Abstract

Step graded-refractive index (SGRI) (ZnO)<sub><i>x</i></sub>(SiO<sub>2</sub>)<sub>1-<i>x</i></sub> micropillar multilayers have been introduced and demonstrated on GaN-based LEDs combined with the mesh ITO. The SGRI (ZnO)<sub><i>x</i></sub>(SiO<sub>2</sub>)<sub>1-<i>x</i></sub> micropillars were produced by controlling the Zn/Zn+Si ratio of co-sputtered ZnO and SiO<sub>2</sub>. The introduced three-layered SGRI (ZnO)<sub><i>x</i></sub>(SiO<sub>2</sub>)<sub>1-<i>x</i></sub> micropillars improved both critical angle inside GaN LEDs and Fresnel transmittance coefficient (<i>η</i><sub>Fr</sub>) as well as had better light coupling into the micropillars. Moreover, a high number of layers of the SGRI micropillars would aid the light coupled in the pillars to escape from the side wall of the pillar. LEDs with three-layered SGRI (ZnO)<sub><i>x</i></sub>(SiO<sub>2</sub>)<sub>1-<i>x</i></sub> micropillars exhibited output power enhancements of 12.2% with a 20 mA <i>V<sub>f</sub></i> of 3.19 V. The output power of the mesh ITO LEDs with SGRI (ZnO)<sub><i>x</i></sub>(SiO<sub>2</sub>)<sub>1-<i>x</i></sub> micropillars was further enhanced to 15.3% by improving the current spreading.

© 2012 IEEE

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  1. S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, Y. C. Lin, S. C. Shei, H. M. Lo, H. Y. Lin, J. C. Ke, "Highly reliable nitride based LEDs with SPS+ITO upper contacts," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1439-1443 (2003).
  2. S. J. Chang, W. C. Lai, Y. K. Su, J. F. Chen, C. H. Liu, U. H. Liaw, "InGaN/GaN multiquantum well blue and green light emitting diodes," IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 278-283 (2002).
  3. Y. Li, S. Y. `. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, C. Wetzel, "Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151102 (2011).
  4. P. S. Hsu, M. T. Hardy, F. Wu, I. Koslow, E. C. Young, A. E. Romanov, K. Fujito, D. F. Feezell, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, "444.9 nm semipolar (11–22) laser diode grown on an intentionally stress relaxed InGaN waveguiding layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 021104 (2012).
  5. Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, "Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 1066-1072 (2009).
  6. Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. Biser, W. J. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, "Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire," J. Cryst. Growth 312, 1311-1315 (2010).
  7. Y. F. Li, S. You, M. W. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. T. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, C. Wetzel, "Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151102 (2011).
  8. R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, "Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27, 024001 (2012).
  9. H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, N. Tansu, "Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells," Opt. Express 19, A991-A1007 (2011).
  10. J. Zhang, N. Tansu, "Improvement in spontaneous emission rates for InGaN quantum wells on ternary InGaN substrate for light-emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 110, 113110 (2011).
  11. P. S. Hsu, M. T. Hardy, F. Wu, I. Koslow, E. C. Young, A. E. Romanov, K. Fujito, D. F. Feezell, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, "444.9 nm semipolar (11–22) laser diode grown on an intentionally stress relaxed InGaN waveguiding layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 021104 (2012).
  12. G. B. Lin, D. Meyaard, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, C. Sone, "Analytic model for the efficiency droop in semiconductors with asymmetric carrier-transport properties based on drift-induced reduction of injection efficiency," Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 161106 (2012).
  13. D. S. Meyaard, G. B. Lin, Q. F. Shan, J. H. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. W. Shim, M. H. Kim, C. S. Sone, "Asymmetry of carrier transport leading to efficiency droop in GaInN based light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 251115 (2011).
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  15. T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, "Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 855-857 (2004).
  16. S. I. Na, G. Y. Ha, D. S. Han, S. S. Kim, J. Y. Kim, J. H. Lim, D. J. Kim, K. I. Min, S. J. Park, "Selective wet etching of p-GaN for efficient GaN-based light-emitting diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1512-1514 (2006).
  17. C. H. Kuo, C. C. Lin, S. J. Chang, Y. P. Hsu, J. M. Tsai, W. C. Lai, P. T. Wang, "Nitride-based light-emitting diodes with p-AlInGaN surface layers," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 52, 2346-2349 (2005).
  18. J. K. Sheu, C. M. Tsai, M. L. Lee, S. C. Shei, W. C. Lai, "InGaN light-emitting diodes with naturally formed truncated micropyramids on top surface," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 113505 (2006).
  19. C. M. Tsai, J. K. Sheu, W. C. Lai, Y. P. Hsu, P. T. Wang, C. T. Kuo, C. W. Kuo, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, "Enhanced output power in GaN-based LEDs with naturally textured surfaced growth by MOCVD," IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 26, 464-466 (2005).
  20. C. H. Kuo, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, C. S. Chang, L. W. Wu, W. C. Lai, J. F. Chen, J. K. Sheu, H. M. Lo, J. M. Tsai, "Nitride-based near-ultraviolet LEDs with an ITO transparent contact," Mater. Sci. Eng. B. 106, 69-72 (2004).
  21. T. Kim, A. J. Danner, K. D. Choquette, "Enhancement in external quantum efficiency of blue light-emitting diode by photonic crystal surface grating," Electron Lett. 41, 1138-1139 (2005).
  22. J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, M. M. Sigalas, "InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3885-3887 (2004).
  23. K. J. Byeon, J. Y. Cho, J. Kim, H. Park, H. Lee, "Fabrication of SiNx-based photonic crystals on GaN-based LED devices with patterned sapphire substrate by nanoimprint lithography," Opt. Express 20, 11423-11432 (2012).
  24. S. H. Kim, K. D. Lee, J. Y. Kim, M. K. Kwon, S. J. Park, "Fabrication of photonic crystal structures on light emitting diodes by nanoimprint lithography," Nanotechnol. 18, 055306 (2007).
  25. Y. C. Chen, J. B. Geddes, L. L. Yin, P. Wiltzius, P. V. Braun, "X-ray computed tomography of holographically fabricated three-dimensional photonic crystals," Adv. Mater. 24, 2863-2868 (2012).
  26. Y. C. Chen, J. B. Geddes, J. T. Lee, P. V. Braun, P. Wiltzius, "Holographically fabricated photonic crystals with large reflectance," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 241103 (2007).
  27. Y. K. Ee, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, "Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes using SiO2/polystyrene microlens arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 221107 (2007).
  28. Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, H. P. Zhao, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, "Optimization of light extraction efficiency of III-nitride LEDs with self-assembled colloidal-based microlenses," IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 1218-1225 (2009).
  29. Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, "Light extraction efficiency enhancement of InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with polydimethylsiloxane concave microstructures," Opt. Express 17, 13747-13757 (2009).
  30. X. H. Li, R. Song, Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, "Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios," IEEE Photon. J. 3, 489 (2011).
  31. J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, H. Kim, C. Sone, "Light-extraction enhancement of GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index indium tin oxide anti-reflection contact," Adv. Mater. 20, 801-804 (2008).
  32. J. J. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, Y. Park, "Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 221111 (2008).
  33. S. J. Chang, C. H. Kuo, Y. K. Su, L. W. Wu, J. K. Sheu, T. C. Wen, W. C. Lai, J. F. Chen, J. M. Tsai, "400 nm InGaN/GaN and InGaN/AlGaN multiquantum well light-emitting diodes," IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 744-748 (2002).
  34. J. T. Chen, W. C. Lai, C. H. Chen, Y. Y. Yang, J. K. Sheu, L. W. Lai, "Electroluminescence of ZnO nanocrystal in sputtered ZnO-SiO2 nanocomposite light-emitting devices," Opt. Express 19, 11873-11879 (2011).
  35. C. H. Kuo, C. M. Chen, C. W. Kuo, C. J. Tun, C. J. Pan, "Improvement of near-ultraviolet nitride-based light emitting diodes with mesh indium tin oxide contact layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 201104 (2006).
  36. J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. S. Kim, C. S. Sone, Y. J. Park, "Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 221111 (2008).

2012 (6)

P. S. Hsu, M. T. Hardy, F. Wu, I. Koslow, E. C. Young, A. E. Romanov, K. Fujito, D. F. Feezell, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, "444.9 nm semipolar (11–22) laser diode grown on an intentionally stress relaxed InGaN waveguiding layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 021104 (2012).

R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, "Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27, 024001 (2012).

P. S. Hsu, M. T. Hardy, F. Wu, I. Koslow, E. C. Young, A. E. Romanov, K. Fujito, D. F. Feezell, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, "444.9 nm semipolar (11–22) laser diode grown on an intentionally stress relaxed InGaN waveguiding layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 021104 (2012).

G. B. Lin, D. Meyaard, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, C. Sone, "Analytic model for the efficiency droop in semiconductors with asymmetric carrier-transport properties based on drift-induced reduction of injection efficiency," Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 161106 (2012).

Y. C. Chen, J. B. Geddes, L. L. Yin, P. Wiltzius, P. V. Braun, "X-ray computed tomography of holographically fabricated three-dimensional photonic crystals," Adv. Mater. 24, 2863-2868 (2012).

K. J. Byeon, J. Y. Cho, J. Kim, H. Park, H. Lee, "Fabrication of SiNx-based photonic crystals on GaN-based LED devices with patterned sapphire substrate by nanoimprint lithography," Opt. Express 20, 11423-11432 (2012).

2011 (7)

J. T. Chen, W. C. Lai, C. H. Chen, Y. Y. Yang, J. K. Sheu, L. W. Lai, "Electroluminescence of ZnO nanocrystal in sputtered ZnO-SiO2 nanocomposite light-emitting devices," Opt. Express 19, 11873-11879 (2011).

H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, N. Tansu, "Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells," Opt. Express 19, A991-A1007 (2011).

Y. F. Li, S. You, M. W. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. T. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, C. Wetzel, "Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151102 (2011).

X. H. Li, R. Song, Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, "Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios," IEEE Photon. J. 3, 489 (2011).

D. S. Meyaard, G. B. Lin, Q. F. Shan, J. H. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. W. Shim, M. H. Kim, C. S. Sone, "Asymmetry of carrier transport leading to efficiency droop in GaInN based light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 251115 (2011).

J. Zhang, N. Tansu, "Improvement in spontaneous emission rates for InGaN quantum wells on ternary InGaN substrate for light-emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 110, 113110 (2011).

Y. Li, S. Y. `. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, C. Wetzel, "Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151102 (2011).

2010 (2)

Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. Biser, W. J. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, "Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire," J. Cryst. Growth 312, 1311-1315 (2010).

H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, "Current injection efficiency induced efficiency-droop in InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes," Solid-State Electron. 54, 1119-1124 (2010).

2009 (3)

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, "Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 1066-1072 (2009).

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, "Light extraction efficiency enhancement of InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with polydimethylsiloxane concave microstructures," Opt. Express 17, 13747-13757 (2009).

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, H. P. Zhao, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, "Optimization of light extraction efficiency of III-nitride LEDs with self-assembled colloidal-based microlenses," IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 1218-1225 (2009).

2008 (3)

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. S. Kim, C. S. Sone, Y. J. Park, "Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 221111 (2008).

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, H. Kim, C. Sone, "Light-extraction enhancement of GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index indium tin oxide anti-reflection contact," Adv. Mater. 20, 801-804 (2008).

J. J. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, Y. Park, "Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 221111 (2008).

2007 (3)

S. H. Kim, K. D. Lee, J. Y. Kim, M. K. Kwon, S. J. Park, "Fabrication of photonic crystal structures on light emitting diodes by nanoimprint lithography," Nanotechnol. 18, 055306 (2007).

Y. C. Chen, J. B. Geddes, J. T. Lee, P. V. Braun, P. Wiltzius, "Holographically fabricated photonic crystals with large reflectance," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 241103 (2007).

Y. K. Ee, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, "Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes using SiO2/polystyrene microlens arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 221107 (2007).

2006 (3)

C. H. Kuo, C. M. Chen, C. W. Kuo, C. J. Tun, C. J. Pan, "Improvement of near-ultraviolet nitride-based light emitting diodes with mesh indium tin oxide contact layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 201104 (2006).

S. I. Na, G. Y. Ha, D. S. Han, S. S. Kim, J. Y. Kim, J. H. Lim, D. J. Kim, K. I. Min, S. J. Park, "Selective wet etching of p-GaN for efficient GaN-based light-emitting diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1512-1514 (2006).

J. K. Sheu, C. M. Tsai, M. L. Lee, S. C. Shei, W. C. Lai, "InGaN light-emitting diodes with naturally formed truncated micropyramids on top surface," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 113505 (2006).

2005 (3)

C. M. Tsai, J. K. Sheu, W. C. Lai, Y. P. Hsu, P. T. Wang, C. T. Kuo, C. W. Kuo, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, "Enhanced output power in GaN-based LEDs with naturally textured surfaced growth by MOCVD," IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 26, 464-466 (2005).

C. H. Kuo, C. C. Lin, S. J. Chang, Y. P. Hsu, J. M. Tsai, W. C. Lai, P. T. Wang, "Nitride-based light-emitting diodes with p-AlInGaN surface layers," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 52, 2346-2349 (2005).

T. Kim, A. J. Danner, K. D. Choquette, "Enhancement in external quantum efficiency of blue light-emitting diode by photonic crystal surface grating," Electron Lett. 41, 1138-1139 (2005).

2004 (3)

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, M. M. Sigalas, "InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3885-3887 (2004).

C. H. Kuo, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, C. S. Chang, L. W. Wu, W. C. Lai, J. F. Chen, J. K. Sheu, H. M. Lo, J. M. Tsai, "Nitride-based near-ultraviolet LEDs with an ITO transparent contact," Mater. Sci. Eng. B. 106, 69-72 (2004).

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, "Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 855-857 (2004).

2003 (1)

S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, Y. C. Lin, S. C. Shei, H. M. Lo, H. Y. Lin, J. C. Ke, "Highly reliable nitride based LEDs with SPS+ITO upper contacts," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1439-1443 (2003).

2002 (2)

S. J. Chang, W. C. Lai, Y. K. Su, J. F. Chen, C. H. Liu, U. H. Liaw, "InGaN/GaN multiquantum well blue and green light emitting diodes," IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 278-283 (2002).

S. J. Chang, C. H. Kuo, Y. K. Su, L. W. Wu, J. K. Sheu, T. C. Wen, W. C. Lai, J. F. Chen, J. M. Tsai, "400 nm InGaN/GaN and InGaN/AlGaN multiquantum well light-emitting diodes," IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 744-748 (2002).

Adv. Mater. (2)

Y. C. Chen, J. B. Geddes, L. L. Yin, P. Wiltzius, P. V. Braun, "X-ray computed tomography of holographically fabricated three-dimensional photonic crystals," Adv. Mater. 24, 2863-2868 (2012).

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, H. Kim, C. Sone, "Light-extraction enhancement of GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index indium tin oxide anti-reflection contact," Adv. Mater. 20, 801-804 (2008).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (14)

J. J. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, Y. Park, "Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 221111 (2008).

C. H. Kuo, C. M. Chen, C. W. Kuo, C. J. Tun, C. J. Pan, "Improvement of near-ultraviolet nitride-based light emitting diodes with mesh indium tin oxide contact layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 201104 (2006).

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. S. Kim, C. S. Sone, Y. J. Park, "Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 221111 (2008).

Y. C. Chen, J. B. Geddes, J. T. Lee, P. V. Braun, P. Wiltzius, "Holographically fabricated photonic crystals with large reflectance," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 241103 (2007).

Y. K. Ee, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, "Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes using SiO2/polystyrene microlens arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 221107 (2007).

J. K. Sheu, C. M. Tsai, M. L. Lee, S. C. Shei, W. C. Lai, "InGaN light-emitting diodes with naturally formed truncated micropyramids on top surface," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 113505 (2006).

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, M. M. Sigalas, "InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3885-3887 (2004).

Y. Li, S. Y. `. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, C. Wetzel, "Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151102 (2011).

P. S. Hsu, M. T. Hardy, F. Wu, I. Koslow, E. C. Young, A. E. Romanov, K. Fujito, D. F. Feezell, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, "444.9 nm semipolar (11–22) laser diode grown on an intentionally stress relaxed InGaN waveguiding layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 021104 (2012).

Y. F. Li, S. You, M. W. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. T. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, C. Wetzel, "Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151102 (2011).

P. S. Hsu, M. T. Hardy, F. Wu, I. Koslow, E. C. Young, A. E. Romanov, K. Fujito, D. F. Feezell, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, "444.9 nm semipolar (11–22) laser diode grown on an intentionally stress relaxed InGaN waveguiding layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 021104 (2012).

G. B. Lin, D. Meyaard, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, C. Sone, "Analytic model for the efficiency droop in semiconductors with asymmetric carrier-transport properties based on drift-induced reduction of injection efficiency," Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 161106 (2012).

D. S. Meyaard, G. B. Lin, Q. F. Shan, J. H. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. W. Shim, M. H. Kim, C. S. Sone, "Asymmetry of carrier transport leading to efficiency droop in GaInN based light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 251115 (2011).

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, "Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 855-857 (2004).

Electron Lett. (1)

T. Kim, A. J. Danner, K. D. Choquette, "Enhancement in external quantum efficiency of blue light-emitting diode by photonic crystal surface grating," Electron Lett. 41, 1138-1139 (2005).

IEEE Electron. Device Lett. (1)

C. M. Tsai, J. K. Sheu, W. C. Lai, Y. P. Hsu, P. T. Wang, C. T. Kuo, C. W. Kuo, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, "Enhanced output power in GaN-based LEDs with naturally textured surfaced growth by MOCVD," IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 26, 464-466 (2005).

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