Abstract

We report the observation of electroluminescence from the first to fourth quantum wells (QWs) from the <i>p</i>-GaN layer in InGaN/GaN multiple-QW light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with various indium contents (4%–16%) in each QW. The investigated LED sample showed a lower turn-on voltage and ideality factor as well as a reduction of etching pit density compared with the reference sample. Also, the X-ray reciprocal space maps revealed a partial strain relaxation in the active region. The enhanced hole injection efficiency was attributed to the weakening of strain-induced polarization field in the QWs and the good crystalline quality.

© 2013 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |

  1. E. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, "Solid-state light sources getting smart," Science 308, 1274-1278 (2005).
  2. M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, Y. Park, "Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 183507 (2007).
  3. J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, B. Pasenow, S. W. Koch, M. Sabathil, N. Linder, S. Lutgen, "On the importance of radiative and Auger losses in GaN-based quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 261103 (2008).
  4. Y.-L. Li, Y.-R. Huang, Y.-H. Lai, "Investigation of efficiency droop behaviors of InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well LEDs with various well thicknesses," IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 1128-1131 (2009).
  5. D. S. Meyaard, G.-B. Lin, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, M.-H. Kim, C. Sone, "Asymmetry of carrier transport leading to efficiency droop in GaInN based light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 251115 (2011).
  6. I. V. Rozhansky, D. A. Zakheim, "Analysis of the causes of the decrease in the electroluminescence efficiency of AlGaInN light-emitting-diode heterostructures at high pumping density," Semiconductors 40, 839-845 (2006).
  7. A. David, M. J. Grundmann, J. F. Kaeding, N. F. Gardner, T. G. Mihopoulos, M. R. Krames, "Carrier distribution in (0001) InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 053502 (2008).
  8. C. H. Wang, C. C. Ke, C. Y. Lee, S. P. Chang, W. T. Chang, J. C. Li, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, "Hole injection and efficiency droop improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by band-engineered electron blocking layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 261103 (2010).
  9. S. Hwang, W. J. Ha, J. K. Kim, J. Xu, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, "Promotion of hole injection enabled by GaInN/GaN light-emitting triodes and its effect on the efficiency droop," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 181115 (2011).
  10. H. Zhao, G. Liu, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, "Current injection efficiency induced efficiency-droop in InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes," Solid-State Electron. 54, 1119-1124 (2010).
  11. I. E. Titkov, D. A. Sannikov, Y.-M. Park, J.-K. Son, "Blue light emitting diode internal and injection efficiency," AIP Advanc. 2, 032117 (2012).
  12. K. T. Delaney, P. Rinke, C. G. Van de Walle, "Auger recombination rates in nitrides from first principles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 191109 (2009).
  13. E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, C. G. Van de Walle, "Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 161107 (2011).
  14. J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, S. W. Koch, "Temperature-dependence of the internal efficiency droop in GaN-based diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 181127 (2011).
  15. T.-S. Kim, B.-J. Ahn, Y. Dong, K.-N. Park, J.-G. Lee, Y. Moon, H.-K. Yuh, S.-C. Choi, J.-H. Lee, S.-K. Hong, J.-H. Song, "Well-to-well non-uniformity in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells characterized by capacitance-voltage measurement with additional laser illumination," Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 071910 (2011).
  16. N. Tansu, L. J. Mawst, "Current injection efficiency of InGaAsN quantum-well lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 054502 (2005).
  17. N. Tansu, J.-Y. Yeh, L. J. Mawst, "Experimental evidence of carrier leakage in InGaAsN quantum-well lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2112-2114 (2003).
  18. J.-W. Shi, F.-M. Kuo, C.-W. Lin, W. Chen, L.-J. Yan, J.-K. Sheu, "Investigation of the efficiency-droop mechanism in vertical red light-emitting diodes using a dynamic measurement technique," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1585-1587 (2011).
  19. R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, "Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27, 024001 (2012).
  20. D. A. Browne, E. C. Young, J. R. Lang, C. A. Hurni, J. S. Speck, "Indium and impurity incorporation in InGaN films on polar, nonpolar, and semipolar GaN orientations grown by ammonia molecular beam epitaxy," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 30, 041513 (2012).
  21. H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, N. Tansu, "Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells," Opt. Expr. 19, A991-A1007 (2011).
  22. J. Zhang, N. Tansu, "Improvement in spontaneous emission rates for InGaN quantum wells on ternary InGaN substrate for light-emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 110, 113110 (2011).
  23. H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, X.-H. Li, R. A. Arif, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. Tafon Penn, V. Dierolf, N. Tansu, "Design and characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes in the green spectral regime," IET Optelectron. 3, 283-295 (2009).
  24. Y.-K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, "Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode," IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 1066-1072 (2009).
  25. Y.-K. Ee, X.-H. Li, J. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, "Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire," J. Cryst. Growth 312, 1311-1315 (2010).
  26. Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, C. Wetzel, "Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151102 (2011).
  27. Q. Li, J. J. Figiel, G. T. Wang, "Dislocation density reduction in GaN by dislocation filtering through a self-assembled monolayer of silica microspheres," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231105 (2009).
  28. S.-M. Kim, H. S. Oh, J. H. Baek, K.-H. Lee, G. Y. Jung, J.-H. Song, H.-J. Kim, B.-J. Ahn, D. Yanqun, J.-H. Song, "Effects of patterned sapphire substrates on piezoelectric field in blue-emitting InGaN multiple quantum wells," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31, 842-844 (2010).
  29. T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, "Quantum-confined Stark effect due to piezoelectric fields in GaInN strained quantum wells," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, L382-L385 (1997).
  30. Y.-J. Lee, C.-H. Chiu, C. C. Ke, P. C. Lin, T.-C. Lu, H.-C. Kuo, S.-C. Wang, "Study of the excitation power dependent internal quantum efficiency in InGaN/GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrate," IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 1137-1143 (2009).
  31. C.-H. Jang, J.-K. Sheu, C. M. Tsai, S.-J. Chang, W.-C. Lai, M.-L. Lee, T. K. Ko, C. F. Shen, S. C. Shei, "Improved performance of GaN-based blue LEDs with the InGaN insertion layer between the MQW active layer and the n-GaN cladding layer," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 513-517 (2010).
  32. Z. Zheng, Z. Chen, Y. Xian, B. Fan, S. Huang, W. Jia, Z. Wu, G. Wang, H. Jiang, "Role of InGaN insertion layer on nitride-based light-emitting diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 072101 (2012).
  33. D. Zhu, J. Xu, A. N. Noemaun, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, D. D. Koleske, "The origin of the high diode-ideality factors in GaInN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 081113 (2009).
  34. T. Lu, S. Li, C. Liu, K. Zhang, Y. Xu, J. Tong, L. Wu, H. Wang, X. Yang, Y. Yin, G. Xiao, Y. Zhou, "Advantages of GaN based light-emitting diodes with a p-InGaN hole reservoir layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 141106 (2012).
  35. N. Niu, H. Wang, J. Liu, N. Liu, Y. Xing, J. Han, J. D. Jun, G. Shen, "Enhanced luminescence of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells by strain reduction," Solid-State Electron. 51, 860-864 (2007).
  36. I.-H. Kim, H.-S. Park, Y.-J. Park, T. Kim, "Formation of V-shaped pits in InGaN/GaN multiquantum wells and bulk InGaN films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1634-1636 (1998).
  37. Z. Z. Bandic, P. M. Bridger, E. C. Piquette, T. C. McGill, "The values of minority carrier diffusion lengths and lifetimes in GaN and their implications for bipolar devices," Solid-State Electron. 44, 221-228 (2000).
  38. K. Kumakura, T. Makimoto, N. Kobayashi, T. Hashizume, T. Fukui, H. Hasegawa, "Minority carrier diffusion length in GaN: Dislocation density and doping concentration dependence," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 052105 (2005).

2012

I. E. Titkov, D. A. Sannikov, Y.-M. Park, J.-K. Son, "Blue light emitting diode internal and injection efficiency," AIP Advanc. 2, 032117 (2012).

R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, "Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27, 024001 (2012).

D. A. Browne, E. C. Young, J. R. Lang, C. A. Hurni, J. S. Speck, "Indium and impurity incorporation in InGaN films on polar, nonpolar, and semipolar GaN orientations grown by ammonia molecular beam epitaxy," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 30, 041513 (2012).

Z. Zheng, Z. Chen, Y. Xian, B. Fan, S. Huang, W. Jia, Z. Wu, G. Wang, H. Jiang, "Role of InGaN insertion layer on nitride-based light-emitting diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 072101 (2012).

T. Lu, S. Li, C. Liu, K. Zhang, Y. Xu, J. Tong, L. Wu, H. Wang, X. Yang, Y. Yin, G. Xiao, Y. Zhou, "Advantages of GaN based light-emitting diodes with a p-InGaN hole reservoir layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 141106 (2012).

2011

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, N. Tansu, "Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells," Opt. Expr. 19, A991-A1007 (2011).

J. Zhang, N. Tansu, "Improvement in spontaneous emission rates for InGaN quantum wells on ternary InGaN substrate for light-emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 110, 113110 (2011).

J.-W. Shi, F.-M. Kuo, C.-W. Lin, W. Chen, L.-J. Yan, J.-K. Sheu, "Investigation of the efficiency-droop mechanism in vertical red light-emitting diodes using a dynamic measurement technique," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1585-1587 (2011).

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, C. Wetzel, "Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151102 (2011).

S. Hwang, W. J. Ha, J. K. Kim, J. Xu, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, "Promotion of hole injection enabled by GaInN/GaN light-emitting triodes and its effect on the efficiency droop," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 181115 (2011).

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, C. G. Van de Walle, "Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 161107 (2011).

J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, S. W. Koch, "Temperature-dependence of the internal efficiency droop in GaN-based diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 181127 (2011).

T.-S. Kim, B.-J. Ahn, Y. Dong, K.-N. Park, J.-G. Lee, Y. Moon, H.-K. Yuh, S.-C. Choi, J.-H. Lee, S.-K. Hong, J.-H. Song, "Well-to-well non-uniformity in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells characterized by capacitance-voltage measurement with additional laser illumination," Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 071910 (2011).

D. S. Meyaard, G.-B. Lin, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, M.-H. Kim, C. Sone, "Asymmetry of carrier transport leading to efficiency droop in GaInN based light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 251115 (2011).

2010

C. H. Wang, C. C. Ke, C. Y. Lee, S. P. Chang, W. T. Chang, J. C. Li, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, "Hole injection and efficiency droop improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by band-engineered electron blocking layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 261103 (2010).

H. Zhao, G. Liu, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, "Current injection efficiency induced efficiency-droop in InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes," Solid-State Electron. 54, 1119-1124 (2010).

Y.-K. Ee, X.-H. Li, J. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, "Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire," J. Cryst. Growth 312, 1311-1315 (2010).

S.-M. Kim, H. S. Oh, J. H. Baek, K.-H. Lee, G. Y. Jung, J.-H. Song, H.-J. Kim, B.-J. Ahn, D. Yanqun, J.-H. Song, "Effects of patterned sapphire substrates on piezoelectric field in blue-emitting InGaN multiple quantum wells," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31, 842-844 (2010).

C.-H. Jang, J.-K. Sheu, C. M. Tsai, S.-J. Chang, W.-C. Lai, M.-L. Lee, T. K. Ko, C. F. Shen, S. C. Shei, "Improved performance of GaN-based blue LEDs with the InGaN insertion layer between the MQW active layer and the n-GaN cladding layer," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 513-517 (2010).

2009

Y.-J. Lee, C.-H. Chiu, C. C. Ke, P. C. Lin, T.-C. Lu, H.-C. Kuo, S.-C. Wang, "Study of the excitation power dependent internal quantum efficiency in InGaN/GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrate," IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 1137-1143 (2009).

D. Zhu, J. Xu, A. N. Noemaun, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, D. D. Koleske, "The origin of the high diode-ideality factors in GaInN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 081113 (2009).

Q. Li, J. J. Figiel, G. T. Wang, "Dislocation density reduction in GaN by dislocation filtering through a self-assembled monolayer of silica microspheres," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231105 (2009).

H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, X.-H. Li, R. A. Arif, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. Tafon Penn, V. Dierolf, N. Tansu, "Design and characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes in the green spectral regime," IET Optelectron. 3, 283-295 (2009).

Y.-K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, "Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode," IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 1066-1072 (2009).

K. T. Delaney, P. Rinke, C. G. Van de Walle, "Auger recombination rates in nitrides from first principles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 191109 (2009).

Y.-L. Li, Y.-R. Huang, Y.-H. Lai, "Investigation of efficiency droop behaviors of InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well LEDs with various well thicknesses," IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 1128-1131 (2009).

2008

J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, B. Pasenow, S. W. Koch, M. Sabathil, N. Linder, S. Lutgen, "On the importance of radiative and Auger losses in GaN-based quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 261103 (2008).

A. David, M. J. Grundmann, J. F. Kaeding, N. F. Gardner, T. G. Mihopoulos, M. R. Krames, "Carrier distribution in (0001) InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 053502 (2008).

2007

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, Y. Park, "Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 183507 (2007).

N. Niu, H. Wang, J. Liu, N. Liu, Y. Xing, J. Han, J. D. Jun, G. Shen, "Enhanced luminescence of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells by strain reduction," Solid-State Electron. 51, 860-864 (2007).

2006

I. V. Rozhansky, D. A. Zakheim, "Analysis of the causes of the decrease in the electroluminescence efficiency of AlGaInN light-emitting-diode heterostructures at high pumping density," Semiconductors 40, 839-845 (2006).

2005

E. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, "Solid-state light sources getting smart," Science 308, 1274-1278 (2005).

N. Tansu, L. J. Mawst, "Current injection efficiency of InGaAsN quantum-well lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 054502 (2005).

K. Kumakura, T. Makimoto, N. Kobayashi, T. Hashizume, T. Fukui, H. Hasegawa, "Minority carrier diffusion length in GaN: Dislocation density and doping concentration dependence," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 052105 (2005).

2003

N. Tansu, J.-Y. Yeh, L. J. Mawst, "Experimental evidence of carrier leakage in InGaAsN quantum-well lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2112-2114 (2003).

2000

Z. Z. Bandic, P. M. Bridger, E. C. Piquette, T. C. McGill, "The values of minority carrier diffusion lengths and lifetimes in GaN and their implications for bipolar devices," Solid-State Electron. 44, 221-228 (2000).

1998

I.-H. Kim, H.-S. Park, Y.-J. Park, T. Kim, "Formation of V-shaped pits in InGaN/GaN multiquantum wells and bulk InGaN films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1634-1636 (1998).

1997

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, "Quantum-confined Stark effect due to piezoelectric fields in GaInN strained quantum wells," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, L382-L385 (1997).

AIP Advanc.

I. E. Titkov, D. A. Sannikov, Y.-M. Park, J.-K. Son, "Blue light emitting diode internal and injection efficiency," AIP Advanc. 2, 032117 (2012).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. Hwang, W. J. Ha, J. K. Kim, J. Xu, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, "Promotion of hole injection enabled by GaInN/GaN light-emitting triodes and its effect on the efficiency droop," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 181115 (2011).

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, C. G. Van de Walle, "Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 161107 (2011).

J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, S. W. Koch, "Temperature-dependence of the internal efficiency droop in GaN-based diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 181127 (2011).

J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, B. Pasenow, S. W. Koch, M. Sabathil, N. Linder, S. Lutgen, "On the importance of radiative and Auger losses in GaN-based quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 261103 (2008).

A. David, M. J. Grundmann, J. F. Kaeding, N. F. Gardner, T. G. Mihopoulos, M. R. Krames, "Carrier distribution in (0001) InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 053502 (2008).

N. Tansu, J.-Y. Yeh, L. J. Mawst, "Experimental evidence of carrier leakage in InGaAsN quantum-well lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2112-2114 (2003).

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, C. Wetzel, "Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151102 (2011).

T. Lu, S. Li, C. Liu, K. Zhang, Y. Xu, J. Tong, L. Wu, H. Wang, X. Yang, Y. Yin, G. Xiao, Y. Zhou, "Advantages of GaN based light-emitting diodes with a p-InGaN hole reservoir layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 141106 (2012).

I.-H. Kim, H.-S. Park, Y.-J. Park, T. Kim, "Formation of V-shaped pits in InGaN/GaN multiquantum wells and bulk InGaN films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1634-1636 (1998).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

K. Kumakura, T. Makimoto, N. Kobayashi, T. Hashizume, T. Fukui, H. Hasegawa, "Minority carrier diffusion length in GaN: Dislocation density and doping concentration dependence," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 052105 (2005).

Q. Li, J. J. Figiel, G. T. Wang, "Dislocation density reduction in GaN by dislocation filtering through a self-assembled monolayer of silica microspheres," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231105 (2009).

D. Zhu, J. Xu, A. N. Noemaun, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, D. D. Koleske, "The origin of the high diode-ideality factors in GaInN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 081113 (2009).

C. H. Wang, C. C. Ke, C. Y. Lee, S. P. Chang, W. T. Chang, J. C. Li, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, "Hole injection and efficiency droop improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by band-engineered electron blocking layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 261103 (2010).

D. S. Meyaard, G.-B. Lin, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, M.-H. Kim, C. Sone, "Asymmetry of carrier transport leading to efficiency droop in GaInN based light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 251115 (2011).

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, Y. Park, "Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 183507 (2007).

T.-S. Kim, B.-J. Ahn, Y. Dong, K.-N. Park, J.-G. Lee, Y. Moon, H.-K. Yuh, S.-C. Choi, J.-H. Lee, S.-K. Hong, J.-H. Song, "Well-to-well non-uniformity in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells characterized by capacitance-voltage measurement with additional laser illumination," Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 071910 (2011).

K. T. Delaney, P. Rinke, C. G. Van de Walle, "Auger recombination rates in nitrides from first principles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 191109 (2009).

IEEE Electron Device Lett.

S.-M. Kim, H. S. Oh, J. H. Baek, K.-H. Lee, G. Y. Jung, J.-H. Song, H.-J. Kim, B.-J. Ahn, D. Yanqun, J.-H. Song, "Effects of patterned sapphire substrates on piezoelectric field in blue-emitting InGaN multiple quantum wells," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31, 842-844 (2010).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

C.-H. Jang, J.-K. Sheu, C. M. Tsai, S.-J. Chang, W.-C. Lai, M.-L. Lee, T. K. Ko, C. F. Shen, S. C. Shei, "Improved performance of GaN-based blue LEDs with the InGaN insertion layer between the MQW active layer and the n-GaN cladding layer," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 513-517 (2010).

IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron.

Y.-L. Li, Y.-R. Huang, Y.-H. Lai, "Investigation of efficiency droop behaviors of InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well LEDs with various well thicknesses," IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 1128-1131 (2009).

IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron.

Y.-J. Lee, C.-H. Chiu, C. C. Ke, P. C. Lin, T.-C. Lu, H.-C. Kuo, S.-C. Wang, "Study of the excitation power dependent internal quantum efficiency in InGaN/GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrate," IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 1137-1143 (2009).

Y.-K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, "Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode," IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 1066-1072 (2009).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

J.-W. Shi, F.-M. Kuo, C.-W. Lin, W. Chen, L.-J. Yan, J.-K. Sheu, "Investigation of the efficiency-droop mechanism in vertical red light-emitting diodes using a dynamic measurement technique," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1585-1587 (2011).

IET Optelectron.

H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, X.-H. Li, R. A. Arif, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. Tafon Penn, V. Dierolf, N. Tansu, "Design and characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes in the green spectral regime," IET Optelectron. 3, 283-295 (2009).

J. Appl. Phys.

J. Zhang, N. Tansu, "Improvement in spontaneous emission rates for InGaN quantum wells on ternary InGaN substrate for light-emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 110, 113110 (2011).

N. Tansu, L. J. Mawst, "Current injection efficiency of InGaAsN quantum-well lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 054502 (2005).

J. Cryst. Growth

Y.-K. Ee, X.-H. Li, J. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, "Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire," J. Cryst. Growth 312, 1311-1315 (2010).

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A

D. A. Browne, E. C. Young, J. R. Lang, C. A. Hurni, J. S. Speck, "Indium and impurity incorporation in InGaN films on polar, nonpolar, and semipolar GaN orientations grown by ammonia molecular beam epitaxy," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 30, 041513 (2012).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, "Quantum-confined Stark effect due to piezoelectric fields in GaInN strained quantum wells," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, L382-L385 (1997).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

Z. Zheng, Z. Chen, Y. Xian, B. Fan, S. Huang, W. Jia, Z. Wu, G. Wang, H. Jiang, "Role of InGaN insertion layer on nitride-based light-emitting diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 072101 (2012).

Opt. Expr.

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, N. Tansu, "Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells," Opt. Expr. 19, A991-A1007 (2011).

Science

E. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, "Solid-state light sources getting smart," Science 308, 1274-1278 (2005).

Semicond. Sci. Technol.

R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, "Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27, 024001 (2012).

Semiconductors

I. V. Rozhansky, D. A. Zakheim, "Analysis of the causes of the decrease in the electroluminescence efficiency of AlGaInN light-emitting-diode heterostructures at high pumping density," Semiconductors 40, 839-845 (2006).

Solid-State Electron.

H. Zhao, G. Liu, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, "Current injection efficiency induced efficiency-droop in InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes," Solid-State Electron. 54, 1119-1124 (2010).

N. Niu, H. Wang, J. Liu, N. Liu, Y. Xing, J. Han, J. D. Jun, G. Shen, "Enhanced luminescence of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells by strain reduction," Solid-State Electron. 51, 860-864 (2007).

Solid-State Electron.

Z. Z. Bandic, P. M. Bridger, E. C. Piquette, T. C. McGill, "The values of minority carrier diffusion lengths and lifetimes in GaN and their implications for bipolar devices," Solid-State Electron. 44, 221-228 (2000).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.