Abstract

The lateral current spreading (CS) effect on the efficiency droop in GaN-based LEDs has been studied in terms of the CS distance (L<sub>cs</sub>) using a designed pattern with the 2-D current spreading profile. The correlations of CS effect with the electrical, luminescent and electric-thermal properties of the LEDs have been discussed. LEDs with the L<sub>cs</sub> longer than the theoretically calculated effective CS length (L<sub>eff</sub>) suffer from more serious efficiency droop and the degradation of luminescent properties. However, the influence of CS effect on the ideality factors of LEDs is not obvious. Higher chip temperature caused by poor CS was observed and may further enlarge the efficiency droop.

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  3. R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, "Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27, 024001 (2012).
  4. D. A. Browne, E. C. Young, J. R. Lang, C. A. Hurni, J. S. Speck, "Indium and impurity incorporation in InGaN films on polar, nonpolar, and semipolar GaN orientations grown by ammonia molecular beam epitaxy," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A30, 041513 (2012).
  5. H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, N. Tansu, "Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells," Opt. Expr. 19, A991-A1007 (2011).
  6. J. Zhang, N. Tansu, "Improvement in spontaneous emission rates for InGaN quantum wells on ternary InGaN substrate for light-emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 110, 113110 (2011).
  7. H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, X.-H. Li, R. A. Arif, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. T. Penn, V. Dierolf, N. Tansu, "Design and characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes in the green spectral regime," IET Optoelectron. 3, 283-295 (2009).
  8. S. Huang, Z. Chen, Y. Xian, B. Fan, Z. Zheng, Z. Wu, H. Jiang, G. Wang, "Emission enhancement in GaN-based light emitting diodes with shallow triangular quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 041116 (2012).
  9. Y.-K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, "Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 1066-1072 (2009).
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  12. M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, Y. Park, "Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 183507 (2007).
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  23. N. Tansu, L. J. Mawst, "Current injection efficiency of InGaAsN quantum-well lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 054502 (2005).
  24. N. Tansu, L. J. Mawst, "The role of hole leakage in 1300-nm InGaAsN quantum-well lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1500-1502 (2003).
  25. V. K. Malyutenko, S. S. Bolgov, A. D. Podoltsev, "Current crowding effect on the ideality factor and efficiency droop in blue lateral InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 251110 (2010).
  26. H.-Y. Ryu, J.-I. Shim, "Effect of current spreading on the efficiency droop of InGaN light-emitting diodes," Opt. Expr. 19, 2886-2894 (2011).
  27. X. Guo, E. F. Schubert, "Current crowding and optical saturation effects in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on insulating substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3337-3339 (2001).
  28. H. Kim, J. Cho1, J. W. Lee, S. Yoon, H. Kim, C. Sone, Y. Park, T.-Y. Seong, "Measurements of current spreading length and design of GaN-based light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 063510 (2007).
  29. S. Huang, H. Wu, B. Fan, B. Zhang, G. Wang, "A chip-level electrothermal-coupled design model for high-power light-emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 107, 054509 (2010).
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  32. Z. Zheng, Z. Chen, Y. Xian, B. Fan, S. Huang, W. Jia, Z. Wu, G. Wang, H. Jiang, "Enhanced electrostatic discharge properties of nitride-based light-emitting diodes with inserting Si-delta-doped layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 111109 (2011).
  33. Z. Zheng, Z. Chen, Y. Chen, S. Huang, B. Fan, Y. Xian, W. Jia, Z. Wu, G. Wang, H. Jiang, "Analysis and modeling of the experimentally observed anomalous mobility properties of periodically Si-delta-doped GaN layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 212102 (2012).
  34. X. Guo, Y.-L. Li, E. F. Schubert, "Efficiency of GaN/InGaN light-emitting diodes with interdigitated mesa geometry," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1936-1938 (2004).
  35. X. A. Cao, S. D. Arthur, "High-power and reliable operation of vertical light-emitting diodes on bulk GaN," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3971-3973 (2004).
  36. T. Chen, Y. Wang, P. Xiang, R. Luo, M. Liu, W. Yang, Y. Ren, Z. He, Y. Yang, W. Chen, X. Zhang, Z. Wu, Y. Liu, B. Zhang, "Crack-free InGaN multiple quantum wells light-emitting diodes structures transferred from Si (111) substrate onto electroplating copper submount with embedded electrodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 241112 (2012).
  37. V. K. Malyutenko, S. S. Bolgov, A. N. Tykhonov, "Research on electrical efficiency degradation influenced by current crowding in vertical blue InGaN-on-SiC light-emitting diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1124-1126 (2012).
  38. J. H. Son, B. J. Kim, C. J. Ryu, Y. H. Song, H. K. Lee, J. W. Choi, J.-L. Lee, "Enhancement of wall-plug efficiency in vertical InGaN/GaN LEDs by improved current spreading," Opt. Expr. 20, A287-A292 (2012).
  39. C.-K. Li, Y.-R. Wu, "Study on the current spreading effect and light extraction enhancement of vertical GaN/InGaN LEDs," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 59, 400-407 (2012).
  40. D. S. Meyaard, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, S.-H. Han, M.-H. Kim, C. Sone, S. J. Oh, J. K. Kim, "Temperature dependent efficiency droop in GaInN light-emitting diodes with different current densities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 081106 (2012).

2012 (11)

R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, "Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27, 024001 (2012).

D. A. Browne, E. C. Young, J. R. Lang, C. A. Hurni, J. S. Speck, "Indium and impurity incorporation in InGaN films on polar, nonpolar, and semipolar GaN orientations grown by ammonia molecular beam epitaxy," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A30, 041513 (2012).

S. Huang, Z. Chen, Y. Xian, B. Fan, Z. Zheng, Z. Wu, H. Jiang, G. Wang, "Emission enhancement in GaN-based light emitting diodes with shallow triangular quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 041116 (2012).

J. Wang, L. Wang, L. Wang, Z. Hao, Y. Luo, A. Dempewolf, M. Muller, F. Bertram, J. Christen, "An improved carrier rate model to evaluate internal quantum efficiency and analyze efficiency droop origin of InGaN based light-emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 112, 023107 (2012).

T. Kim, B. Ahn, Y. Dong, K. Park, J. Lee, Y. Moon, H. Yuh, S. Choi, J. Lee, S. Hong, J. Song, "Well-to-well non-uniformity in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells characterized by capacitance-voltage measurement with additional laser illumination," Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 071910 (2012).

Z. Zheng, Z. Chen, Y. Chen, S. Huang, B. Fan, Y. Xian, W. Jia, Z. Wu, G. Wang, H. Jiang, "Analysis and modeling of the experimentally observed anomalous mobility properties of periodically Si-delta-doped GaN layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 212102 (2012).

T. Chen, Y. Wang, P. Xiang, R. Luo, M. Liu, W. Yang, Y. Ren, Z. He, Y. Yang, W. Chen, X. Zhang, Z. Wu, Y. Liu, B. Zhang, "Crack-free InGaN multiple quantum wells light-emitting diodes structures transferred from Si (111) substrate onto electroplating copper submount with embedded electrodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 241112 (2012).

V. K. Malyutenko, S. S. Bolgov, A. N. Tykhonov, "Research on electrical efficiency degradation influenced by current crowding in vertical blue InGaN-on-SiC light-emitting diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1124-1126 (2012).

J. H. Son, B. J. Kim, C. J. Ryu, Y. H. Song, H. K. Lee, J. W. Choi, J.-L. Lee, "Enhancement of wall-plug efficiency in vertical InGaN/GaN LEDs by improved current spreading," Opt. Expr. 20, A287-A292 (2012).

C.-K. Li, Y.-R. Wu, "Study on the current spreading effect and light extraction enhancement of vertical GaN/InGaN LEDs," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 59, 400-407 (2012).

D. S. Meyaard, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, S.-H. Han, M.-H. Kim, C. Sone, S. J. Oh, J. K. Kim, "Temperature dependent efficiency droop in GaInN light-emitting diodes with different current densities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 081106 (2012).

2011 (8)

Z. Zheng, Z. Chen, Y. Xian, B. Fan, S. Huang, W. Jia, Z. Wu, G. Wang, H. Jiang, "Enhanced electrostatic discharge properties of nitride-based light-emitting diodes with inserting Si-delta-doped layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 111109 (2011).

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, C. G. Van de Walle, "Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 161107 (2011).

H.-Y. Ryu, J.-I. Shim, "Effect of current spreading on the efficiency droop of InGaN light-emitting diodes," Opt. Expr. 19, 2886-2894 (2011).

S. Huang, Y. Xian, B. Fan, Z. Zheng, Z. Chen, W. Jia, H. Jiang, G. Wang, "Contrary luminescence behaviors of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes caused by carrier tunneling leakage," J. Appl. Phys. 110, 064511 (2011).

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, C. Wetzel, "Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151102 (2011).

J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, S. W. Koch, "Temperature-dependence of the internal efficiency droop in GaN-based diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 181127 (2011).

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, N. Tansu, "Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells," Opt. Expr. 19, A991-A1007 (2011).

J. Zhang, N. Tansu, "Improvement in spontaneous emission rates for InGaN quantum wells on ternary InGaN substrate for light-emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 110, 113110 (2011).

2010 (5)

J. Y. Tsao, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, J. A. Simmons, "Solid-state lighting: An integrated human factors, technology, and economic perspective," Proc. IEEE 98, 1162-1179 (2010).

Y.-K. Ee, X.-H. Li, J. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, "Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire," J. Cryst. Growth 312, 1311-1315 (2010).

H. Zhao, G. Liu, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, "Current injection efficiency induced efficiency-droop in InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes," Solid-State Electron. 54, 1119-1124 (2010).

S. Huang, H. Wu, B. Fan, B. Zhang, G. Wang, "A chip-level electrothermal-coupled design model for high-power light-emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 107, 054509 (2010).

V. K. Malyutenko, S. S. Bolgov, A. D. Podoltsev, "Current crowding effect on the ideality factor and efficiency droop in blue lateral InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 251110 (2010).

2009 (3)

K. T. Delaney, P. Rinke, C. G. Van de Walle, "Auger recombination rates in nitrides from first principles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 191109 (2009).

Y.-K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, "Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 1066-1072 (2009).

H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, X.-H. Li, R. A. Arif, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. T. Penn, V. Dierolf, N. Tansu, "Design and characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes in the green spectral regime," IET Optoelectron. 3, 283-295 (2009).

2008 (1)

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, Y. Park, "Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041102 (2008).

2007 (5)

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, M. A. Banas, "Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231114 (2007).

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, Y. Park, "Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 183507 (2007).

N. F. Gardner, G. O. Müller, Y. C. Shen, G. Chen, S. Watanabe, W. Götz, M. R. Krames, "Blue-emitting InGaN-GaN double-heterostructure light-emitting diodes reaching maximum quantum efficiency above 200 A/cm2," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243506 (2007).

H. Kim, J. Cho1, J. W. Lee, S. Yoon, H. Kim, C. Sone, Y. Park, T.-Y. Seong, "Measurements of current spreading length and design of GaN-based light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 063510 (2007).

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, M. G. Craford, "Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting," J. Display Technol. 3, 160-175 (2007).

2005 (1)

N. Tansu, L. J. Mawst, "Current injection efficiency of InGaAsN quantum-well lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 054502 (2005).

2004 (3)

K. Nakahara, K. Tamura, M. Sakai, D. Nakagawa, N. Ito, M. Sonobe, H. Takasu, H. Tampo, P. Fons, K. Matsubara, K. Iwata, A. Yamada, S. Niki, "Improved external efficiency InGaN-based light-emitting diodes with transparent conductive Ga-doped ZnO as p-electrodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L180-L182 (2004).

X. Guo, Y.-L. Li, E. F. Schubert, "Efficiency of GaN/InGaN light-emitting diodes with interdigitated mesa geometry," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1936-1938 (2004).

X. A. Cao, S. D. Arthur, "High-power and reliable operation of vertical light-emitting diodes on bulk GaN," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3971-3973 (2004).

2003 (1)

N. Tansu, L. J. Mawst, "The role of hole leakage in 1300-nm InGaAsN quantum-well lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1500-1502 (2003).

2001 (1)

X. Guo, E. F. Schubert, "Current crowding and optical saturation effects in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on insulating substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3337-3339 (2001).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (20)

S. Huang, Z. Chen, Y. Xian, B. Fan, Z. Zheng, Z. Wu, H. Jiang, G. Wang, "Emission enhancement in GaN-based light emitting diodes with shallow triangular quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 041116 (2012).

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, C. Wetzel, "Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151102 (2011).

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, Y. Park, "Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 183507 (2007).

N. F. Gardner, G. O. Müller, Y. C. Shen, G. Chen, S. Watanabe, W. Götz, M. R. Krames, "Blue-emitting InGaN-GaN double-heterostructure light-emitting diodes reaching maximum quantum efficiency above 200 A/cm2," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243506 (2007).

J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, S. W. Koch, "Temperature-dependence of the internal efficiency droop in GaN-based diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 181127 (2011).

T. Kim, B. Ahn, Y. Dong, K. Park, J. Lee, Y. Moon, H. Yuh, S. Choi, J. Lee, S. Hong, J. Song, "Well-to-well non-uniformity in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells characterized by capacitance-voltage measurement with additional laser illumination," Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 071910 (2012).

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, M. A. Banas, "Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231114 (2007).

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, Y. Park, "Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041102 (2008).

K. T. Delaney, P. Rinke, C. G. Van de Walle, "Auger recombination rates in nitrides from first principles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 191109 (2009).

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, C. G. Van de Walle, "Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 161107 (2011).

X. Guo, E. F. Schubert, "Current crowding and optical saturation effects in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on insulating substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3337-3339 (2001).

H. Kim, J. Cho1, J. W. Lee, S. Yoon, H. Kim, C. Sone, Y. Park, T.-Y. Seong, "Measurements of current spreading length and design of GaN-based light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 063510 (2007).

Z. Zheng, Z. Chen, Y. Xian, B. Fan, S. Huang, W. Jia, Z. Wu, G. Wang, H. Jiang, "Enhanced electrostatic discharge properties of nitride-based light-emitting diodes with inserting Si-delta-doped layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 111109 (2011).

Z. Zheng, Z. Chen, Y. Chen, S. Huang, B. Fan, Y. Xian, W. Jia, Z. Wu, G. Wang, H. Jiang, "Analysis and modeling of the experimentally observed anomalous mobility properties of periodically Si-delta-doped GaN layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 212102 (2012).

X. Guo, Y.-L. Li, E. F. Schubert, "Efficiency of GaN/InGaN light-emitting diodes with interdigitated mesa geometry," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1936-1938 (2004).

X. A. Cao, S. D. Arthur, "High-power and reliable operation of vertical light-emitting diodes on bulk GaN," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3971-3973 (2004).

T. Chen, Y. Wang, P. Xiang, R. Luo, M. Liu, W. Yang, Y. Ren, Z. He, Y. Yang, W. Chen, X. Zhang, Z. Wu, Y. Liu, B. Zhang, "Crack-free InGaN multiple quantum wells light-emitting diodes structures transferred from Si (111) substrate onto electroplating copper submount with embedded electrodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 241112 (2012).

N. Tansu, L. J. Mawst, "The role of hole leakage in 1300-nm InGaAsN quantum-well lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1500-1502 (2003).

V. K. Malyutenko, S. S. Bolgov, A. D. Podoltsev, "Current crowding effect on the ideality factor and efficiency droop in blue lateral InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 251110 (2010).

D. S. Meyaard, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, S.-H. Han, M.-H. Kim, C. Sone, S. J. Oh, J. K. Kim, "Temperature dependent efficiency droop in GaInN light-emitting diodes with different current densities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 081106 (2012).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

Y.-K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, "Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 1066-1072 (2009).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

V. K. Malyutenko, S. S. Bolgov, A. N. Tykhonov, "Research on electrical efficiency degradation influenced by current crowding in vertical blue InGaN-on-SiC light-emitting diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1124-1126 (2012).

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (1)

C.-K. Li, Y.-R. Wu, "Study on the current spreading effect and light extraction enhancement of vertical GaN/InGaN LEDs," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 59, 400-407 (2012).

IET Optoelectron. (1)

H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, X.-H. Li, R. A. Arif, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. T. Penn, V. Dierolf, N. Tansu, "Design and characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes in the green spectral regime," IET Optoelectron. 3, 283-295 (2009).

J. Appl. Phys. (5)

J. Zhang, N. Tansu, "Improvement in spontaneous emission rates for InGaN quantum wells on ternary InGaN substrate for light-emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 110, 113110 (2011).

S. Huang, Y. Xian, B. Fan, Z. Zheng, Z. Chen, W. Jia, H. Jiang, G. Wang, "Contrary luminescence behaviors of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes caused by carrier tunneling leakage," J. Appl. Phys. 110, 064511 (2011).

J. Wang, L. Wang, L. Wang, Z. Hao, Y. Luo, A. Dempewolf, M. Muller, F. Bertram, J. Christen, "An improved carrier rate model to evaluate internal quantum efficiency and analyze efficiency droop origin of InGaN based light-emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 112, 023107 (2012).

S. Huang, H. Wu, B. Fan, B. Zhang, G. Wang, "A chip-level electrothermal-coupled design model for high-power light-emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 107, 054509 (2010).

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Y.-K. Ee, X.-H. Li, J. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, "Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire," J. Cryst. Growth 312, 1311-1315 (2010).

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D. A. Browne, E. C. Young, J. R. Lang, C. A. Hurni, J. S. Speck, "Indium and impurity incorporation in InGaN films on polar, nonpolar, and semipolar GaN orientations grown by ammonia molecular beam epitaxy," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A30, 041513 (2012).

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K. Nakahara, K. Tamura, M. Sakai, D. Nakagawa, N. Ito, M. Sonobe, H. Takasu, H. Tampo, P. Fons, K. Matsubara, K. Iwata, A. Yamada, S. Niki, "Improved external efficiency InGaN-based light-emitting diodes with transparent conductive Ga-doped ZnO as p-electrodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L180-L182 (2004).

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H.-Y. Ryu, J.-I. Shim, "Effect of current spreading on the efficiency droop of InGaN light-emitting diodes," Opt. Expr. 19, 2886-2894 (2011).

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H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, N. Tansu, "Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells," Opt. Expr. 19, A991-A1007 (2011).

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R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, "Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27, 024001 (2012).

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H. Zhao, G. Liu, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, "Current injection efficiency induced efficiency-droop in InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes," Solid-State Electron. 54, 1119-1124 (2010).

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