Abstract

In this paper, we present a methodology to characterize the colorimetric performance of a full-color electrophoretic display (EPD) with multiple pigment formation. We use the principal component analysis to formulate the composite hybrid color-mixing system by using a single eigen-spectral component for each sub-pixel channel. Proposed model was validated to predict the chromatic features with high accuracy $(\Delta {\rm E}_{{\rm AVE}\_{\rm CIEDE2000}} < 0.2)$ for both micro-cup type and micro-encapsulated type EPD samples. This study is effective to uncover the underlying physical features from only colorant-mixture information in a novel color system.

© 2013 IEEE

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  1. I. Ota, "Electrophoretic image display (EPID) panel," Proc. IEEE 61, 832-836 (1973).
  2. B. Comiskey, "An electrophoretic ink for all-printed reflective electronic displays," Nature 394, 253-255 (1998).
  3. M. T. Johnson, "High-quality images on electrophoretic displays," J. Soc. Inf. Display 14, 175 (2006).
  4. C.-M. Lu, "Performance active matrix micro-cup electrophoretic display," SID Symp. Dig. (2009) pp. 1501.
  5. E. Kishi, "Development of in-plane EPD," SID Symp. Dig. (2000) pp. 24.
  6. A. R. M. Verschueren, "Optical performance of in-plane electrophoretic color e-paper," J. Soc. Inf. Display 18/1, 1 (2010).
  7. N. Hiji, "Novel color electrophoretic E-paper using independently movable colored particles," SID Symp. Dig. (2012) pp. 85.
  8. J. Heikenfeld, "Electrofluidic displays using Young-Laplace transposition of brilliant pigment dispersions," Nat. Photon. 3, 292-296 (2009).
  9. S. Yang, "High reflectivity electrofluidic pixels with zero-power grayscale operation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 143501 (2010).
  10. J. C. Jones, "Novel configuration of the zenithal bistable nematic liquid-crystal device," SID Symp. Dig. (1998) pp. 858.
  11. Y. Asaoka, "Polarizer-free reflective LCD combined with ultra low-power driving technology," SID Symp. Dig. (2009) pp. 395.
  12. R. A. Hayes, "Video-speed electronic paper based on electrowetting," Nature 425, 383-385 (2003).
  13. K. Zhou, "A full description of a simple and scalable fabrication process for electrowetting displays," J. Micromechan. Microeng. 19, 1-12 (2009).
  14. J. Heikenfeld, "Review paper: A critical review of the present and future prospects for electronic paper," J. SID 19, 129-156 (2011).
  15. R. S. Berns, "A generic approach to color modeling," Color Res. Appl. 22, 318-325 (1997).
  16. J. Heikenfeld, "A new bi-primary color system for doubling the reflectance and colorfulness of e-paper," Proc. SPIE (2011) pp. 795608.
  17. H. R. Kang, Color Technology for Electronic Imaging Devices (SPIE Press, 1996).
  18. F. H. Imai, "Principal component analysis of skin color and its application to colorimetric color reproduction on CRT display and hardcopy," J. Imag. Sci. Technol. 40, 422-430 (1998).
  19. D.-Y. Tzeng, "A review of principal component analysis and its applications to color technology," Color Res. Appl. 30, 84-89 (2005).
  20. Q. Du, "Low-complexity principal component analysis for hyperspectral image compression," Int. J. High Performance Comput. Appl. 22, 438-448 (2008).
  21. K. Pearson, "On lines and planes of closest fit to systems of points in space," Phil. Mag. A 6, 559-572 (1901).
  22. I. T. Jolliffe, Principal Component Analysis (Springer, 2002).
  23. B. Moore, "Principal component analysis in linear systems: Controllability, observability, and model reduction," IEEE Trans. Autom. Control AC-26, 17-32 (1981).
  24. G. Strang, Introduction to Linear Algebra (Wellesley Cambridge, 2009).
  25. P. Green, Colour Engineering—Achieving Device Independent Colour (Wiley, 2002).
  26. Y. Kwak, "Generating vivid colors on red-green-blue-white electonic-paper display," Appl. Opt. 47, 4491-4500 (2008).
  27. Y.-H. Lu, "Colorimetric characterization of monochromatic micro-cup electrophoretic display," SID Symp. Dig. (2011).

2011 (1)

J. Heikenfeld, "Review paper: A critical review of the present and future prospects for electronic paper," J. SID 19, 129-156 (2011).

2010 (2)

A. R. M. Verschueren, "Optical performance of in-plane electrophoretic color e-paper," J. Soc. Inf. Display 18/1, 1 (2010).

S. Yang, "High reflectivity electrofluidic pixels with zero-power grayscale operation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 143501 (2010).

2009 (2)

K. Zhou, "A full description of a simple and scalable fabrication process for electrowetting displays," J. Micromechan. Microeng. 19, 1-12 (2009).

J. Heikenfeld, "Electrofluidic displays using Young-Laplace transposition of brilliant pigment dispersions," Nat. Photon. 3, 292-296 (2009).

2008 (2)

Q. Du, "Low-complexity principal component analysis for hyperspectral image compression," Int. J. High Performance Comput. Appl. 22, 438-448 (2008).

Y. Kwak, "Generating vivid colors on red-green-blue-white electonic-paper display," Appl. Opt. 47, 4491-4500 (2008).

2006 (1)

M. T. Johnson, "High-quality images on electrophoretic displays," J. Soc. Inf. Display 14, 175 (2006).

2005 (1)

D.-Y. Tzeng, "A review of principal component analysis and its applications to color technology," Color Res. Appl. 30, 84-89 (2005).

2003 (1)

R. A. Hayes, "Video-speed electronic paper based on electrowetting," Nature 425, 383-385 (2003).

1998 (2)

B. Comiskey, "An electrophoretic ink for all-printed reflective electronic displays," Nature 394, 253-255 (1998).

F. H. Imai, "Principal component analysis of skin color and its application to colorimetric color reproduction on CRT display and hardcopy," J. Imag. Sci. Technol. 40, 422-430 (1998).

1997 (1)

R. S. Berns, "A generic approach to color modeling," Color Res. Appl. 22, 318-325 (1997).

1981 (1)

B. Moore, "Principal component analysis in linear systems: Controllability, observability, and model reduction," IEEE Trans. Autom. Control AC-26, 17-32 (1981).

1973 (1)

I. Ota, "Electrophoretic image display (EPID) panel," Proc. IEEE 61, 832-836 (1973).

1901 (1)

K. Pearson, "On lines and planes of closest fit to systems of points in space," Phil. Mag. A 6, 559-572 (1901).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Y. Kwak, "Generating vivid colors on red-green-blue-white electonic-paper display," Appl. Opt. 47, 4491-4500 (2008).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Yang, "High reflectivity electrofluidic pixels with zero-power grayscale operation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 143501 (2010).

Color Res. Appl. (2)

D.-Y. Tzeng, "A review of principal component analysis and its applications to color technology," Color Res. Appl. 30, 84-89 (2005).

R. S. Berns, "A generic approach to color modeling," Color Res. Appl. 22, 318-325 (1997).

IEEE Trans. Autom. Control (1)

B. Moore, "Principal component analysis in linear systems: Controllability, observability, and model reduction," IEEE Trans. Autom. Control AC-26, 17-32 (1981).

Int. J. High Performance Comput. Appl. (1)

Q. Du, "Low-complexity principal component analysis for hyperspectral image compression," Int. J. High Performance Comput. Appl. 22, 438-448 (2008).

J. Imag. Sci. Technol. (1)

F. H. Imai, "Principal component analysis of skin color and its application to colorimetric color reproduction on CRT display and hardcopy," J. Imag. Sci. Technol. 40, 422-430 (1998).

J. Micromechan. Microeng. (1)

K. Zhou, "A full description of a simple and scalable fabrication process for electrowetting displays," J. Micromechan. Microeng. 19, 1-12 (2009).

J. SID (1)

J. Heikenfeld, "Review paper: A critical review of the present and future prospects for electronic paper," J. SID 19, 129-156 (2011).

J. Soc. Inf. Display (1)

M. T. Johnson, "High-quality images on electrophoretic displays," J. Soc. Inf. Display 14, 175 (2006).

J. Soc. Inf. Display (1)

A. R. M. Verschueren, "Optical performance of in-plane electrophoretic color e-paper," J. Soc. Inf. Display 18/1, 1 (2010).

Nat. Photon. (1)

J. Heikenfeld, "Electrofluidic displays using Young-Laplace transposition of brilliant pigment dispersions," Nat. Photon. 3, 292-296 (2009).

Nature (2)

R. A. Hayes, "Video-speed electronic paper based on electrowetting," Nature 425, 383-385 (2003).

B. Comiskey, "An electrophoretic ink for all-printed reflective electronic displays," Nature 394, 253-255 (1998).

Phil. Mag. A (1)

K. Pearson, "On lines and planes of closest fit to systems of points in space," Phil. Mag. A 6, 559-572 (1901).

Proc. IEEE (1)

I. Ota, "Electrophoretic image display (EPID) panel," Proc. IEEE 61, 832-836 (1973).

Other (11)

C.-M. Lu, "Performance active matrix micro-cup electrophoretic display," SID Symp. Dig. (2009) pp. 1501.

E. Kishi, "Development of in-plane EPD," SID Symp. Dig. (2000) pp. 24.

N. Hiji, "Novel color electrophoretic E-paper using independently movable colored particles," SID Symp. Dig. (2012) pp. 85.

J. C. Jones, "Novel configuration of the zenithal bistable nematic liquid-crystal device," SID Symp. Dig. (1998) pp. 858.

Y. Asaoka, "Polarizer-free reflective LCD combined with ultra low-power driving technology," SID Symp. Dig. (2009) pp. 395.

I. T. Jolliffe, Principal Component Analysis (Springer, 2002).

Y.-H. Lu, "Colorimetric characterization of monochromatic micro-cup electrophoretic display," SID Symp. Dig. (2011).

G. Strang, Introduction to Linear Algebra (Wellesley Cambridge, 2009).

P. Green, Colour Engineering—Achieving Device Independent Colour (Wiley, 2002).

J. Heikenfeld, "A new bi-primary color system for doubling the reflectance and colorfulness of e-paper," Proc. SPIE (2011) pp. 795608.

H. R. Kang, Color Technology for Electronic Imaging Devices (SPIE Press, 1996).

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