Abstract

Surface roughening is frequently employed to increase light extraction from light-emitting diodes (LEDs), especially in the important case of III-Nitride LEDs. We explore the physics governing this scheme. We introduce a numerical model, based on solving Maxwell's equations, to accurately describe scattering by a roughened semiconductor interface. This model reveals the complex angular dependence of the scattering properties. We then couple this approach to an LED light extraction model and predict how surface roughness impacts light extraction. We focus on two important cases, thin-film LEDs and volumetric LEDs. We show that optical losses in the LED dictate light extraction, and that volumetric LEDs offer an opportunity for ultimate efficiency.

© 2013 IEEE

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  3. T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, "Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 855-857 (2004).
  4. O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, M. R. Krames, "High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 071109 (2006).
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  10. R. Windisch, S. Schoberth, S. Meinlschmidt, P. Kiesel, A. Knobloch, P. Heremans, B. Dutta, G. Borghs, G. H. Dohler, "Light propagation through textured surfaces," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 512 (1999).
  11. R. Windisch, M. Kuijk, B. Dutta, A. Knobloch, P. Kiesel, G. H. Doehler, G. Borghs, P. L. Heremans, "Nonresonant-cavity light-emitting diodes," Proc. SPIE 3938, 70-76 (2000).
  12. R. Windisch, C. Rooman, B. Dutta, A. Knobloch, G. Borghs, G. H. Dohler, P. Heremans, "Light-extraction mechanisms in high-efficiency surface-textured light-emitting diodes," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 248-255 (2002).
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  15. S. G. Tikhodeev, A. L. Yablonskii, E. A. Muljarov, N. A. Gippius, T. Ishihara, "Quasiguided modes and optical properties of photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. B 66, 045102 (2002).
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  20. H. Benisty, P. Lalanne, S. Olivier, M. Rattier, C. Weisbuch, C. J. M. Smith, T. F. Krauss, C. Jouanin, D. Cassagne, "Finite-depth and intrinsic losses in vertically etched two-dimensional photonic crystals," Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 205-215 (2002).
  21. A. David, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, "Photonic crystal light-emitting sources," Rep. Progr. Phys. 75, 126501 (2012).
  22. A. David, C. Meier, R. Sharma, F. S. Diana, S. P. DenBaars, E. Hu, S. Nakamura, C. Weisbuch, H. Benisty, "Photonic bands in two-dimensionally patterned multimode GaN waveguides for light extraction," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 101107 (2005).
  23. A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, H. Benisty, "Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061124 (2006).
  24. H. Benisty, H. De Neve, C. Weisbuch, "Impact of planar microcavity effects on light extraction—Part I: Basic concepts and analytical trends," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1612-1631 (1998).
  25. H. Benisty, H. De Neve, C. Weisbuch, "Impact of planar microcavity effects on light extraction—Part II: Selected exact simulations and role of photon recycling," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1632-1643 (1998).
  26. Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, P. S. Martin, "Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2221-2223 (2003).
  27. C. Weisbuch, A. David, T. Fujii, C. Schwach, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, M. Rattier, H. Benisty, R. Houdr, R. Stanley, J. F. Carlin, T. F. Krauss, C. J. M. Smith, "Recent results and latest views on microcavity LEDs," Proc. SPIE—Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. 5366, (2004).
  28. A. David, "High efficiency GaN-based LEDs: Light extraction by photonic crystals," Ann. Phys. 31, (2006).
  29. M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Hofler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I. H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J. W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, D. Collins, "High-power truncated-inverted-pyramid (AlxGa1-x) light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50 percent external quantum efficiency," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2365-2367 (1999).
  30. D. Ochoa, Diodes electroluminescentes planaires a haut rendement d'extraction lumineuse Ph.D. dissertation EPFL (2001).
  31. X. H. Wang, P. T. Lai, H. W. Choi, "The contribution of sidewall light extraction to efficiencies of polygonal light-emitting diodes shaped with laser micromachining," J. Appl. Phys. 108, 023110 (2010).
  32. M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, A. Chakraborty, A. David, M. J. Grundmann, A. Tyagi, M. Zhang, F. M. Steranka, M. R. Krames, "Bulk GaN based violet light-emitting diodes with high efficiency at very high current density," Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 223509 (2012).
  33. A. David, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, "Fast factorization rule and plane-wave expansion method for two-dimensional photonic crystals with arbitrary hole-shape," Phys. Rev. B 73, (2006).
  34. M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, A. A. Lacis, Scattering, Absorption and Emission of Light by Small Particles (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2002).

2012 (2)

A. David, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, "Photonic crystal light-emitting sources," Rep. Progr. Phys. 75, 126501 (2012).

M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, A. Chakraborty, A. David, M. J. Grundmann, A. Tyagi, M. Zhang, F. M. Steranka, M. R. Krames, "Bulk GaN based violet light-emitting diodes with high efficiency at very high current density," Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 223509 (2012).

2010 (1)

X. H. Wang, P. T. Lai, H. W. Choi, "The contribution of sidewall light extraction to efficiencies of polygonal light-emitting diodes shaped with laser micromachining," J. Appl. Phys. 108, 023110 (2010).

2007 (2)

2006 (4)

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, M. R. Krames, "High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 071109 (2006).

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, H. Benisty, "Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061124 (2006).

A. David, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, "Fast factorization rule and plane-wave expansion method for two-dimensional photonic crystals with arbitrary hole-shape," Phys. Rev. B 73, (2006).

A. David, "High efficiency GaN-based LEDs: Light extraction by photonic crystals," Ann. Phys. 31, (2006).

2005 (1)

A. David, C. Meier, R. Sharma, F. S. Diana, S. P. DenBaars, E. Hu, S. Nakamura, C. Weisbuch, H. Benisty, "Photonic bands in two-dimensionally patterned multimode GaN waveguides for light extraction," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 101107 (2005).

2004 (2)

C. Weisbuch, A. David, T. Fujii, C. Schwach, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, M. Rattier, H. Benisty, R. Houdr, R. Stanley, J. F. Carlin, T. F. Krauss, C. J. M. Smith, "Recent results and latest views on microcavity LEDs," Proc. SPIE—Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. 5366, (2004).

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, "Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 855-857 (2004).

2003 (1)

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, P. S. Martin, "Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2221-2223 (2003).

2002 (3)

H. Benisty, P. Lalanne, S. Olivier, M. Rattier, C. Weisbuch, C. J. M. Smith, T. F. Krauss, C. Jouanin, D. Cassagne, "Finite-depth and intrinsic losses in vertically etched two-dimensional photonic crystals," Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 205-215 (2002).

R. Windisch, C. Rooman, B. Dutta, A. Knobloch, G. Borghs, G. H. Dohler, P. Heremans, "Light-extraction mechanisms in high-efficiency surface-textured light-emitting diodes," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 248-255 (2002).

S. G. Tikhodeev, A. L. Yablonskii, E. A. Muljarov, N. A. Gippius, T. Ishihara, "Quasiguided modes and optical properties of photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. B 66, 045102 (2002).

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

R. Windisch, M. Kuijk, B. Dutta, A. Knobloch, P. Kiesel, G. H. Doehler, G. Borghs, P. L. Heremans, "Nonresonant-cavity light-emitting diodes," Proc. SPIE 3938, 70-76 (2000).

1999 (4)

R. Windisch, S. Schoberth, S. Meinlschmidt, P. Kiesel, A. Knobloch, P. Heremans, B. Dutta, G. Borghs, G. H. Dohler, "Light propagation through textured surfaces," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 512 (1999).

D. M. Whittaker, I. S. Culshaw, "Scattering-matrix treatment of patterned multilayer photonic structures," Phys. Rev. B 60, 2610-2618 (1999).

M. Boroditsky, R. Ragan, E. Yablonovitch, "Absorption enhancement in ultra-thin textured AlGaAs films," Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells 57, 1-7 (1999).

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Hofler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I. H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J. W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, D. Collins, "High-power truncated-inverted-pyramid (AlxGa1-x) light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50 percent external quantum efficiency," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2365-2367 (1999).

1998 (2)

H. Benisty, H. De Neve, C. Weisbuch, "Impact of planar microcavity effects on light extraction—Part I: Basic concepts and analytical trends," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1612-1631 (1998).

H. Benisty, H. De Neve, C. Weisbuch, "Impact of planar microcavity effects on light extraction—Part II: Selected exact simulations and role of photon recycling," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1632-1643 (1998).

1997 (1)

M. Boroditsky, E. Yablonovitch, "Light-emitting-diode extraction efficiency," Proc. SPIE 3002, 119-122 (1997).

1993 (1)

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, A. Scherer, "30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured, thin-film light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2174-2176 (1993).

1991 (2)

X. D. He, K. E. Torrance, F. X. Sillion, D. P. Greenberg, "A comprehensive physical model for light reflection," Computer Graphics 25, (1991).

S. K. Nayar, K. Ikeuchi, T. Kanade, "Surface reflection—Physical and geometrical perspectives," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 13, 611-634 (1991).

1983 (1)

1982 (1)

E. Yablonovitch, "Statistical ray optics," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 72, 899-907 (1982).

1967 (1)

K. E. Torrance, E. M. Sparrow, "Theory for off-specular reflection from roughened surfaces," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 57, 1105 (1967).

Ann. Phys. (1)

A. David, "High efficiency GaN-based LEDs: Light extraction by photonic crystals," Ann. Phys. 31, (2006).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, A. Scherer, "30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured, thin-film light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2174-2176 (1993).

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, "Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 855-857 (2004).

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, M. R. Krames, "High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 071109 (2006).

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Hofler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I. H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J. W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, D. Collins, "High-power truncated-inverted-pyramid (AlxGa1-x) light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50 percent external quantum efficiency," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2365-2367 (1999).

M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, A. Chakraborty, A. David, M. J. Grundmann, A. Tyagi, M. Zhang, F. M. Steranka, M. R. Krames, "Bulk GaN based violet light-emitting diodes with high efficiency at very high current density," Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 223509 (2012).

A. David, C. Meier, R. Sharma, F. S. Diana, S. P. DenBaars, E. Hu, S. Nakamura, C. Weisbuch, H. Benisty, "Photonic bands in two-dimensionally patterned multimode GaN waveguides for light extraction," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 101107 (2005).

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, H. Benisty, "Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061124 (2006).

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, P. S. Martin, "Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2221-2223 (2003).

Computer Graphics (1)

X. D. He, K. E. Torrance, F. X. Sillion, D. P. Greenberg, "A comprehensive physical model for light reflection," Computer Graphics 25, (1991).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

H. Benisty, H. De Neve, C. Weisbuch, "Impact of planar microcavity effects on light extraction—Part I: Basic concepts and analytical trends," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1612-1631 (1998).

H. Benisty, H. De Neve, C. Weisbuch, "Impact of planar microcavity effects on light extraction—Part II: Selected exact simulations and role of photon recycling," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1632-1643 (1998).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Windisch, C. Rooman, B. Dutta, A. Knobloch, G. Borghs, G. H. Dohler, P. Heremans, "Light-extraction mechanisms in high-efficiency surface-textured light-emitting diodes," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 248-255 (2002).

IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. (1)

S. K. Nayar, K. Ikeuchi, T. Kanade, "Surface reflection—Physical and geometrical perspectives," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 13, 611-634 (1991).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

X. H. Wang, P. T. Lai, H. W. Choi, "The contribution of sidewall light extraction to efficiencies of polygonal light-emitting diodes shaped with laser micromachining," J. Appl. Phys. 108, 023110 (2010).

J. Display Technol. (2)

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

R. Windisch, S. Schoberth, S. Meinlschmidt, P. Kiesel, A. Knobloch, P. Heremans, B. Dutta, G. Borghs, G. H. Dohler, "Light propagation through textured surfaces," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 512 (1999).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. (2)

E. Yablonovitch, "Statistical ray optics," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 72, 899-907 (1982).

K. E. Torrance, E. M. Sparrow, "Theory for off-specular reflection from roughened surfaces," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 57, 1105 (1967).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. Benisty, P. Lalanne, S. Olivier, M. Rattier, C. Weisbuch, C. J. M. Smith, T. F. Krauss, C. Jouanin, D. Cassagne, "Finite-depth and intrinsic losses in vertically etched two-dimensional photonic crystals," Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 205-215 (2002).

Phys. Rev. B (3)

A. David, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, "Fast factorization rule and plane-wave expansion method for two-dimensional photonic crystals with arbitrary hole-shape," Phys. Rev. B 73, (2006).

D. M. Whittaker, I. S. Culshaw, "Scattering-matrix treatment of patterned multilayer photonic structures," Phys. Rev. B 60, 2610-2618 (1999).

S. G. Tikhodeev, A. L. Yablonskii, E. A. Muljarov, N. A. Gippius, T. Ishihara, "Quasiguided modes and optical properties of photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. B 66, 045102 (2002).

Proc. SPIE (2)

R. Windisch, M. Kuijk, B. Dutta, A. Knobloch, P. Kiesel, G. H. Doehler, G. Borghs, P. L. Heremans, "Nonresonant-cavity light-emitting diodes," Proc. SPIE 3938, 70-76 (2000).

M. Boroditsky, E. Yablonovitch, "Light-emitting-diode extraction efficiency," Proc. SPIE 3002, 119-122 (1997).

Proc. SPIE—Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. (1)

C. Weisbuch, A. David, T. Fujii, C. Schwach, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, M. Rattier, H. Benisty, R. Houdr, R. Stanley, J. F. Carlin, T. F. Krauss, C. J. M. Smith, "Recent results and latest views on microcavity LEDs," Proc. SPIE—Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. 5366, (2004).

Rep. Progr. Phys. (1)

A. David, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, "Photonic crystal light-emitting sources," Rep. Progr. Phys. 75, 126501 (2012).

Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells (1)

M. Boroditsky, R. Ragan, E. Yablonovitch, "Absorption enhancement in ultra-thin textured AlGaAs films," Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells 57, 1-7 (1999).

Other (3)

F. E. Nicodemus, J. C. Richmond, J. J. Hsia, I. W. Ginsberg, T. Limperis, “Geometric considerations and nomenclature for reflectance,” (1977).

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, A. A. Lacis, Scattering, Absorption and Emission of Light by Small Particles (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2002).

D. Ochoa, Diodes electroluminescentes planaires a haut rendement d'extraction lumineuse Ph.D. dissertation EPFL (2001).

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