Abstract

In this paper, we have proposed a “Chess board” like photonic crystal (PhC) structure on top surface of p-GaN/SiO2 layer in conventional LED, on top surface of n-GaN layer in vertical LED and an embedded PhC structure in n-GaN layer for achieving an improved light extraction in GaN/InGaN LEDs. The results are compared with that of the LED structures with conventional 2-D PhC structures and of the conventional LEDs. Results from these simulations show that the maximum light extraction for conventional LED having “Chess board” like structure occurs for a grating period of 0.6 μm with a grating-depth of 0.18 μm, which gives ~4 times enhancement compared to that of conventional LED and 1.2–1.4 times compared to that of LED with conventional 2-D PhCs. In case of a vertical LED, the maximum enhancement in light extraction occurs for the same grating-period with a depth of 0.5 μm, which is ~3.5 times compared to that of the conventional vertical LEDs. We have also simulated our proposed structure on top of SiO2-on-p-GaN layer in order to avoid the etching of p-GaN layer, which shows ~2.2 times enhancement in comparison to that of conventional LED. For the proposed embedded PhC structure in n-GaN layer, the light extraction is enhanced by a factor of 2.8–3.5 as compared to the conventional LED.

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2012 (6)

G.-B. Lin, D. Meyaard, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, C. Sone, "Analytic model for the efficiency droop in semiconductors with asymmetric carrier-transport properties based on drift-induced reduction of injection efficiency," Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 161106-1-161106-4 (2012).

D. A. Browne, E. C. Young, J. R. Lang, C. A. Hurni, J. S. Speck, "Indium and impurity incorporation in InGaN films on polar, nonpolar, semipolar GaN orientations grown by ammonia molecular beam epitaxy," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 30, 041513-1-041513-8 (2012).

R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, "Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27, 024001-1-024001-14 (2012).

J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S.-C. Huang, Y.-L. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, C. Weisbuch, "Double embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett 100, 171105-1-171105-4 (2012).

W. H. Koo, W. Youn, P. Zhu, X.-H. Li, N. Tansu, F. So, "Light extraction of organic light emitting diodes by defective hexagonal-close-packed array," Adv. Funct. Mater. 22, 3454-3459 (2012).

S.-K. Kim, H.-S. Ee, K. D. Song, H.-G. Park, "Design of out-coupling structures with metal-dielectric surface relief," Opt. Expr. 20, 17230-17236 (2012).

2011 (5)

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, N. Tansu, "Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells," Opt. Expr. 19, A991-A1007 (2011).

J. Lee, D.-U. Kim, H. Jeon, "Photonic crystal digital alloys and their band structure properties," Opt. Expr. 19, 19255-19264 (2011).

X.-H. Li, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, "Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios," IEEE Photon. J. 3, 489-499 (2011).

E. Rangel, E. Matioli, Y.-S. Choi, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, E. L. Hu, "Directionality control through selective excitation of low-order guided modes in thin-film InGaN photonic crystal light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 081104-1-081104-3 (2011).

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, C. Wetzel, "Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151102-1-151102-3 (2011).

2010 (4)

H. Zhao, G. Liu, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, "Current injection efficiency induced efficiency-droop in InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes," Solid-State Electron. 54, 1119-1124 (2010).

H. J. Kim, S. Choi, S.-S. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, K. Sun, F. A. Ponce, "Improvement of quantum efficiency by employing active-layer-friendly lattice-matched InAlN electron blocking layer in green light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 101102-1-101102-3 (2010).

Y.-K. Ee, X.-H. Li, J. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, "Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire," J. Crystal Growth 312, 1311-1315 (2010).

E. Matioli, B. Fleury, E. Rangel, T. Melo, E. Hu, J. Speck, C. Weisbuch, "High extraction efficiency GaN-based photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes: Comparison of extraction lengths between surface and embedded photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Exp. 3, 032103-1-032103-3 (2010).

2009 (4)

Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, H. Zhao, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, "Optimization of light extraction efficiency of III-nitride LEDs with self-assembled colloidal-based microlenses," IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 1218-1225 (2009).

Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, "Light extraction efficiency enhancement of InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with polydimethylsiloxane concave microstructures," Opt. Expr. 17, 13747-13757 (2009).

Y.-K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, "Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode," IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 1066-1072 (2009).

J. J. Wierer, A. David, M. M. Megens, "III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efiiciency," Nat. Photon. 3, 163-169 (2009).

2008 (1)

H. J. Kim, D.-U. Kim, Y.-G. Roh, J. Yu, H. Jeon, Q.-H. Park, "Photonic crystal alloys: A new twist in controlling photonic band structure properties," Opt. Expr. 16, 6579-6585 (2008).

2007 (5)

D. H. Long, I. K. Hwang, S. W. Ryu, "Optimization of a hexagonal photonic crystal light-emitting diode for enhanced light extraction by using a FDTD simulation," J. Korean Phys. Soc. 51, 1400-1403 (2007).

A. David, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, "Optimization of light-diffracting photonic-crystals for high extraction efficiency LEDs," IEEE J. Disp. Technol. 3, 133-148 (2007).

Y.-K. Ee, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, "Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes using SiO2/polystyrene microlens arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 221107-1-221107-3 (2007).

C. C. Wang, H. Ku, C. C. Liu, K. K. Chong, C. I. Hung, Y. H. Wang, M. P. Houng, "Enhancement of the light output performance for GaN-based light-emitting diodes by bottom pillar structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 121109-1-121109-3 (2007).

C. H. Kuo, H. C. Feng, C. W. Kuo, C. M. Chen, L. W. Wu, G. C. Chi, "Nitride-based near-ultraviolet light emitting diodes with meshed pGaN," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 142115-1-142115-3 (2007).

2006 (1)

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, H. Benisty, "Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided mode distribution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061124-1-061124-3 (2006).

2005 (1)

D.-H. Kim, C.-O. Cho, Y.-G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, Q.-H. Park, "Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns," Appl. Phys. Lett 87, 203508-1-203508-3 (2005).

2004 (1)

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, M. M. Sigalas, "InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3885-3887 (2004).

2003 (1)

Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y.-C. Kim, Y. R. Do, "A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3779-3781 (2003).

2002 (1)

M. Rattier, H. Benisty, R. P. Stanley, J.-F. Carlin, R. Houdré, U. Oesterle, C. J. M. Smith, C. Weisbuch, T. F. Krauss, "Toward ultrahigh-efficiency aluminum oxide microcavity light-emitting diodes: Guided mode extraction by photonic crystals," IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 238-247 (2002).

2000 (2)

1999 (1)

S. J. Pearton, J. C. Zolper, R. J. Shul, F. Ren, "GaN: Processing, defects and devices," J. Appl. Phys. 86, 1-78 (1999).

1997 (1)

S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. F. Schubert, "High extraction efficiency of spontaneous emission from slabs of photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3294-3297 (1997).

1993 (1)

E. Y. Schnitzer, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, "Ultrahigh spontaneous emission quantum efficiency, 99.7% internally and 72% externally, from Al-GaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs double heterostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 131-133 (1993).

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

W. H. Koo, W. Youn, P. Zhu, X.-H. Li, N. Tansu, F. So, "Light extraction of organic light emitting diodes by defective hexagonal-close-packed array," Adv. Funct. Mater. 22, 3454-3459 (2012).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, C. Wetzel, "Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151102-1-151102-3 (2011).

Appl. Phys. Lett (1)

J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S.-C. Huang, Y.-L. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, C. Weisbuch, "Double embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett 100, 171105-1-171105-4 (2012).

Appl. Phys. Exp. (1)

E. Matioli, B. Fleury, E. Rangel, T. Melo, E. Hu, J. Speck, C. Weisbuch, "High extraction efficiency GaN-based photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes: Comparison of extraction lengths between surface and embedded photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Exp. 3, 032103-1-032103-3 (2010).

Appl. Phys. Lett (1)

D.-H. Kim, C.-O. Cho, Y.-G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, Q.-H. Park, "Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns," Appl. Phys. Lett 87, 203508-1-203508-3 (2005).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (10)

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, M. M. Sigalas, "InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3885-3887 (2004).

C. C. Wang, H. Ku, C. C. Liu, K. K. Chong, C. I. Hung, Y. H. Wang, M. P. Houng, "Enhancement of the light output performance for GaN-based light-emitting diodes by bottom pillar structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 121109-1-121109-3 (2007).

C. H. Kuo, H. C. Feng, C. W. Kuo, C. M. Chen, L. W. Wu, G. C. Chi, "Nitride-based near-ultraviolet light emitting diodes with meshed pGaN," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 142115-1-142115-3 (2007).

E. Y. Schnitzer, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, "Ultrahigh spontaneous emission quantum efficiency, 99.7% internally and 72% externally, from Al-GaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs double heterostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 131-133 (1993).

E. Rangel, E. Matioli, Y.-S. Choi, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, E. L. Hu, "Directionality control through selective excitation of low-order guided modes in thin-film InGaN photonic crystal light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 081104-1-081104-3 (2011).

G.-B. Lin, D. Meyaard, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, C. Sone, "Analytic model for the efficiency droop in semiconductors with asymmetric carrier-transport properties based on drift-induced reduction of injection efficiency," Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 161106-1-161106-4 (2012).

H. J. Kim, S. Choi, S.-S. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, K. Sun, F. A. Ponce, "Improvement of quantum efficiency by employing active-layer-friendly lattice-matched InAlN electron blocking layer in green light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 101102-1-101102-3 (2010).

Y.-K. Ee, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, "Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes using SiO2/polystyrene microlens arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 221107-1-221107-3 (2007).

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, H. Benisty, "Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided mode distribution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061124-1-061124-3 (2006).

Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y.-C. Kim, Y. R. Do, "A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3779-3781 (2003).

IEEE J. Disp. Technol. (1)

A. David, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, "Optimization of light-diffracting photonic-crystals for high extraction efficiency LEDs," IEEE J. Disp. Technol. 3, 133-148 (2007).

IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, H. Zhao, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, "Optimization of light extraction efficiency of III-nitride LEDs with self-assembled colloidal-based microlenses," IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 1218-1225 (2009).

IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Rattier, H. Benisty, R. P. Stanley, J.-F. Carlin, R. Houdré, U. Oesterle, C. J. M. Smith, C. Weisbuch, T. F. Krauss, "Toward ultrahigh-efficiency aluminum oxide microcavity light-emitting diodes: Guided mode extraction by photonic crystals," IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 238-247 (2002).

IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

Y.-K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, "Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode," IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 1066-1072 (2009).

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

X.-H. Li, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, "Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios," IEEE Photon. J. 3, 489-499 (2011).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. J. Pearton, J. C. Zolper, R. J. Shul, F. Ren, "GaN: Processing, defects and devices," J. Appl. Phys. 86, 1-78 (1999).

J. Crystal Growth (1)

Y.-K. Ee, X.-H. Li, J. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, "Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire," J. Crystal Growth 312, 1311-1315 (2010).

J. Korean Phys. Soc. (1)

D. H. Long, I. K. Hwang, S. W. Ryu, "Optimization of a hexagonal photonic crystal light-emitting diode for enhanced light extraction by using a FDTD simulation," J. Korean Phys. Soc. 51, 1400-1403 (2007).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

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Nat. Photon. (1)

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