Abstract

We report channel length $L$ ($L$ ranging from 2 to 40 $ \mu{{m}}$) dependence of the electrical stability of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs). The a-IGZO TFTs employ a coplanar structure with a ${{SiN}}_{x}$ interlayer used to dope the source/drain regions. After application of positive gate bias stress (PBS), short-channel devices ($L = 2~ \mu {{m}}$) exhibit smaller threshold voltage shifts ($\Delta {\rm V} _{\rm th}$) compared to longer-channel devices ($L \ge {4}~ \mu{{m}}$). It is proposed that carrier diffusion takes place from the high carrier concentration regions under the ${{SiN}}_{x}$ interlayer to the intrinsic channel region, thereby shifting the Fermi level closer to the conduction band. Higher Fermi levels mean less defect states available for carrier trapping – hence the small $\Delta {\rm V} _{\rm th}$ in short devices under PBS.

© 2013 IEEE

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  1. T. Kamiya, K. Nomura, H. Hosono, "Present status of amorphous In–Ga–Zn–O thin-film transistors," Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 11, 04430511 (2010).
  2. M. Mativenga, M. H. Choi, D. H. Kang, J. Jang, "High-performance drain-offset a-IGZO thin-film transistors," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32, 644 (2011).
  3. H. Aoki, "Dynamic characterization of a-Si TFT-LCD pixels," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 43, 31 (1996).
  4. G. Fortunato, A. Valletta, P. Gaucci, L. Mariucci, S. D. Brotherton, "Short channel effects in polysilicon thin film transistors," Thin Solid Films 487, 221 (2005).
  5. D. H. Kang, I. Kang, S. H. Ryu, J. Jang, "Self-aligned coplanar a-IGZO TFTs and application to high-speed circuits," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32, 1385 (2011).
  6. H.-H. Hsieh, C.-C. Wu, "Scaling behavior of ZnO transparent thin-film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 041109 (2006).
  7. D. H. Kang, J. U. Han, M. Mativenga, S. H. Ha, J. Jang, "Threshold voltage dependence on channel length in amorphous-indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 083508 (2013).
  8. A. Suresh, J. F. Muth, "Bias stress stability of indium gallium zinc oxide channel based transparent thin film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 033502 (2008).
  9. W. Lim, S. H. Kim, Y. L. Wang, J. W. Lee, D. P. Norton, S. J. Pearton, F. Ren, I. I. Kravchenko, "Stable room temperature deposited amorphous ${{InGaZnO}}_{4}$ thin film transistors," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26, 959 (2008).
  10. J. K. Jeong, H. W. Yang, J. H. Jeong, Y.-G. Mo, H. D. Kim, "Origin of threshold voltage instability in indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 123508 (2008).
  11. M. D. H. Chowdhury, S. H. Ryu, P. Migliorato, J. Jang, "Effect of annealing time on bias stress and light-induced instabilities in amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors," J. Appl. Phys. 110, 114503 (2011).
  12. A. Sato, M. Shimade, K. Abe, R. Hayashi, H. Kumomi, K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Amorphous In–Ga–Zn–O thin film transistor with coplanar homojunction structure," Thin Solid Films 518, 1309 (2009).
  13. B. D. Ahn, H. S. Shin, G. H. Kim, J. S. Park, H. J. Kim, "A novel amorphous InGaZnO thin film transistor structure without source/drain layer deposition," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 03B019 (2009).
  14. R. B. M. Cross, M. M. De Souza, "Investigating the stability of zinc oxide thin film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 263513 (2006).
  15. T. C. Chen, T. C. Chang, T. Y. Hsieh, W. S. Lu, F. Y. Jian, C. T. Tsai, S. Y. Huang, C. S. Lin, "Investigating the degradation behavior caused by charge trapping effect under DC and AC gate-bais stress for InGaZnO thin film transistor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 022104 (2011).
  16. F. R. Libsch, J. Kanicki, "Bias-stress-induced stretched-exponential time dependence of charge injection and trapping in amorphous thin-film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1286 (1993).
  17. K. Ide, Y. Kikuchi, K. Nomura, M. Kimura, T. Kamiya, H. Hosono, "Effects of excess oxygen on operation characteristics of amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O thin-film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 093507 (2011).
  18. D. H. Lee, K. Kawamura, K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, H. Hosono, "Large photoresponse in amorphous In–Ga–Zn–O and origin of reversible and slow decay," Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 13, H324 (2010).

2013

D. H. Kang, J. U. Han, M. Mativenga, S. H. Ha, J. Jang, "Threshold voltage dependence on channel length in amorphous-indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 083508 (2013).

2011

M. Mativenga, M. H. Choi, D. H. Kang, J. Jang, "High-performance drain-offset a-IGZO thin-film transistors," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32, 644 (2011).

M. D. H. Chowdhury, S. H. Ryu, P. Migliorato, J. Jang, "Effect of annealing time on bias stress and light-induced instabilities in amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors," J. Appl. Phys. 110, 114503 (2011).

D. H. Kang, I. Kang, S. H. Ryu, J. Jang, "Self-aligned coplanar a-IGZO TFTs and application to high-speed circuits," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32, 1385 (2011).

T. C. Chen, T. C. Chang, T. Y. Hsieh, W. S. Lu, F. Y. Jian, C. T. Tsai, S. Y. Huang, C. S. Lin, "Investigating the degradation behavior caused by charge trapping effect under DC and AC gate-bais stress for InGaZnO thin film transistor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 022104 (2011).

K. Ide, Y. Kikuchi, K. Nomura, M. Kimura, T. Kamiya, H. Hosono, "Effects of excess oxygen on operation characteristics of amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O thin-film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 093507 (2011).

2010

D. H. Lee, K. Kawamura, K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, H. Hosono, "Large photoresponse in amorphous In–Ga–Zn–O and origin of reversible and slow decay," Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 13, H324 (2010).

T. Kamiya, K. Nomura, H. Hosono, "Present status of amorphous In–Ga–Zn–O thin-film transistors," Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 11, 04430511 (2010).

2009

A. Sato, M. Shimade, K. Abe, R. Hayashi, H. Kumomi, K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Amorphous In–Ga–Zn–O thin film transistor with coplanar homojunction structure," Thin Solid Films 518, 1309 (2009).

B. D. Ahn, H. S. Shin, G. H. Kim, J. S. Park, H. J. Kim, "A novel amorphous InGaZnO thin film transistor structure without source/drain layer deposition," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 03B019 (2009).

2008

A. Suresh, J. F. Muth, "Bias stress stability of indium gallium zinc oxide channel based transparent thin film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 033502 (2008).

W. Lim, S. H. Kim, Y. L. Wang, J. W. Lee, D. P. Norton, S. J. Pearton, F. Ren, I. I. Kravchenko, "Stable room temperature deposited amorphous ${{InGaZnO}}_{4}$ thin film transistors," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26, 959 (2008).

J. K. Jeong, H. W. Yang, J. H. Jeong, Y.-G. Mo, H. D. Kim, "Origin of threshold voltage instability in indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 123508 (2008).

2006

R. B. M. Cross, M. M. De Souza, "Investigating the stability of zinc oxide thin film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 263513 (2006).

H.-H. Hsieh, C.-C. Wu, "Scaling behavior of ZnO transparent thin-film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 041109 (2006).

2005

G. Fortunato, A. Valletta, P. Gaucci, L. Mariucci, S. D. Brotherton, "Short channel effects in polysilicon thin film transistors," Thin Solid Films 487, 221 (2005).

1996

H. Aoki, "Dynamic characterization of a-Si TFT-LCD pixels," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 43, 31 (1996).

1993

F. R. Libsch, J. Kanicki, "Bias-stress-induced stretched-exponential time dependence of charge injection and trapping in amorphous thin-film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1286 (1993).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. B. M. Cross, M. M. De Souza, "Investigating the stability of zinc oxide thin film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 263513 (2006).

J. K. Jeong, H. W. Yang, J. H. Jeong, Y.-G. Mo, H. D. Kim, "Origin of threshold voltage instability in indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 123508 (2008).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

T. C. Chen, T. C. Chang, T. Y. Hsieh, W. S. Lu, F. Y. Jian, C. T. Tsai, S. Y. Huang, C. S. Lin, "Investigating the degradation behavior caused by charge trapping effect under DC and AC gate-bais stress for InGaZnO thin film transistor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 022104 (2011).

F. R. Libsch, J. Kanicki, "Bias-stress-induced stretched-exponential time dependence of charge injection and trapping in amorphous thin-film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1286 (1993).

K. Ide, Y. Kikuchi, K. Nomura, M. Kimura, T. Kamiya, H. Hosono, "Effects of excess oxygen on operation characteristics of amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O thin-film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 093507 (2011).

H.-H. Hsieh, C.-C. Wu, "Scaling behavior of ZnO transparent thin-film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 041109 (2006).

D. H. Kang, J. U. Han, M. Mativenga, S. H. Ha, J. Jang, "Threshold voltage dependence on channel length in amorphous-indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 083508 (2013).

A. Suresh, J. F. Muth, "Bias stress stability of indium gallium zinc oxide channel based transparent thin film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 033502 (2008).

Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.

D. H. Lee, K. Kawamura, K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, H. Hosono, "Large photoresponse in amorphous In–Ga–Zn–O and origin of reversible and slow decay," Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 13, H324 (2010).

IEEE Electron Device Lett.

M. Mativenga, M. H. Choi, D. H. Kang, J. Jang, "High-performance drain-offset a-IGZO thin-film transistors," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32, 644 (2011).

D. H. Kang, I. Kang, S. H. Ryu, J. Jang, "Self-aligned coplanar a-IGZO TFTs and application to high-speed circuits," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32, 1385 (2011).

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices

H. Aoki, "Dynamic characterization of a-Si TFT-LCD pixels," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 43, 31 (1996).

J. Appl. Phys.

M. D. H. Chowdhury, S. H. Ryu, P. Migliorato, J. Jang, "Effect of annealing time on bias stress and light-induced instabilities in amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors," J. Appl. Phys. 110, 114503 (2011).

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B

W. Lim, S. H. Kim, Y. L. Wang, J. W. Lee, D. P. Norton, S. J. Pearton, F. Ren, I. I. Kravchenko, "Stable room temperature deposited amorphous ${{InGaZnO}}_{4}$ thin film transistors," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26, 959 (2008).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

B. D. Ahn, H. S. Shin, G. H. Kim, J. S. Park, H. J. Kim, "A novel amorphous InGaZnO thin film transistor structure without source/drain layer deposition," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 03B019 (2009).

Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater.

T. Kamiya, K. Nomura, H. Hosono, "Present status of amorphous In–Ga–Zn–O thin-film transistors," Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 11, 04430511 (2010).

Thin Solid Films

A. Sato, M. Shimade, K. Abe, R. Hayashi, H. Kumomi, K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Amorphous In–Ga–Zn–O thin film transistor with coplanar homojunction structure," Thin Solid Films 518, 1309 (2009).

Thin Solid Films

G. Fortunato, A. Valletta, P. Gaucci, L. Mariucci, S. D. Brotherton, "Short channel effects in polysilicon thin film transistors," Thin Solid Films 487, 221 (2005).

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