Abstract

Detailed analysis of experimentally observed far-field diffraction patterns from LEDs containing a buried photonic quasi-crystals (PQC) slab are presented for devices with PQC layer depths of 300 to 1300 nm and pitch 400 nm. Ewald constructions allowed identification of the features in experimental data to be correlated with identified waveguide modes from which light is extracted. Effective indices for the slab waveguide modes calculated by a modal expansion method are found to be in close agreement with values extracted from the experimental results, allowing validation of both an effective medium model for the PQC slabs and a design and analysis method for LED structures with diffractive buried photonic crystals.

© 2013 IEEE

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  3. M. Rattier, H. Benisty, R. P. Stanley, J. Carlin, R. Houdré, U. Oesterle, C. J. M. Smith, C. Weisbuch, T. F. Krauss, "Toward ultrahigh-efficiency aluminum oxide microcavity light-emitting diodes?—Guided mode extraction by photonic crystals," IEEE J. Sel. Topics. Quantum Electron. 8, 238-247 (2002).
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  5. A. David, C. Meier, R. Sharma, F. S. Diana, S. P. DenBaars, E. Hu, S. Nakamura, C. Weisbuch, H. Benisty, "Photonic bands in two-dimensionally patterned multimode GaN waveguides for light extraction," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 101107 (2005).
  6. J. J. Wierer, A. David, M. M. Megens, "III-Nitride Photonic-Crystal Light-Emitting Diodes with High Extraction Efficiency," Nature Photon. 3, 163-169 (2009).
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  15. M. D. B. Charlton, P. A. Shields, D. W. E. Allsopp, W. N. Wang, "High-efficiency photonic quasi-crystal light emitting diodes incorporating buried photonic crystal structures," Proc. SPIE (2010) pp. 778407.
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  17. E. Matioli, S. Brinkley, K. M. Kelchner, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. Speck, C. Weisbuch, "Polarized light extraction in m-plane GaN light-emitting diodes by embedded photonic-crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 251112 (2011).
  18. P. A. Shields, M. D. B. Charlton, C. J. Lewins, X. Gao, D. W. E. Allsopp, W. N. Wang, B. Humphreys, "Effect of coalescence layer thickness on the properties of thin-chip InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes with embedded photonic quasi-crystal structures," Physica Status Solid. (a) 209, 451-455 (2012).
  19. K. J. Lethy, P. R. Edwards, C. Liu, P. a Shields, D. W. E. Allsopp, R. W. Martin, "Cathodoluminescence studies of GaN coalesced from nanopyramids selectively grown by MOVPE," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27, 085010 (2012).
  20. P. A. Shields, D. W. E. Allsopp, "Nanoimprint lithography resist profile inversion for lift-off applications," Microelectron. Eng. 88, 3011-3014 (2011).
  21. C. Liu, P. A. Shields, Q. Chen, D. W. E. Allsopp, W. N. Wang, C. R. Bowen, T.-L. Phan, D. Cherns, "Variations in mechanisms of selective area growth of GaN on nano-patterned substrates by MOVPE," Phys. Status Solid. (c) 7, 32-35 (2010).
  22. M. E. Zoorob, M. D. B. Charlton, G. J. Parker, J. J. Baumberg, M. C. Netti, "Complete and absolute photonic bandgaps in highly symmetric photonic quasicrystals embedded in low refractive index materials," Mater. Sci. Eng.: B 74, 168-174 (2000).
  23. M. Senechal, Quasicrystals and Geometry (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1995) pp. 251-254.
  24. M. Zoorob, M. Charlton, G. Parker, J. Baumberg, M. Netti, "Complete photonic bandgaps in 12-fold symmetric quasicrystals," Nature 404, 740-3 (2000).
  25. P. Bienstman, Rigorous and efficient modelling of wavelength scale photonic components Ph.D. dissertation Univ. Gent GhentBelgium (2001).
  26. D. Aspnes, "Local-field effects and effective-medium theory: A microscopic perspective," Amer. J. Phys. 50, 704-709 (1982).

2012 (2)

P. A. Shields, M. D. B. Charlton, C. J. Lewins, X. Gao, D. W. E. Allsopp, W. N. Wang, B. Humphreys, "Effect of coalescence layer thickness on the properties of thin-chip InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes with embedded photonic quasi-crystal structures," Physica Status Solid. (a) 209, 451-455 (2012).

K. J. Lethy, P. R. Edwards, C. Liu, P. a Shields, D. W. E. Allsopp, R. W. Martin, "Cathodoluminescence studies of GaN coalesced from nanopyramids selectively grown by MOVPE," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27, 085010 (2012).

2011 (2)

P. A. Shields, D. W. E. Allsopp, "Nanoimprint lithography resist profile inversion for lift-off applications," Microelectron. Eng. 88, 3011-3014 (2011).

E. Matioli, S. Brinkley, K. M. Kelchner, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. Speck, C. Weisbuch, "Polarized light extraction in m-plane GaN light-emitting diodes by embedded photonic-crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 251112 (2011).

2010 (3)

E. Matioli, E. Rangel, M. Iza, B. Fleury, N. Pfaff, J. Speck, E. Hu, C. Weisbuch, "High extraction efficiency light-emitting diodes based on embedded air-gap photonic-crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 031108 (2010).

C. Liu, P. A. Shields, Q. Chen, D. W. E. Allsopp, W. N. Wang, C. R. Bowen, T.-L. Phan, D. Cherns, "Variations in mechanisms of selective area growth of GaN on nano-patterned substrates by MOVPE," Phys. Status Solid. (c) 7, 32-35 (2010).

A. Z. Khokhar, K. Parsons, G. Hubbard, F. Rahman, D. S. Macintyre, C. Xiong, D. Massoubre, Z. Gong, N. P. Johnson, R. M. D. L. Rue, "Nanofabrication of gallium nitride photonic crystal light-emitting diodes," Microelectron. Eng. 87, 2200-2207 (2010).

2009 (1)

J. J. Wierer, A. David, M. M. Megens, "III-Nitride Photonic-Crystal Light-Emitting Diodes with High Extraction Efficiency," Nature Photon. 3, 163-169 (2009).

2008 (2)

A. David, B. Moran, K. McGroddy, E. Matioli, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, C. Weisbuch, "GaN/InGaN light emitting diodes with embedded photonic crystal obtained by lateral epitaxial overgrowth," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 113514 (2008).

M.-K. Kwon, J. W. J.-Y. Kim, I.-K. Park, K. S. Kim, G.-Y. Jung, S.-J. Park, Y. C. Kim, "Enhanced emission efficiency of GaN?InGaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diode with an embedded photonic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 251110 (2008).

2007 (1)

A. David, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, "Optimization of light-diffracting photonic-crystals for high extraction efficiency LEDs," J. Display Technol. 3, 133-148 (2007).

2005 (2)

A. David, C. Meier, R. Sharma, F. S. Diana, S. P. DenBaars, E. Hu, S. Nakamura, C. Weisbuch, H. Benisty, "Photonic bands in two-dimensionally patterned multimode GaN waveguides for light extraction," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 101107 (2005).

M. Fujita, S. Takahashi, Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, S. Noda, "Simultaneous inhibition and redistribution of spontaneous light emission in photonic crystals," Sci. 308, 1296-1298 (2005).

2004 (1)

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. a. Simmons, M. M. Sigalas, "InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3885 (2004).

2003 (1)

T. N. Oder, J. Shakya, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, "III-nitride photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1231 (2003).

2002 (1)

M. Rattier, H. Benisty, R. P. Stanley, J. Carlin, R. Houdré, U. Oesterle, C. J. M. Smith, C. Weisbuch, T. F. Krauss, "Toward ultrahigh-efficiency aluminum oxide microcavity light-emitting diodes?—Guided mode extraction by photonic crystals," IEEE J. Sel. Topics. Quantum Electron. 8, 238-247 (2002).

2001 (2)

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, "Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 563 (2001).

A.-L. Fehrembach, S. Enoch, A. Sentenac, "Highly directive light sources using two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4280 (2001).

2000 (2)

M. E. Zoorob, M. D. B. Charlton, G. J. Parker, J. J. Baumberg, M. C. Netti, "Complete and absolute photonic bandgaps in highly symmetric photonic quasicrystals embedded in low refractive index materials," Mater. Sci. Eng.: B 74, 168-174 (2000).

M. Zoorob, M. Charlton, G. Parker, J. Baumberg, M. Netti, "Complete photonic bandgaps in 12-fold symmetric quasicrystals," Nature 404, 740-3 (2000).

1999 (1)

M. Boroditsky, R. Vrijen, T. F. Krauss, R. Coccioli, R. Bhat, E. Yablonovitch, "Spontaneous emission extraction and purcell enhancement from thin-film 2-D photonic crystals," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 2096-2112 (1999).

1982 (1)

D. Aspnes, "Local-field effects and effective-medium theory: A microscopic perspective," Amer. J. Phys. 50, 704-709 (1982).

Amer. J. Phys. (1)

D. Aspnes, "Local-field effects and effective-medium theory: A microscopic perspective," Amer. J. Phys. 50, 704-709 (1982).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

A. David, C. Meier, R. Sharma, F. S. Diana, S. P. DenBaars, E. Hu, S. Nakamura, C. Weisbuch, H. Benisty, "Photonic bands in two-dimensionally patterned multimode GaN waveguides for light extraction," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 101107 (2005).

A. David, B. Moran, K. McGroddy, E. Matioli, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, C. Weisbuch, "GaN/InGaN light emitting diodes with embedded photonic crystal obtained by lateral epitaxial overgrowth," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 113514 (2008).

E. Matioli, S. Brinkley, K. M. Kelchner, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. Speck, C. Weisbuch, "Polarized light extraction in m-plane GaN light-emitting diodes by embedded photonic-crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 251112 (2011).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

M.-K. Kwon, J. W. J.-Y. Kim, I.-K. Park, K. S. Kim, G.-Y. Jung, S.-J. Park, Y. C. Kim, "Enhanced emission efficiency of GaN?InGaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diode with an embedded photonic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 251110 (2008).

T. N. Oder, J. Shakya, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, "III-nitride photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1231 (2003).

A.-L. Fehrembach, S. Enoch, A. Sentenac, "Highly directive light sources using two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4280 (2001).

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, "Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 563 (2001).

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. a. Simmons, M. M. Sigalas, "InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3885 (2004).

E. Matioli, E. Rangel, M. Iza, B. Fleury, N. Pfaff, J. Speck, E. Hu, C. Weisbuch, "High extraction efficiency light-emitting diodes based on embedded air-gap photonic-crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 031108 (2010).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Rattier, H. Benisty, R. P. Stanley, J. Carlin, R. Houdré, U. Oesterle, C. J. M. Smith, C. Weisbuch, T. F. Krauss, "Toward ultrahigh-efficiency aluminum oxide microcavity light-emitting diodes?—Guided mode extraction by photonic crystals," IEEE J. Sel. Topics. Quantum Electron. 8, 238-247 (2002).

J. Display Technol. (1)

A. David, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, "Optimization of light-diffracting photonic-crystals for high extraction efficiency LEDs," J. Display Technol. 3, 133-148 (2007).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

M. Boroditsky, R. Vrijen, T. F. Krauss, R. Coccioli, R. Bhat, E. Yablonovitch, "Spontaneous emission extraction and purcell enhancement from thin-film 2-D photonic crystals," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 2096-2112 (1999).

Mater. Sci. Eng.: B (1)

M. E. Zoorob, M. D. B. Charlton, G. J. Parker, J. J. Baumberg, M. C. Netti, "Complete and absolute photonic bandgaps in highly symmetric photonic quasicrystals embedded in low refractive index materials," Mater. Sci. Eng.: B 74, 168-174 (2000).

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

P. A. Shields, D. W. E. Allsopp, "Nanoimprint lithography resist profile inversion for lift-off applications," Microelectron. Eng. 88, 3011-3014 (2011).

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

A. Z. Khokhar, K. Parsons, G. Hubbard, F. Rahman, D. S. Macintyre, C. Xiong, D. Massoubre, Z. Gong, N. P. Johnson, R. M. D. L. Rue, "Nanofabrication of gallium nitride photonic crystal light-emitting diodes," Microelectron. Eng. 87, 2200-2207 (2010).

Nature Photon. (1)

J. J. Wierer, A. David, M. M. Megens, "III-Nitride Photonic-Crystal Light-Emitting Diodes with High Extraction Efficiency," Nature Photon. 3, 163-169 (2009).

Nature (1)

M. Zoorob, M. Charlton, G. Parker, J. Baumberg, M. Netti, "Complete photonic bandgaps in 12-fold symmetric quasicrystals," Nature 404, 740-3 (2000).

Phys. Status Solid. (c) (1)

C. Liu, P. A. Shields, Q. Chen, D. W. E. Allsopp, W. N. Wang, C. R. Bowen, T.-L. Phan, D. Cherns, "Variations in mechanisms of selective area growth of GaN on nano-patterned substrates by MOVPE," Phys. Status Solid. (c) 7, 32-35 (2010).

Physica Status Solid. (a) (1)

P. A. Shields, M. D. B. Charlton, C. J. Lewins, X. Gao, D. W. E. Allsopp, W. N. Wang, B. Humphreys, "Effect of coalescence layer thickness on the properties of thin-chip InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes with embedded photonic quasi-crystal structures," Physica Status Solid. (a) 209, 451-455 (2012).

Sci. (1)

M. Fujita, S. Takahashi, Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, S. Noda, "Simultaneous inhibition and redistribution of spontaneous light emission in photonic crystals," Sci. 308, 1296-1298 (2005).

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

K. J. Lethy, P. R. Edwards, C. Liu, P. a Shields, D. W. E. Allsopp, R. W. Martin, "Cathodoluminescence studies of GaN coalesced from nanopyramids selectively grown by MOVPE," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27, 085010 (2012).

Other (4)

M. D. B. Charlton, P. A. Shields, D. W. E. Allsopp, W. N. Wang, "High-efficiency photonic quasi-crystal light emitting diodes incorporating buried photonic crystal structures," Proc. SPIE (2010) pp. 778407.

C.-Y. Chen, C.-H. Lin, D.-M. Yeh, C.-F. Lu, C.-F. Huang, C. C. Yang, "Fabrication of photonic crystal light-emitting diode with photoelectrochemical wet etching and phase mask interference," Conf. LEOS/Quantum Electron. Laser Sci. (2008) pp. 602-603.

M. Senechal, Quasicrystals and Geometry (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1995) pp. 251-254.

P. Bienstman, Rigorous and efficient modelling of wavelength scale photonic components Ph.D. dissertation Univ. Gent GhentBelgium (2001).

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