonic crystals," Science 308, 1296-1298 (2005).

2004

J. J. Wierer, "InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodesemploying photonic crystal structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3885 (2004).

T. Fujii, "Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 855 (2004).

2002

D. Delbeke, P. Bienstman, R. Bockstaele, R. Baets, "Rigorous electromagnetic analysis of dipole emission in periodically corrugated layers: The grating assisted resonant-cavity light-emitting diode," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 19, 871-880 (2002).

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, S. L. Rudaz, "Illumination with solid state lighting technology," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 310-320 (2002).

2001

J. J. Wierer, "High-power AlGaInN flip-chip light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3379-3381 (2001).

2000

N. Holonyak, Jr."Is the light emitting diode (LED) an ultimate lamp?," Amer. J. Phys. 68, 864-866 (2000).

1999

W. S. Wong, "Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1360-1362 (1999).

1998

H. Benisty, H. De Neve, C. Weisbuch, "Impact of planar microcavity effects on light extraction—Part I: Basic concepts and analytical trends," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1612-1631 (1998).

H. Benisty, H. De Neve, C. Weisbuch, "Impact of planar microcavity effects on light extraction—Part II: Selected exact simulations and role of photon recycling," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1612-1631 (1998).

1997

S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. F. Schubert, "High extraction efficiency of spontaneous emission from slabs of photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3294-3297 (1997).

Amer. J. Phys.

N. Holonyak, Jr."Is the light emitting diode (LED) an ultimate lamp?," Amer. J. Phys. 68, 864-866 (2000).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

O. B. Shchekin, "High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 071109 (2006).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Gardner, "Blue-emitting InGaN–GaN double-heterostructure light emitting diodes reaching maximum quantum efficiency above 200 A/cm2," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243506 (2007).

J. J. Wierer, "High-power AlGaInN flip-chip light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3379-3381 (2001).

W. S. Wong, "Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1360-1362 (1999).

H. Kim, "Design of high-efficiency GaN-based light emitting diodes with vertical injection geometry," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 023510-99 (2007).

T. Fujii, "Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 855 (2004).

C. C. Yang, "Improving light output power of InGaN-based light emitting diodes with pattern-nanoporous p-type GaN:Mg surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 203103 (2008).

C. F. Lai, "Directional light extraction enhancement from GaN-based film-transferred photonic crystal light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 123106 (2009).

Y. K. Ee, "Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes using SiO2/polystyrene microlens arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 221107 (2007).

A. David, "Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061124 (2006).

A. David, "GaN/InGaN light emitting diodes with embedded photonic crystal obtained by lateral epitaxial overgrowth," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 113514 (2008).

J. J. Wierer, "InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodesemploying photonic crystal structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3885 (2004).

E. Matioli, "High extraction efficiency light-emitting diodes based on embedded air-gap photonic-crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 031108 (2010).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

H. Y. Ryu, J. I. Shim, "Structural parameter dependence of light extraction efficiency in photonic crystal in GaN vertical light-emitting diode structures," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 714-720 (2010).

H. Benisty, H. De Neve, C. Weisbuch, "Impact of planar microcavity effects on light extraction—Part I: Basic concepts and analytical trends," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1612-1631 (1998).

H. Benisty, H. De Neve, C. Weisbuch, "Impact of planar microcavity effects on light extraction—Part II: Selected exact simulations and role of photon recycling," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1612-1631 (1998).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, S. L. Rudaz, "Illumination with solid state lighting technology," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 310-320 (2002).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

C. C. Lin, C. T. Lee, "Enhanced light extraction mechanism of GaN-based light-emitting diodes using top surface and side-wall nanorod arrays," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1132-1134 (2010).

H. K. Lee, M. S. Kim, J. S. Yu, "Light-extraction enhancement of large-area GaN-based LEDs with electrochemically grown ZnO nanorod arrays," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1204-1206 (2011).

J. Display Technol.

A. David, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, "Optimization of light-diffracting photonic-crystals for high extraction efficiency LEDs," J. Display Technol. 3, 133-148 (2007).

J. Display Technol.

J. Lightw. Technol.

C. F. Lai, H. C. Kuo, C. H. Chao, P. Yu, W. Y. Yeh, "Structural effects on highly directional far-field emission patterns of GaN-based micro-cavity light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 2881-2889 (2010).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A

D. Delbeke, P. Bienstman, R. Bockstaele, R. Baets, "Rigorous electromagnetic analysis of dipole emission in periodically corrugated layers: The grating assisted resonant-cavity light-emitting diode," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 19, 871-880 (2002).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

Y. Narukawa, "Improvement of luminous efficiency in white light emitting diodes by reducing a forward-bias voltage," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 963-965 (2007).

Nat. Photon.

J. J. Wierer, A. David, M. M. Megens, "III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency," Nat. Photon. 3, 163-169 (2009).

Nat. Photon.

S. Noda, M. Fujita, "Light-emitting diodes: Photonic crystal efficiency boost," Nat. Photon. 3, 129-130 (2009).

S. Noda, M. Fujita, T. Asano, "Spontaneous-emission control by photonic crystals and nanocavities," Nat. Photon. 1, 449-458 (2007).

Opt. Express

C. H. Chiu, "Oblique electron-beam evaporation of distinctive indium-tin-oxide nanorods for enhanced light extraction from InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes," Opt. Express 17, 21250-21256 (2009).

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev. Lett.

S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. F. Schubert, "High extraction efficiency of spontaneous emission from slabs of photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3294-3297 (1997).

Phys. Status Solid. A

G. Chen, "Performance of high-power III-nitride light emitting diodes," Phys. Status Solid. A 205, 1086-1092 (2008).

Phys. Status Solid. C

E. Matioli, "GaN-based embedded 2D photonic crystal LEDs: Numerical optimization and device characterization," Phys. Status Solid. C 6, 675-679 (2009).

Proc. SPIE

U. Zehnder, "GaInN LEDs-straight way for solid state lighting," Proc. SPIE 6797, 67970E-67970E-7 (2007).

Science

M. Fujita, S. Takahashi, Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, S. Noda, "Simultaneous inhibition and redistribution of spontaneous light emission in photonic crystals," Science 308, 1296-1298 (2005).

Other

L. A. Coldren, S. W. Corzine, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits (Wiley, 1995) pp. 148-153.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.