Abstract

An effective emission model of phosphor film is proposed by using bidirectional scattering distribution function system (BSDF), and the model is verified by white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with conformal and remote phosphor structure. The emission model is built to clarify the optical characteristics by analyzing the angular-dependent distribution of emission and excitation behaviors in phosphor film. The white LEDs with conformal and remote phosphor structure are also fabricated for experimental comparison. The uniformity of angular correlated color temperature (CCT) in white LEDs can be determined by the angular distribution of blue and yellow light, which is in turns decided by the refractive index variation between chip a©nd phosphor layers. Finally, the experimental results are found to have good agreement with the simulation results performing by the Monte Carlo method.

© 2013 IEEE

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  1. S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, "Prospects for LED lighting," Nat. Photon. 3, 179-181 (2009).
  2. E. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, "Solid-state light sources getting smart," Science 308, 1274-1278 (2005).
  3. K. J. Chen, H. C. Chen, M. H. Shih, C. H. Wang, M. Y. Kuo, Y. C. Yang, C. C. Lin, H. C. Kuo, "The Influence of the thermal effect on CdSe/ZnS quantum dots in light-emitting diodes," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 2256-2261 (2012).
  4. H. T. Huang, Y. P. Huang, C. C. Tsai, "Planar lighting system using array of blue LEDs to excite yellow remote phosphor film," J. Display Technol. 7, 44-51 (2011).
  5. H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. H. Wang, C. C. Lin, C. C. Yeh, H. H. Tsai, M. H. Shih, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, "A novel randomly textured phosphor structure for highly efficient white light-emitting diodes," Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7, 1-5 (2012).
  6. R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, "Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices," Semicond. Sci. Tech. 27, 024001 (2012).
  7. H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, N. Tansu, "Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells," Opt. Express 19, A991-A1007 (2011).
  8. J. Zhang, N. Tansu, "Improvement in spontaneous emission rates for InGaN quantum wells on ternary InGaN substrate for light-emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 110, 113110 (2011).
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  11. Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, "Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 1066-1072 (2009).
  12. Y. J. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. C. Ke, P. C. Lin, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, "Study of the excitation power dependent internal quantum efficiency in InGaN/GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrate," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 1137-1143 (2009).
  13. Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, "Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire," J. Cryst. Growth 312, 1311-1315 (2010).
  14. Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, C. Wetzel, "Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151102 (2011).
  15. W. Bin Im, N. George, J. Kurzman, S. Brinkley, A. Mikhailovsky, J. Hu, B. F. Chmelka, S. P. DenBaars, R. Seshadri, "Efficient and color-tunable oxyfluoride solid solution phosphors for solid-state white lighting," Adv. Mater. 23, 2300-2305 (2011).
  16. S. E. Brinkley, N. Pfaff, K. A. Denault, Z. Zhang, H. T. Hintzen, R. Seshadri, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, "Robust thermal performance of ${\hbox{Sr}}_{2}{\hbox{Si}}_{5}{\hbox{N}}_{8}:{\hbox{Eu}}^{2+}$: An efficient red emitting phosphor for light emitting diode based white lighting," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 241106 (2011).
  17. Y. Zhang, L. Wu, M. Ji, B. Wang, Y. Kong, J. Xu, "Structure and photoluminescence properties of ${\hbox{KSr}}_{4}({\hbox{BO}}_{3})(_{3}):{\hbox{Eu}}^{3+}$ red-emitting phosphor," Opt. Mater. Express 2, 92-102 (2012).
  18. H. Li, H. K. Yang, B. K. Moon, B. C. Choi, J. H. Jeong, K. Jang, H. S. Lee, S. S. Yi, "Tunable photoluminescence properties of Eu(II)- and Sm(III)-coactivated ${\hbox{Ca}}_{9}{\hbox{Y}}({\hbox{PO}}_{4})(_{7})$ and energy transfer between Eu(II) and Sm(III)," Opt. Mater. Express 2, 443-451 (2012).
  19. S. Yun, N. T. Tran, F. G. Shi, "Nonmonotonic phosphor size dependence of luminous efficacy for typical white LED emitters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 552-554 (2011).
  20. J. K. Kim, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, Y. Park, "Strongly enhanced phosphor efficiency in GaInN white light-emitting diodes using remote phosphor configuration and diffuse reflector cup," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 649-651 (2010).
  21. M. T. Lin, S. P. Ying, M. Y. Lin, K. Y. Tai, S. C. Tai, C. H. Liu, J. C. Chen, C. C. Sun, "Ring remote phosphor structure for phosphor-converted white LEDs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 574-576 (2010).
  22. H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, H. V. Han, H. H. Tsai, H. T. Kuo, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, H. C. Kuo, "Improvement in uniformity of emission by ZrO2 nano-particles for white LEDs," Nanotechnol. 23, 265201 (2012).
  23. H. T. Huang, C. C. Tsai, Y. P. Huang, "A direct-view backlight with UV excited trichromatic phosphor conversion film," J. Display Technol. 6, 28-134 (2010).
  24. H. C. Kuo, C. W. Hung, H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. H. Wang, C. W. Sher, C. C. Yeh, C. C. Lin, C. H. Chen, Y. J. Cheng, "Patterned structure of REMOTE PHOSPHOR for phosphor-converted white LEDs," Opt. Express 19, A930-A936 (2011).
  25. M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, M. G. Craford, "Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting," J. Dis. Technol. 3, 160-175 (2007).
  26. C. Sommer, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, F. P. Wenzl, "The effect of the phosphor particle sizes on the angular homogeneity of phosphor-converted high-power white LED light sources," IEEE J. Sel. Topics. Quantum Electron. 15, 1181-1188 (2009).
  27. N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, Y. Zhu, "Extracting phosphor-scattered photons to improve white LED efficiency," Phys. Stat. Solidi (a) 202, 60-62 (2005).
  28. Y. C. Kang, I. W. Lenggoro, S. B. Park, K. Okuyama, "YAG: Ce phosphor particles prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis," Mater. Res. Bull. 35, 789-798 (2000).
  29. K. Yamada, Y. Imai, K. Ishi, "Optical simulation of light source devices composed of blue LEDs and YAG phosphor," J. Light Vis. Env. 27, 70-74 (2003).
  30. Y. Zhu, N. Narendran, Y. Gu, "Investigation of the optical properties of YAG:Ce phosphor," Proc. SPIE (2006).
  31. T. N. The, Y. J. Pyng, F. G. Shi, "Effect of phosphor particle size on luminous efficacy of phosphor-converted white LED," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 5145-50 (2009).
  32. C. H. Hung, C. H. Tien, "Phosphor-converted LED modeling by bidirectional photometric data," Opt. Express 18, A261-A271 (2010).
  33. Y. W. Yu, Y. L. Chen, W. H. Chen, H. X. Chen, X. H. Lee, C. C. Lin, C. C. Sun, "Bidirectional scattering distribution function by screen imaging synthesis," Opt. Express 20, 1268-1280 (2012).
  34. H. T. Huang, C. C. Tsai, Y. P. Huang, "Conformal phosphor coating using pulsed spray to reduce color deviation of white LEDs," Opt. Express 18, A201-A206 (2010).
  35. K. J. Chen, H. C. Chen, K. A. Tsai, C. C. Lin, H. H. Tsai, S. H. Chien, B. S. Cheng, Y. J. Hsu, M. H. Shih, C. H. Tsai, H. H. Shih, H. C. Kuo, "Resonant-enhanced full-color emission of quantum-dot-based display technology using a pulsed spray method," Adv. Funct. Mater. 22, 5138-5143 (2012).
  36. J. Wang, C. C. Tsai, W. C. Cheng, M. H. Chen, C. H. Chung, W. H. Cheng, "High thermal stability of phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes employing Ce:YAG-doped glass," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 17, 741-746 (2011).
  37. S. J. Lee, "Analysis of light-emitting diodes by Monte Carlo photon simulation," Appl. Opt. 40, 1427-1437 (2001).
  38. A. Borbely, S. G. Johnson, "Performance of phosphor-coated light-emitting diode optics in ray-trace simulations," Opt. Eng. 44, 111308 (2005).
  39. C. Sommer, F. Reil, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, S. Tasch, F. P. Wenzl, "The impact of inhomogeneities in the phosphor distribution on the device performance of phosphor-converted high-power white LED light sources," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 3226-3232 (2010).
  40. N. T. Tran, F. G. Shi, "Studies of phosphor concentration and thickness for phosphor-based white light-emitting-diodes," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 3556-3559 (2008).
  41. S. Yun, Y. He, N. T. Tran, F. G. Shi, "Angular CCT uniformity of phosphor converted white LEDs: Effects of phosphor materials and packaging structures," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 137-139 (2011).
  42. Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, X. Luo, "Optical analysis of color distribution in white LEDs with various packaging methods," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2027-2029 (2008).
  43. R. Yu, S. Jin, S. Cen, P. Liang, "Effect of the phosphor geometry on the luminous flux of phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1765-1767 (2010).
  44. Y. H. Won, H. S. Jang, K. W. Cho, Y. S. Song, D. Y. Leon, H. K. Kwon, "Effect of phosphor geometry on the luminous efficiency of high-power white light-emitting diodes with excellent color rendering property," Opt. Lett. 34, 1-3 (2009).

2012 (8)

K. J. Chen, H. C. Chen, M. H. Shih, C. H. Wang, M. Y. Kuo, Y. C. Yang, C. C. Lin, H. C. Kuo, "The Influence of the thermal effect on CdSe/ZnS quantum dots in light-emitting diodes," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 2256-2261 (2012).

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. H. Wang, C. C. Lin, C. C. Yeh, H. H. Tsai, M. H. Shih, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, "A novel randomly textured phosphor structure for highly efficient white light-emitting diodes," Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7, 1-5 (2012).

R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, "Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices," Semicond. Sci. Tech. 27, 024001 (2012).

Y. Zhang, L. Wu, M. Ji, B. Wang, Y. Kong, J. Xu, "Structure and photoluminescence properties of ${\hbox{KSr}}_{4}({\hbox{BO}}_{3})(_{3}):{\hbox{Eu}}^{3+}$ red-emitting phosphor," Opt. Mater. Express 2, 92-102 (2012).

H. Li, H. K. Yang, B. K. Moon, B. C. Choi, J. H. Jeong, K. Jang, H. S. Lee, S. S. Yi, "Tunable photoluminescence properties of Eu(II)- and Sm(III)-coactivated ${\hbox{Ca}}_{9}{\hbox{Y}}({\hbox{PO}}_{4})(_{7})$ and energy transfer between Eu(II) and Sm(III)," Opt. Mater. Express 2, 443-451 (2012).

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, H. V. Han, H. H. Tsai, H. T. Kuo, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, H. C. Kuo, "Improvement in uniformity of emission by ZrO2 nano-particles for white LEDs," Nanotechnol. 23, 265201 (2012).

Y. W. Yu, Y. L. Chen, W. H. Chen, H. X. Chen, X. H. Lee, C. C. Lin, C. C. Sun, "Bidirectional scattering distribution function by screen imaging synthesis," Opt. Express 20, 1268-1280 (2012).

K. J. Chen, H. C. Chen, K. A. Tsai, C. C. Lin, H. H. Tsai, S. H. Chien, B. S. Cheng, Y. J. Hsu, M. H. Shih, C. H. Tsai, H. H. Shih, H. C. Kuo, "Resonant-enhanced full-color emission of quantum-dot-based display technology using a pulsed spray method," Adv. Funct. Mater. 22, 5138-5143 (2012).

2011 (11)

J. Wang, C. C. Tsai, W. C. Cheng, M. H. Chen, C. H. Chung, W. H. Cheng, "High thermal stability of phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes employing Ce:YAG-doped glass," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 17, 741-746 (2011).

H. C. Kuo, C. W. Hung, H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. H. Wang, C. W. Sher, C. C. Yeh, C. C. Lin, C. H. Chen, Y. J. Cheng, "Patterned structure of REMOTE PHOSPHOR for phosphor-converted white LEDs," Opt. Express 19, A930-A936 (2011).

S. Yun, N. T. Tran, F. G. Shi, "Nonmonotonic phosphor size dependence of luminous efficacy for typical white LED emitters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 552-554 (2011).

C. H. Wang, S. P. Chang, P. H. Ku, J. C. Li, Y. P. Lan, C. C. Lin, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, "Hole transport improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-composition multiple quantum barriers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 171106 (2011).

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, C. Wetzel, "Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151102 (2011).

W. Bin Im, N. George, J. Kurzman, S. Brinkley, A. Mikhailovsky, J. Hu, B. F. Chmelka, S. P. DenBaars, R. Seshadri, "Efficient and color-tunable oxyfluoride solid solution phosphors for solid-state white lighting," Adv. Mater. 23, 2300-2305 (2011).

S. E. Brinkley, N. Pfaff, K. A. Denault, Z. Zhang, H. T. Hintzen, R. Seshadri, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, "Robust thermal performance of ${\hbox{Sr}}_{2}{\hbox{Si}}_{5}{\hbox{N}}_{8}:{\hbox{Eu}}^{2+}$: An efficient red emitting phosphor for light emitting diode based white lighting," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 241106 (2011).

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, N. Tansu, "Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells," Opt. Express 19, A991-A1007 (2011).

J. Zhang, N. Tansu, "Improvement in spontaneous emission rates for InGaN quantum wells on ternary InGaN substrate for light-emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 110, 113110 (2011).

H. T. Huang, Y. P. Huang, C. C. Tsai, "Planar lighting system using array of blue LEDs to excite yellow remote phosphor film," J. Display Technol. 7, 44-51 (2011).

S. Yun, Y. He, N. T. Tran, F. G. Shi, "Angular CCT uniformity of phosphor converted white LEDs: Effects of phosphor materials and packaging structures," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 137-139 (2011).

2010 (9)

R. Yu, S. Jin, S. Cen, P. Liang, "Effect of the phosphor geometry on the luminous flux of phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1765-1767 (2010).

Z. Hongping, L. Guangyu, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, "Current injection efficiency induced efficiency-droop in InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes," Solid-State Electron. 54, 1119-1124 (2010).

J. K. Kim, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, Y. Park, "Strongly enhanced phosphor efficiency in GaInN white light-emitting diodes using remote phosphor configuration and diffuse reflector cup," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 649-651 (2010).

M. T. Lin, S. P. Ying, M. Y. Lin, K. Y. Tai, S. C. Tai, C. H. Liu, J. C. Chen, C. C. Sun, "Ring remote phosphor structure for phosphor-converted white LEDs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 574-576 (2010).

H. T. Huang, C. C. Tsai, Y. P. Huang, "A direct-view backlight with UV excited trichromatic phosphor conversion film," J. Display Technol. 6, 28-134 (2010).

Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, "Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire," J. Cryst. Growth 312, 1311-1315 (2010).

C. Sommer, F. Reil, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, S. Tasch, F. P. Wenzl, "The impact of inhomogeneities in the phosphor distribution on the device performance of phosphor-converted high-power white LED light sources," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 3226-3232 (2010).

H. T. Huang, C. C. Tsai, Y. P. Huang, "Conformal phosphor coating using pulsed spray to reduce color deviation of white LEDs," Opt. Express 18, A201-A206 (2010).

C. H. Hung, C. H. Tien, "Phosphor-converted LED modeling by bidirectional photometric data," Opt. Express 18, A261-A271 (2010).

2009 (6)

T. N. The, Y. J. Pyng, F. G. Shi, "Effect of phosphor particle size on luminous efficacy of phosphor-converted white LED," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 5145-50 (2009).

C. Sommer, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, F. P. Wenzl, "The effect of the phosphor particle sizes on the angular homogeneity of phosphor-converted high-power white LED light sources," IEEE J. Sel. Topics. Quantum Electron. 15, 1181-1188 (2009).

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, "Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 1066-1072 (2009).

Y. J. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. C. Ke, P. C. Lin, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, "Study of the excitation power dependent internal quantum efficiency in InGaN/GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrate," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 1137-1143 (2009).

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, "Prospects for LED lighting," Nat. Photon. 3, 179-181 (2009).

Y. H. Won, H. S. Jang, K. W. Cho, Y. S. Song, D. Y. Leon, H. K. Kwon, "Effect of phosphor geometry on the luminous efficiency of high-power white light-emitting diodes with excellent color rendering property," Opt. Lett. 34, 1-3 (2009).

2008 (2)

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, X. Luo, "Optical analysis of color distribution in white LEDs with various packaging methods," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2027-2029 (2008).

N. T. Tran, F. G. Shi, "Studies of phosphor concentration and thickness for phosphor-based white light-emitting-diodes," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 3556-3559 (2008).

2007 (1)

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, M. G. Craford, "Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting," J. Dis. Technol. 3, 160-175 (2007).

2005 (3)

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, Y. Zhu, "Extracting phosphor-scattered photons to improve white LED efficiency," Phys. Stat. Solidi (a) 202, 60-62 (2005).

E. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, "Solid-state light sources getting smart," Science 308, 1274-1278 (2005).

A. Borbely, S. G. Johnson, "Performance of phosphor-coated light-emitting diode optics in ray-trace simulations," Opt. Eng. 44, 111308 (2005).

2003 (1)

K. Yamada, Y. Imai, K. Ishi, "Optical simulation of light source devices composed of blue LEDs and YAG phosphor," J. Light Vis. Env. 27, 70-74 (2003).

2001 (1)

S. J. Lee, "Analysis of light-emitting diodes by Monte Carlo photon simulation," Appl. Opt. 40, 1427-1437 (2001).

2000 (1)

Y. C. Kang, I. W. Lenggoro, S. B. Park, K. Okuyama, "YAG: Ce phosphor particles prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis," Mater. Res. Bull. 35, 789-798 (2000).

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

K. J. Chen, H. C. Chen, K. A. Tsai, C. C. Lin, H. H. Tsai, S. H. Chien, B. S. Cheng, Y. J. Hsu, M. H. Shih, C. H. Tsai, H. H. Shih, H. C. Kuo, "Resonant-enhanced full-color emission of quantum-dot-based display technology using a pulsed spray method," Adv. Funct. Mater. 22, 5138-5143 (2012).

Adv. Mater. (1)

W. Bin Im, N. George, J. Kurzman, S. Brinkley, A. Mikhailovsky, J. Hu, B. F. Chmelka, S. P. DenBaars, R. Seshadri, "Efficient and color-tunable oxyfluoride solid solution phosphors for solid-state white lighting," Adv. Mater. 23, 2300-2305 (2011).

Appl. Opt. (1)

S. J. Lee, "Analysis of light-emitting diodes by Monte Carlo photon simulation," Appl. Opt. 40, 1427-1437 (2001).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, C. Wetzel, "Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151102 (2011).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

S. E. Brinkley, N. Pfaff, K. A. Denault, Z. Zhang, H. T. Hintzen, R. Seshadri, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, "Robust thermal performance of ${\hbox{Sr}}_{2}{\hbox{Si}}_{5}{\hbox{N}}_{8}:{\hbox{Eu}}^{2+}$: An efficient red emitting phosphor for light emitting diode based white lighting," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 241106 (2011).

C. H. Wang, S. P. Chang, P. H. Ku, J. C. Li, Y. P. Lan, C. C. Lin, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, "Hole transport improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-composition multiple quantum barriers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 171106 (2011).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

R. Yu, S. Jin, S. Cen, P. Liang, "Effect of the phosphor geometry on the luminous flux of phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1765-1767 (2010).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (3)

J. Wang, C. C. Tsai, W. C. Cheng, M. H. Chen, C. H. Chung, W. H. Cheng, "High thermal stability of phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes employing Ce:YAG-doped glass," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 17, 741-746 (2011).

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, "Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 1066-1072 (2009).

Y. J. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. C. Ke, P. C. Lin, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, "Study of the excitation power dependent internal quantum efficiency in InGaN/GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrate," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 1137-1143 (2009).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. Sommer, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, F. P. Wenzl, "The effect of the phosphor particle sizes on the angular homogeneity of phosphor-converted high-power white LED light sources," IEEE J. Sel. Topics. Quantum Electron. 15, 1181-1188 (2009).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

M. T. Lin, S. P. Ying, M. Y. Lin, K. Y. Tai, S. C. Tai, C. H. Liu, J. C. Chen, C. C. Sun, "Ring remote phosphor structure for phosphor-converted white LEDs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 574-576 (2010).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, X. Luo, "Optical analysis of color distribution in white LEDs with various packaging methods," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2027-2029 (2008).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

S. Yun, Y. He, N. T. Tran, F. G. Shi, "Angular CCT uniformity of phosphor converted white LEDs: Effects of phosphor materials and packaging structures," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 137-139 (2011).

S. Yun, N. T. Tran, F. G. Shi, "Nonmonotonic phosphor size dependence of luminous efficacy for typical white LED emitters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 552-554 (2011).

J. Display Technol. (1)

H. T. Huang, C. C. Tsai, Y. P. Huang, "A direct-view backlight with UV excited trichromatic phosphor conversion film," J. Display Technol. 6, 28-134 (2010).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. Zhang, N. Tansu, "Improvement in spontaneous emission rates for InGaN quantum wells on ternary InGaN substrate for light-emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 110, 113110 (2011).

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Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, "Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire," J. Cryst. Growth 312, 1311-1315 (2010).

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M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, M. G. Craford, "Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting," J. Dis. Technol. 3, 160-175 (2007).

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K. Yamada, Y. Imai, K. Ishi, "Optical simulation of light source devices composed of blue LEDs and YAG phosphor," J. Light Vis. Env. 27, 70-74 (2003).

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T. N. The, Y. J. Pyng, F. G. Shi, "Effect of phosphor particle size on luminous efficacy of phosphor-converted white LED," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 5145-50 (2009).

K. J. Chen, H. C. Chen, M. H. Shih, C. H. Wang, M. Y. Kuo, Y. C. Yang, C. C. Lin, H. C. Kuo, "The Influence of the thermal effect on CdSe/ZnS quantum dots in light-emitting diodes," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 2256-2261 (2012).

C. Sommer, F. Reil, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, S. Tasch, F. P. Wenzl, "The impact of inhomogeneities in the phosphor distribution on the device performance of phosphor-converted high-power white LED light sources," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 3226-3232 (2010).

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J. K. Kim, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, Y. Park, "Strongly enhanced phosphor efficiency in GaInN white light-emitting diodes using remote phosphor configuration and diffuse reflector cup," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 649-651 (2010).

Mater. Res. Bull. (1)

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Opt. Mater. Express (1)

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Y. Zhu, N. Narendran, Y. Gu, "Investigation of the optical properties of YAG:Ce phosphor," Proc. SPIE (2006).

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