Abstract

The Y$_{2}$O$_{3}$ phosphors doped/codoped with Sm$^{3+}$/Sm$^{3+}$–Yb$^{3+}$ ions at different concentrations have been prepared using combustion technique. The prepared phosphors are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The average crystallite size of the phosphors calculated based on the XRD is observed to increase with annealing. The FTIR analysis suggested that the impurity is reduced on annealing the sample. NIR to visible frequency upconversion emission has been observed from synthesized phosphors upon a 980 nm diode laser excitation. The concentration dependence study shows a tuning in light color emitted from samples. The upconversion mechanism involved in the Sm$^{3+}$/Sm$^{3+}$–Yb$^{3+}$ doped/codoped Y$_{2}$O$_{3}$ phosphors has been explained on the basis of excited state absorption (ESA) and energy transfer (ET) process.

© 2013 IEEE

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  1. F. Auzel, "Upconversion and anti-Stokes processes with $f$ and $d$ ions in solids," Chem. Rev. 104, 139 (2004).
  2. E. D. Rosa, P. Salas, H. Desirena, C. Angeles, R. A. Rodriguez, "Strong green upconversion emission in ${{ZrO}}_{2}{{:}}{{Yb}}^{3+}{{--}}{{Ho}}^{3+}$ nanocrystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 241912 (2005).
  3. V. K. Rai, "Temperature sensors and optical sensors," Appl. Phys. B 88, 297 (2007).
  4. K. V. R. Murthy, "Nano phosphors for light emitting diodes (LEDs) syntheses and characterization," Recent Res. Sci. Technol. 4, 8 (2012).
  5. S. Ivanova, F. Pelle, "Strong 1.53 $\mu$ m to NIR-VIS-UV upconversion in Er-doped fluoride glass for high-efficiency solar cells," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 26, 1930 (2009).
  6. L. Y. Wang, R. X. Yan, Z. Huo, L. Wang, J. H. Zeng, H. Bao, X. Wang, Q. Peng, Y. D. Li, "Fluorescence resonant energy transfer biosensor based on upconversion-luminescent nanoparticles," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 44, 6054 (2005).
  7. V. K. Rai, Frequency Upconversion in Rare Earth Ions, Solid State Laser (InTech, 2012).
  8. Z. Wei-Wei, X. Mei, Z. Wei-Ping, Y. Min, Q. Ze-Ming, X. Shang-Da, C. Garapon, "Site-selective spectra and time-resolved spectra of nanocrystalline ${{Y}}_{2}{{O}}_{3}{{:}}{{Eu}}$ ," Chem. Phys. Lett. 376, 318 (2003).
  9. R. Bazzi, M. A. Flores-Gonzalez, C. Louis, K. Lebbou, C. Dujardin, A. Brenier, W. Zhang, O. Tillement, E. Bernstein, P. Perriat, "Synthesis and luminescent properties of sub-5-nm lanthanide oxides nanoparticles," J. Lumin. 102, 445 (2003).
  10. M. R. Davolos, S. Feliciano, A. M. Pires, R. F. C. Marques, M. Jafelicci Jr., "Solvothermal method to obtain europium-doped yttrium oxide," J. Solid State Chem. 171, 268 (2003).
  11. S. Ekambaram, "Effect of host-structure on the charge of europium ion," J. Alloys Compounds 390, L1 (2005).
  12. G. Concas, G. Spano, E. Zych, J. Trojan-Piegza, "Nano-and microcrystalline ${{Lu}}_{2}{{O}}_{3}{{:}}{{Eu}}$ phosphors: variations in occupancy of C2 and S6 sites by ${{Eu}}^{3+}$ ions"," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter. 17, 2597 (2005).
  13. T. K. Anh, P. Benalloul, C. Barthou, L. T. K. Giang, N. Vu, L. Q. Minh, "Luminescence, energy transfer, and upconversion mechanisms of ${{Y}}_{2}{{O}}_{3}$ nanomaterials doped with ${{Eu}}^{3+},{{Tb}}^{3+},{{Tm}}^{3+},{{Er}}^{3+},\ {{and}}\ {{Yb}}^{3+}$ ions," J. Nanomater. (2007) Art. ID 48247.
  14. P. S. May, D. H. Metcalf, F. S. Richardson, R. C. Carter, C. E. Miller, "Measurement and analysis of excited-state decay kinetics and chiroptical activity in the  $^{6}{{H}}_{J} {\leftarrow} ^{4}{{G}}_{5/2}$ transitions of ${{Sm}}^{3+}$  in trigonal ${{Na}}_{3}[{{Sm}}({{C}}_{4}{{H}}_{4}{{O}}_{5})_{3}] \cdot{{2NaClO}}_{4}\cdot{{6H}}_{2}{{O}}$ ," J. Lumin. 51, 249 (1992).
  15. L. Beaury, J. Holsa, J. Korventausta, J. C. Krupa, R. J. Lamminmaki, P. Porcher, H. Rahiala, E. Sailynoja, "Energy level scheme of ${{Nd}}^{3+}$ ion in rare earth oxyhalides, REOX (X= F, Cl, and Br)," Acta Phys. Pol. A 90, 1203 (1996).
  16. J. B. Gruber, Z. Bahram, M. F. Reid, "Spectra, energy levels, and transition line strengths for ${{Sm}}^{3+}{{:}}{{Y}}_{3}{{Al}}_{5}{{O}}_{12}$ ," Phys. Rev. 60, 15643 (1999).
  17. S. B. Stevens, C. A. Morrison, M. D. Seltezer, M. E. Hills, J. B. Gruber, "Emission measurements and crystal‐field calculations for  $^{4}G_{5/2}$  to  $^{6}H_{7/2}$  transitions in ${{Sm}}^{3+}{{:}}{{YAG}}$ ," J. Appl. Phys. 70, 948 (1991).
  18. J. F. Martel, S. Jandl, B. Viana, D. Vivien, "Crystal-field study of ${{Sm}}^{3+}$ ions in ${{Sm}}_{2}{{O}}_{3}, {{Sm}}^{3+}{{:}}{{Gd}}_{2}{{O}}_{3}$ and ${{Sm}}^{3+}{{:}}{{Y}}_{2}{{O}}_{3}$ ," J. Phys. Chem. Solids 61, 1455 (2000).
  19. F. Vetrone, J. C. Boyer, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, M. Bettinelli, "A spectroscopic investigation of trivalent lanthanide doped ${{Y}}_{2}{{O}}_{3}$ nanocrystal," Nanotechnol. 15, 75 (2004).
  20. C. A. Kodaira, R. Stefanib, A. S. Maiab, M. C. F. C. Felintoa, H. F. Britob, "Optical investigation of ${{Y}}_{2}{{O}}_{3}{{:}}{{Sm}}^{3+}$ nanophosphor prepared by combustion and Pechini methods," J. Luminesc. 127, 616 (2007).
  21. G. S. Maciel, R. B. Guimaraes, P. G. Barreto, I. C. S. Carvalho, N. Rakov, "The influence of ${{Yb}}^{3+}$ doping on the upconversion luminescence of ${{Pr}}^{3+}$ in aluminium oxide based powders prepared by combustion synthesis," Opt. Mater. 31, 1735 (2009).
  22. J. Bang, M. Abboudi, B. Abrams, P. H. Holloway, "Combustion synthesis of Eu-, Tb- and Tm- doped ${{Ln}}_{2}{{O}}_{2}{{S}} {{(Ln=Y, La, Gd)}}$ phosphors," J. Luminesc. 106, 177 (2004).
  23. Y. D. Jiang, F. Zhang, C. J. Summers, Z. L. Wang, "Synthesis and properties of ${{Sr}}_{2}{{CeO}}_{4}$ blue emission powder phosphor for field emission displays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1677 (1999).
  24. T. Aitasalo, J. Holsa, H. Jungner, M. Lastusaari, J. Niittykoski, "Sol–gel processed ${{Eu}}^{2+}$ -doped alkaline earth aluminates," J. Alloys Compound. 341, 76 (2002).
  25. D. Ravichandran, S. T. Johnson, S. Erdei, R. Roy, W. B. White, "Crystal chemistry and luminescence of the ${{Eu}}^{2+}$ -activated alkaline earth aluminate phosphors," Displays 19, 197 (1999).
  26. T. Aitasalo, J. Holsa, H. Jungner, M. Lastusaari, J. Niittykoski, M. Parkkinen, R. Valtonen, " ${{Eu}}^{2+}$ doped calcium aluminates prepared by alternative low temperature routes," Opt. Mater. 26, 113 (2004).
  27. J. J. Kingsley, K. Suresh, K. C. Patil, "Combustion synthesis of fine particle rare earth orthoaluminates and yttrium aluminum garnet," J. Solid State Chem. 88, 435 (1990).
  28. Z. L. Fu, S. H. Zhou, Y. N. Yu, S. Y. Zhang, "Combustion synthesis and luminescence properties of nanocrystalline monoclinic ${{SrAl}}_{2}{{O}}_{4}{{:}}{{Eu}}^{2+}$ ," Chem. Phys. Lett. 395, 285 (2004).
  29. H. Chander, D. Haranath, V. Shanker, P. Sharma, "Synthesis of nanocrystals of long persisting phosphor by modified combustion technique"," J. Cryst. Growth 271, 307 (2004).
  30. T. Ye, Z. Guiwen, Z. Weiping, X. Shangda, "Combustion synthesis and photoluminescence of nanocrystalline ${{Y}}_{2}{{O}}_{3}{{:}}{{Eu}}$ phosphors," Mater. Res. Bull. 32, 501 (1997).
  31. S. Ekambaram, K. C. Patil, M. Maaza, "Synthesis of lamp phosphors: facile combustion approach"," J. Alloys Compds. 393, 81 (2005).
  32. G. H. Dieke, Spectra and Energy Levels of Rare Earth Ions in Crystals (Interscience Publ., 1968) pp. 253-261.
  33. S. K. Singh, K. Kumar, S. B. Rai, "Multifunctional ${{Er}}^{3+}, {{Yb}}^{3+}$ codoped ${{Gd}}_{2}{{O}}_{3}$ nano-crystalline phosphor synthesized through optimized combustion route," Appl. Phys. B 94, 165 (2009).
  34. A. Pandey, V. K. Rai, "Color emission tunability in ${{Ho}}^{3+}{{-}}{{Tm}}^{3+}{{-}}{{Yb}}^{3+}$ codoped ${{Y}}_{2}{{O}}_{3}$ phosphor," Appl. Phys. B 109, 611 (2012).
  35. X. Wang, X. Yan, C. Kan, "Thermal loading induced near-infrared upconversion emission of Sm3+-doped $\beta$ - ${{NaYbF}}_{4}$ nano-phosphors," J. Luminenc. 131, 2325 (2011).

2012 (2)

K. V. R. Murthy, "Nano phosphors for light emitting diodes (LEDs) syntheses and characterization," Recent Res. Sci. Technol. 4, 8 (2012).

A. Pandey, V. K. Rai, "Color emission tunability in ${{Ho}}^{3+}{{-}}{{Tm}}^{3+}{{-}}{{Yb}}^{3+}$ codoped ${{Y}}_{2}{{O}}_{3}$ phosphor," Appl. Phys. B 109, 611 (2012).

2011 (1)

X. Wang, X. Yan, C. Kan, "Thermal loading induced near-infrared upconversion emission of Sm3+-doped $\beta$ - ${{NaYbF}}_{4}$ nano-phosphors," J. Luminenc. 131, 2325 (2011).

2009 (3)

S. K. Singh, K. Kumar, S. B. Rai, "Multifunctional ${{Er}}^{3+}, {{Yb}}^{3+}$ codoped ${{Gd}}_{2}{{O}}_{3}$ nano-crystalline phosphor synthesized through optimized combustion route," Appl. Phys. B 94, 165 (2009).

G. S. Maciel, R. B. Guimaraes, P. G. Barreto, I. C. S. Carvalho, N. Rakov, "The influence of ${{Yb}}^{3+}$ doping on the upconversion luminescence of ${{Pr}}^{3+}$ in aluminium oxide based powders prepared by combustion synthesis," Opt. Mater. 31, 1735 (2009).

S. Ivanova, F. Pelle, "Strong 1.53 $\mu$ m to NIR-VIS-UV upconversion in Er-doped fluoride glass for high-efficiency solar cells," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 26, 1930 (2009).

2007 (3)

T. K. Anh, P. Benalloul, C. Barthou, L. T. K. Giang, N. Vu, L. Q. Minh, "Luminescence, energy transfer, and upconversion mechanisms of ${{Y}}_{2}{{O}}_{3}$ nanomaterials doped with ${{Eu}}^{3+},{{Tb}}^{3+},{{Tm}}^{3+},{{Er}}^{3+},\ {{and}}\ {{Yb}}^{3+}$ ions," J. Nanomater. (2007) Art. ID 48247.

V. K. Rai, "Temperature sensors and optical sensors," Appl. Phys. B 88, 297 (2007).

C. A. Kodaira, R. Stefanib, A. S. Maiab, M. C. F. C. Felintoa, H. F. Britob, "Optical investigation of ${{Y}}_{2}{{O}}_{3}{{:}}{{Sm}}^{3+}$ nanophosphor prepared by combustion and Pechini methods," J. Luminesc. 127, 616 (2007).

2005 (5)

S. Ekambaram, K. C. Patil, M. Maaza, "Synthesis of lamp phosphors: facile combustion approach"," J. Alloys Compds. 393, 81 (2005).

L. Y. Wang, R. X. Yan, Z. Huo, L. Wang, J. H. Zeng, H. Bao, X. Wang, Q. Peng, Y. D. Li, "Fluorescence resonant energy transfer biosensor based on upconversion-luminescent nanoparticles," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 44, 6054 (2005).

E. D. Rosa, P. Salas, H. Desirena, C. Angeles, R. A. Rodriguez, "Strong green upconversion emission in ${{ZrO}}_{2}{{:}}{{Yb}}^{3+}{{--}}{{Ho}}^{3+}$ nanocrystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 241912 (2005).

S. Ekambaram, "Effect of host-structure on the charge of europium ion," J. Alloys Compounds 390, L1 (2005).

G. Concas, G. Spano, E. Zych, J. Trojan-Piegza, "Nano-and microcrystalline ${{Lu}}_{2}{{O}}_{3}{{:}}{{Eu}}$ phosphors: variations in occupancy of C2 and S6 sites by ${{Eu}}^{3+}$ ions"," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter. 17, 2597 (2005).

2004 (6)

F. Auzel, "Upconversion and anti-Stokes processes with $f$ and $d$ ions in solids," Chem. Rev. 104, 139 (2004).

F. Vetrone, J. C. Boyer, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, M. Bettinelli, "A spectroscopic investigation of trivalent lanthanide doped ${{Y}}_{2}{{O}}_{3}$ nanocrystal," Nanotechnol. 15, 75 (2004).

J. Bang, M. Abboudi, B. Abrams, P. H. Holloway, "Combustion synthesis of Eu-, Tb- and Tm- doped ${{Ln}}_{2}{{O}}_{2}{{S}} {{(Ln=Y, La, Gd)}}$ phosphors," J. Luminesc. 106, 177 (2004).

T. Aitasalo, J. Holsa, H. Jungner, M. Lastusaari, J. Niittykoski, M. Parkkinen, R. Valtonen, " ${{Eu}}^{2+}$ doped calcium aluminates prepared by alternative low temperature routes," Opt. Mater. 26, 113 (2004).

Z. L. Fu, S. H. Zhou, Y. N. Yu, S. Y. Zhang, "Combustion synthesis and luminescence properties of nanocrystalline monoclinic ${{SrAl}}_{2}{{O}}_{4}{{:}}{{Eu}}^{2+}$ ," Chem. Phys. Lett. 395, 285 (2004).

H. Chander, D. Haranath, V. Shanker, P. Sharma, "Synthesis of nanocrystals of long persisting phosphor by modified combustion technique"," J. Cryst. Growth 271, 307 (2004).

2003 (3)

Z. Wei-Wei, X. Mei, Z. Wei-Ping, Y. Min, Q. Ze-Ming, X. Shang-Da, C. Garapon, "Site-selective spectra and time-resolved spectra of nanocrystalline ${{Y}}_{2}{{O}}_{3}{{:}}{{Eu}}$ ," Chem. Phys. Lett. 376, 318 (2003).

R. Bazzi, M. A. Flores-Gonzalez, C. Louis, K. Lebbou, C. Dujardin, A. Brenier, W. Zhang, O. Tillement, E. Bernstein, P. Perriat, "Synthesis and luminescent properties of sub-5-nm lanthanide oxides nanoparticles," J. Lumin. 102, 445 (2003).

M. R. Davolos, S. Feliciano, A. M. Pires, R. F. C. Marques, M. Jafelicci Jr., "Solvothermal method to obtain europium-doped yttrium oxide," J. Solid State Chem. 171, 268 (2003).

2002 (1)

T. Aitasalo, J. Holsa, H. Jungner, M. Lastusaari, J. Niittykoski, "Sol–gel processed ${{Eu}}^{2+}$ -doped alkaline earth aluminates," J. Alloys Compound. 341, 76 (2002).

2000 (1)

J. F. Martel, S. Jandl, B. Viana, D. Vivien, "Crystal-field study of ${{Sm}}^{3+}$ ions in ${{Sm}}_{2}{{O}}_{3}, {{Sm}}^{3+}{{:}}{{Gd}}_{2}{{O}}_{3}$ and ${{Sm}}^{3+}{{:}}{{Y}}_{2}{{O}}_{3}$ ," J. Phys. Chem. Solids 61, 1455 (2000).

1999 (3)

J. B. Gruber, Z. Bahram, M. F. Reid, "Spectra, energy levels, and transition line strengths for ${{Sm}}^{3+}{{:}}{{Y}}_{3}{{Al}}_{5}{{O}}_{12}$ ," Phys. Rev. 60, 15643 (1999).

D. Ravichandran, S. T. Johnson, S. Erdei, R. Roy, W. B. White, "Crystal chemistry and luminescence of the ${{Eu}}^{2+}$ -activated alkaline earth aluminate phosphors," Displays 19, 197 (1999).

Y. D. Jiang, F. Zhang, C. J. Summers, Z. L. Wang, "Synthesis and properties of ${{Sr}}_{2}{{CeO}}_{4}$ blue emission powder phosphor for field emission displays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1677 (1999).

1997 (1)

T. Ye, Z. Guiwen, Z. Weiping, X. Shangda, "Combustion synthesis and photoluminescence of nanocrystalline ${{Y}}_{2}{{O}}_{3}{{:}}{{Eu}}$ phosphors," Mater. Res. Bull. 32, 501 (1997).

1996 (1)

L. Beaury, J. Holsa, J. Korventausta, J. C. Krupa, R. J. Lamminmaki, P. Porcher, H. Rahiala, E. Sailynoja, "Energy level scheme of ${{Nd}}^{3+}$ ion in rare earth oxyhalides, REOX (X= F, Cl, and Br)," Acta Phys. Pol. A 90, 1203 (1996).

1992 (1)

P. S. May, D. H. Metcalf, F. S. Richardson, R. C. Carter, C. E. Miller, "Measurement and analysis of excited-state decay kinetics and chiroptical activity in the  $^{6}{{H}}_{J} {\leftarrow} ^{4}{{G}}_{5/2}$ transitions of ${{Sm}}^{3+}$  in trigonal ${{Na}}_{3}[{{Sm}}({{C}}_{4}{{H}}_{4}{{O}}_{5})_{3}] \cdot{{2NaClO}}_{4}\cdot{{6H}}_{2}{{O}}$ ," J. Lumin. 51, 249 (1992).

1991 (1)

S. B. Stevens, C. A. Morrison, M. D. Seltezer, M. E. Hills, J. B. Gruber, "Emission measurements and crystal‐field calculations for  $^{4}G_{5/2}$  to  $^{6}H_{7/2}$  transitions in ${{Sm}}^{3+}{{:}}{{YAG}}$ ," J. Appl. Phys. 70, 948 (1991).

1990 (1)

J. J. Kingsley, K. Suresh, K. C. Patil, "Combustion synthesis of fine particle rare earth orthoaluminates and yttrium aluminum garnet," J. Solid State Chem. 88, 435 (1990).

Acta Phys. Pol. A (1)

L. Beaury, J. Holsa, J. Korventausta, J. C. Krupa, R. J. Lamminmaki, P. Porcher, H. Rahiala, E. Sailynoja, "Energy level scheme of ${{Nd}}^{3+}$ ion in rare earth oxyhalides, REOX (X= F, Cl, and Br)," Acta Phys. Pol. A 90, 1203 (1996).

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. (1)

L. Y. Wang, R. X. Yan, Z. Huo, L. Wang, J. H. Zeng, H. Bao, X. Wang, Q. Peng, Y. D. Li, "Fluorescence resonant energy transfer biosensor based on upconversion-luminescent nanoparticles," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 44, 6054 (2005).

Appl. Phys. B (3)

V. K. Rai, "Temperature sensors and optical sensors," Appl. Phys. B 88, 297 (2007).

S. K. Singh, K. Kumar, S. B. Rai, "Multifunctional ${{Er}}^{3+}, {{Yb}}^{3+}$ codoped ${{Gd}}_{2}{{O}}_{3}$ nano-crystalline phosphor synthesized through optimized combustion route," Appl. Phys. B 94, 165 (2009).

A. Pandey, V. K. Rai, "Color emission tunability in ${{Ho}}^{3+}{{-}}{{Tm}}^{3+}{{-}}{{Yb}}^{3+}$ codoped ${{Y}}_{2}{{O}}_{3}$ phosphor," Appl. Phys. B 109, 611 (2012).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

Y. D. Jiang, F. Zhang, C. J. Summers, Z. L. Wang, "Synthesis and properties of ${{Sr}}_{2}{{CeO}}_{4}$ blue emission powder phosphor for field emission displays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1677 (1999).

E. D. Rosa, P. Salas, H. Desirena, C. Angeles, R. A. Rodriguez, "Strong green upconversion emission in ${{ZrO}}_{2}{{:}}{{Yb}}^{3+}{{--}}{{Ho}}^{3+}$ nanocrystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 241912 (2005).

Chem. Phys. Lett. (2)

Z. Wei-Wei, X. Mei, Z. Wei-Ping, Y. Min, Q. Ze-Ming, X. Shang-Da, C. Garapon, "Site-selective spectra and time-resolved spectra of nanocrystalline ${{Y}}_{2}{{O}}_{3}{{:}}{{Eu}}$ ," Chem. Phys. Lett. 376, 318 (2003).

Z. L. Fu, S. H. Zhou, Y. N. Yu, S. Y. Zhang, "Combustion synthesis and luminescence properties of nanocrystalline monoclinic ${{SrAl}}_{2}{{O}}_{4}{{:}}{{Eu}}^{2+}$ ," Chem. Phys. Lett. 395, 285 (2004).

Chem. Rev. (1)

F. Auzel, "Upconversion and anti-Stokes processes with $f$ and $d$ ions in solids," Chem. Rev. 104, 139 (2004).

Displays (1)

D. Ravichandran, S. T. Johnson, S. Erdei, R. Roy, W. B. White, "Crystal chemistry and luminescence of the ${{Eu}}^{2+}$ -activated alkaline earth aluminate phosphors," Displays 19, 197 (1999).

J. Alloys Compds. (1)

S. Ekambaram, K. C. Patil, M. Maaza, "Synthesis of lamp phosphors: facile combustion approach"," J. Alloys Compds. 393, 81 (2005).

J. Alloys Compound. (1)

T. Aitasalo, J. Holsa, H. Jungner, M. Lastusaari, J. Niittykoski, "Sol–gel processed ${{Eu}}^{2+}$ -doped alkaline earth aluminates," J. Alloys Compound. 341, 76 (2002).

J. Alloys Compounds (1)

S. Ekambaram, "Effect of host-structure on the charge of europium ion," J. Alloys Compounds 390, L1 (2005).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. B. Stevens, C. A. Morrison, M. D. Seltezer, M. E. Hills, J. B. Gruber, "Emission measurements and crystal‐field calculations for  $^{4}G_{5/2}$  to  $^{6}H_{7/2}$  transitions in ${{Sm}}^{3+}{{:}}{{YAG}}$ ," J. Appl. Phys. 70, 948 (1991).

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

H. Chander, D. Haranath, V. Shanker, P. Sharma, "Synthesis of nanocrystals of long persisting phosphor by modified combustion technique"," J. Cryst. Growth 271, 307 (2004).

J. Lumin. (2)

P. S. May, D. H. Metcalf, F. S. Richardson, R. C. Carter, C. E. Miller, "Measurement and analysis of excited-state decay kinetics and chiroptical activity in the  $^{6}{{H}}_{J} {\leftarrow} ^{4}{{G}}_{5/2}$ transitions of ${{Sm}}^{3+}$  in trigonal ${{Na}}_{3}[{{Sm}}({{C}}_{4}{{H}}_{4}{{O}}_{5})_{3}] \cdot{{2NaClO}}_{4}\cdot{{6H}}_{2}{{O}}$ ," J. Lumin. 51, 249 (1992).

R. Bazzi, M. A. Flores-Gonzalez, C. Louis, K. Lebbou, C. Dujardin, A. Brenier, W. Zhang, O. Tillement, E. Bernstein, P. Perriat, "Synthesis and luminescent properties of sub-5-nm lanthanide oxides nanoparticles," J. Lumin. 102, 445 (2003).

J. Luminenc. (1)

X. Wang, X. Yan, C. Kan, "Thermal loading induced near-infrared upconversion emission of Sm3+-doped $\beta$ - ${{NaYbF}}_{4}$ nano-phosphors," J. Luminenc. 131, 2325 (2011).

J. Luminesc. (2)

J. Bang, M. Abboudi, B. Abrams, P. H. Holloway, "Combustion synthesis of Eu-, Tb- and Tm- doped ${{Ln}}_{2}{{O}}_{2}{{S}} {{(Ln=Y, La, Gd)}}$ phosphors," J. Luminesc. 106, 177 (2004).

C. A. Kodaira, R. Stefanib, A. S. Maiab, M. C. F. C. Felintoa, H. F. Britob, "Optical investigation of ${{Y}}_{2}{{O}}_{3}{{:}}{{Sm}}^{3+}$ nanophosphor prepared by combustion and Pechini methods," J. Luminesc. 127, 616 (2007).

J. Nanomater. (1)

T. K. Anh, P. Benalloul, C. Barthou, L. T. K. Giang, N. Vu, L. Q. Minh, "Luminescence, energy transfer, and upconversion mechanisms of ${{Y}}_{2}{{O}}_{3}$ nanomaterials doped with ${{Eu}}^{3+},{{Tb}}^{3+},{{Tm}}^{3+},{{Er}}^{3+},\ {{and}}\ {{Yb}}^{3+}$ ions," J. Nanomater. (2007) Art. ID 48247.

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. (1)

S. Ivanova, F. Pelle, "Strong 1.53 $\mu$ m to NIR-VIS-UV upconversion in Er-doped fluoride glass for high-efficiency solar cells," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 26, 1930 (2009).

J. Phys. Chem. Solids (1)

J. F. Martel, S. Jandl, B. Viana, D. Vivien, "Crystal-field study of ${{Sm}}^{3+}$ ions in ${{Sm}}_{2}{{O}}_{3}, {{Sm}}^{3+}{{:}}{{Gd}}_{2}{{O}}_{3}$ and ${{Sm}}^{3+}{{:}}{{Y}}_{2}{{O}}_{3}$ ," J. Phys. Chem. Solids 61, 1455 (2000).

J. Phys.: Condens. Matter. (1)

G. Concas, G. Spano, E. Zych, J. Trojan-Piegza, "Nano-and microcrystalline ${{Lu}}_{2}{{O}}_{3}{{:}}{{Eu}}$ phosphors: variations in occupancy of C2 and S6 sites by ${{Eu}}^{3+}$ ions"," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter. 17, 2597 (2005).

J. Solid State Chem. (2)

M. R. Davolos, S. Feliciano, A. M. Pires, R. F. C. Marques, M. Jafelicci Jr., "Solvothermal method to obtain europium-doped yttrium oxide," J. Solid State Chem. 171, 268 (2003).

J. J. Kingsley, K. Suresh, K. C. Patil, "Combustion synthesis of fine particle rare earth orthoaluminates and yttrium aluminum garnet," J. Solid State Chem. 88, 435 (1990).

Mater. Res. Bull. (1)

T. Ye, Z. Guiwen, Z. Weiping, X. Shangda, "Combustion synthesis and photoluminescence of nanocrystalline ${{Y}}_{2}{{O}}_{3}{{:}}{{Eu}}$ phosphors," Mater. Res. Bull. 32, 501 (1997).

Nanotechnol. (1)

F. Vetrone, J. C. Boyer, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, M. Bettinelli, "A spectroscopic investigation of trivalent lanthanide doped ${{Y}}_{2}{{O}}_{3}$ nanocrystal," Nanotechnol. 15, 75 (2004).

Opt. Mater. (2)

G. S. Maciel, R. B. Guimaraes, P. G. Barreto, I. C. S. Carvalho, N. Rakov, "The influence of ${{Yb}}^{3+}$ doping on the upconversion luminescence of ${{Pr}}^{3+}$ in aluminium oxide based powders prepared by combustion synthesis," Opt. Mater. 31, 1735 (2009).

T. Aitasalo, J. Holsa, H. Jungner, M. Lastusaari, J. Niittykoski, M. Parkkinen, R. Valtonen, " ${{Eu}}^{2+}$ doped calcium aluminates prepared by alternative low temperature routes," Opt. Mater. 26, 113 (2004).

Phys. Rev. (1)

J. B. Gruber, Z. Bahram, M. F. Reid, "Spectra, energy levels, and transition line strengths for ${{Sm}}^{3+}{{:}}{{Y}}_{3}{{Al}}_{5}{{O}}_{12}$ ," Phys. Rev. 60, 15643 (1999).

Recent Res. Sci. Technol. (1)

K. V. R. Murthy, "Nano phosphors for light emitting diodes (LEDs) syntheses and characterization," Recent Res. Sci. Technol. 4, 8 (2012).

Other (2)

V. K. Rai, Frequency Upconversion in Rare Earth Ions, Solid State Laser (InTech, 2012).

G. H. Dieke, Spectra and Energy Levels of Rare Earth Ions in Crystals (Interscience Publ., 1968) pp. 253-261.

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