Abstract

Significant performance enhancement of a green hybrid inorganic-organic light-emitting diode (HyLED) based on a simplified ${{WO}}_{3}$/organic layer structure has been achieved through structure optimization. A 20–50 nm as-deposited ${{WO}}_{3}$ layer allowed for facile hole injection and transport. In the meantime, it had high transparency and good robustness required for efficient and reliable operation of the HyLED. Inserting a 30 nm undoped 4,4$^{\prime}$-N,N$^{\prime}$-dicarbazolebiphenyl (CBP) layer between the ${{WO}}_{3}$ and emitting layer resulted in a broadened exciton generation zone and improved the brightness by 87.4% at 20 ${{mA/cm}}^{2}$. At this injection level, the optimized HyLED reached a luminance of 11642 ${{cd/m}}^{2}$ and a current efficiency of 58.2 cd/A, and exhibited good reliability under constant-current stressing.

© 2013 IEEE

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  1. F. So, J. Kido, P. Burrows, "Organic light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting," MRS Bull. 33, 663-669 (2008).
  2. C. C. Wu, C. I. Wu, J. C. Sturm, A. Kahn, "Surface modification of indium tin oxide by plasma treatment: An effective method to improve the efficiency, brightness, and reliability of organic light emitting devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1350-1352 (1997).
  3. X. A. Cao, Y. Q. Zhang, "Performance enhancement of organic light-emitting diodes by chlorine plasma treatment of indium tin oxide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 183304 (2012).
  4. Y. Q. Zhang, R. Acharya, X. A. Cao, "Efficient and reliable green organic light-emitting diodes with Cl2 plasma-etched indium tin oxide anode," J. Appl. Phys. 112, 013103 (2012).
  5. K. R. Choudhury, J. Lee, N. Chopra, A. Gupta, X. Jiang, F. Amy, F. So, "Highly efficient hole injection using polymeric anode materials for small—Molecule organic light—Emitting diodes," Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 491-496 (2009).
  6. S. F. Chen, C. W. Wang, "Influence of the hole injection layer on the luminescent performance of organic light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 765-767 (2004).
  7. I. Irfan, H. Ding, Y. Gao, D. Y. Kim, J. Subbiah, F. So, "The effect of molybdenum trioxide inter-layer between indium tin oxide (ITO) and organic semiconductor on the energy level alignment," MRS Proc. 1212, 1212-S08-05 (2009).
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  9. J. Li, M. Yahiro, K. Ishida, H. Yamada, K. Matsushige, "Enhanced performance of organic light emitting device by insertion of conducting/insulating ${\hbox{WO}}_{3}$ anodic buffer layer," Synth. Met. 151, 141-146 (2005).
  10. J. Meyer, S. Hamwi, T. Bülow, H. H. Johannes, T. Riedl, W. Kowalsky, "Highly efficient simplified organic light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 113506 (2007).
  11. Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, Z. W. Liu, M. T. Greiner, Z. H. Lu, "Direct hole injection in to 4,4 $^{\prime}$-N,N $^{\prime}$-dicarbazole-biphenyl: A simple pathway to achieve efficient organic light emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 108, 024510 (2010).
  12. V. Wood, M. J. Panzer, J. E. Halpert, J. M. Caruge, M. G. Bawendi, V. Bulovic, "Selection of metal oxide charge transport layers for colloidal quantum dot LEDs," ACS Nano 3, 3581-3586 (2009).
  13. S. Han, W. Shin, M. Seo, D. Gupta, S. Moon, S. Yoo, "Improving performance of organic solar cells using amorphous tungsten oxides as an interfacial buffer layer on transparent anodes," Org. Electron. 10, 791-797 (2009).
  14. R. Acharya, X. A. Cao, "High-brightness organic light-emitting diodes based on a simplified hybrid structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 053306 (2012).

2012 (3)

X. A. Cao, Y. Q. Zhang, "Performance enhancement of organic light-emitting diodes by chlorine plasma treatment of indium tin oxide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 183304 (2012).

Y. Q. Zhang, R. Acharya, X. A. Cao, "Efficient and reliable green organic light-emitting diodes with Cl2 plasma-etched indium tin oxide anode," J. Appl. Phys. 112, 013103 (2012).

R. Acharya, X. A. Cao, "High-brightness organic light-emitting diodes based on a simplified hybrid structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 053306 (2012).

2010 (1)

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, Z. W. Liu, M. T. Greiner, Z. H. Lu, "Direct hole injection in to 4,4 $^{\prime}$-N,N $^{\prime}$-dicarbazole-biphenyl: A simple pathway to achieve efficient organic light emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 108, 024510 (2010).

2009 (5)

V. Wood, M. J. Panzer, J. E. Halpert, J. M. Caruge, M. G. Bawendi, V. Bulovic, "Selection of metal oxide charge transport layers for colloidal quantum dot LEDs," ACS Nano 3, 3581-3586 (2009).

S. Han, W. Shin, M. Seo, D. Gupta, S. Moon, S. Yoo, "Improving performance of organic solar cells using amorphous tungsten oxides as an interfacial buffer layer on transparent anodes," Org. Electron. 10, 791-797 (2009).

K. R. Choudhury, J. Lee, N. Chopra, A. Gupta, X. Jiang, F. Amy, F. So, "Highly efficient hole injection using polymeric anode materials for small—Molecule organic light—Emitting diodes," Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 491-496 (2009).

I. Irfan, H. Ding, Y. Gao, D. Y. Kim, J. Subbiah, F. So, "The effect of molybdenum trioxide inter-layer between indium tin oxide (ITO) and organic semiconductor on the energy level alignment," MRS Proc. 1212, 1212-S08-05 (2009).

T. Matsushima, H. Murataa, "Observation of space-charge-limited current due to charge generation at interface of molybdenum dioxide and organic layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 203306 (2009).

2008 (1)

F. So, J. Kido, P. Burrows, "Organic light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting," MRS Bull. 33, 663-669 (2008).

2007 (1)

J. Meyer, S. Hamwi, T. Bülow, H. H. Johannes, T. Riedl, W. Kowalsky, "Highly efficient simplified organic light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 113506 (2007).

2005 (1)

J. Li, M. Yahiro, K. Ishida, H. Yamada, K. Matsushige, "Enhanced performance of organic light emitting device by insertion of conducting/insulating ${\hbox{WO}}_{3}$ anodic buffer layer," Synth. Met. 151, 141-146 (2005).

2004 (1)

S. F. Chen, C. W. Wang, "Influence of the hole injection layer on the luminescent performance of organic light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 765-767 (2004).

1997 (1)

C. C. Wu, C. I. Wu, J. C. Sturm, A. Kahn, "Surface modification of indium tin oxide by plasma treatment: An effective method to improve the efficiency, brightness, and reliability of organic light emitting devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1350-1352 (1997).

ACS Nano (1)

V. Wood, M. J. Panzer, J. E. Halpert, J. M. Caruge, M. G. Bawendi, V. Bulovic, "Selection of metal oxide charge transport layers for colloidal quantum dot LEDs," ACS Nano 3, 3581-3586 (2009).

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

K. R. Choudhury, J. Lee, N. Chopra, A. Gupta, X. Jiang, F. Amy, F. So, "Highly efficient hole injection using polymeric anode materials for small—Molecule organic light—Emitting diodes," Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 491-496 (2009).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. Acharya, X. A. Cao, "High-brightness organic light-emitting diodes based on a simplified hybrid structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 053306 (2012).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

C. C. Wu, C. I. Wu, J. C. Sturm, A. Kahn, "Surface modification of indium tin oxide by plasma treatment: An effective method to improve the efficiency, brightness, and reliability of organic light emitting devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1350-1352 (1997).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

X. A. Cao, Y. Q. Zhang, "Performance enhancement of organic light-emitting diodes by chlorine plasma treatment of indium tin oxide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 183304 (2012).

S. F. Chen, C. W. Wang, "Influence of the hole injection layer on the luminescent performance of organic light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 765-767 (2004).

T. Matsushima, H. Murataa, "Observation of space-charge-limited current due to charge generation at interface of molybdenum dioxide and organic layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 203306 (2009).

J. Meyer, S. Hamwi, T. Bülow, H. H. Johannes, T. Riedl, W. Kowalsky, "Highly efficient simplified organic light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 113506 (2007).

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, Z. W. Liu, M. T. Greiner, Z. H. Lu, "Direct hole injection in to 4,4 $^{\prime}$-N,N $^{\prime}$-dicarbazole-biphenyl: A simple pathway to achieve efficient organic light emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 108, 024510 (2010).

Y. Q. Zhang, R. Acharya, X. A. Cao, "Efficient and reliable green organic light-emitting diodes with Cl2 plasma-etched indium tin oxide anode," J. Appl. Phys. 112, 013103 (2012).

MRS Bull. (1)

F. So, J. Kido, P. Burrows, "Organic light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting," MRS Bull. 33, 663-669 (2008).

MRS Proc. (1)

I. Irfan, H. Ding, Y. Gao, D. Y. Kim, J. Subbiah, F. So, "The effect of molybdenum trioxide inter-layer between indium tin oxide (ITO) and organic semiconductor on the energy level alignment," MRS Proc. 1212, 1212-S08-05 (2009).

Org. Electron. (1)

S. Han, W. Shin, M. Seo, D. Gupta, S. Moon, S. Yoo, "Improving performance of organic solar cells using amorphous tungsten oxides as an interfacial buffer layer on transparent anodes," Org. Electron. 10, 791-797 (2009).

Synth. Met. (1)

J. Li, M. Yahiro, K. Ishida, H. Yamada, K. Matsushige, "Enhanced performance of organic light emitting device by insertion of conducting/insulating ${\hbox{WO}}_{3}$ anodic buffer layer," Synth. Met. 151, 141-146 (2005).

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