Abstract

In this paper, we present a 3D photon counting axially distributed image sensing system using statistical approaches, such as a maximum-likelihood estimation and total variation maximum a posteriori expectation maximization, to enhance the visual quality of 2D photon counting images and obtain better 3D reconstructed images. Conventional photon counting integral imaging is implemented by using a lens array, moving an image sensor in lateral (horizontal and vertical) directions, or using an image sensor array to obtain elemental images. To avoid lateral movement of the image sensor, axially distributed sensing is applied to photon counting imaging. A single image sensor is moved along its optical axis to pickup multi-view 2D images with slightly different perspectives which are used for 3D visualization. Axially distributed sensing (ADS) with proper statistical processing can remedy the effect of partial occlusion of the 3D scene. We show that our method can improve the visual quality of 2D photon counting images computationally and obtain the enhanced 3D reconstructed images.

© 2013 IEEE

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2012 (1)

X. Xiao, B. Javidi, "3D photon counting integral imaging with unknown sensor positions," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 29, 767-771 (2012).

2011 (1)

D. Aloni, A. Stern, B. Javidi, "Three-dimensional photon counting integral imaging reconstruction using penalized maximum likelihood expectation maximization," Opt. Exp. 19, 19681-19687 (2011).

2010 (1)

M. DaneshPanah, B. Javidi, E. Watson, "Three dimensional object recognition with photon counting imagery in the presence of noise," Opt. Exp. 18, 26450-26460 (2010).

2009 (3)

M. Bertero, P. Boccacci, G. Desidera, G. Vicidomini, "Image deblurring with Poisson data: From cells to galaxies," Inverse Probl. 25, 123006 (2009).

R. Martinez-Cuenca, G. Saavedra, M. Martinez-Corral, B. Javidi, "Progress in 3-D multiperspective display by integral imaging," Proc. IEEE 97, 1067-1077 (2009).

R. Schulein, M. DaneshPanah, B. Javidi, "3D imaging with axially distributed sensing," Opt. Lett. 34, 2012-2014 (2009).

2008 (1)

B. Tavakoli, B. Javidi, E. Watson, "Three dimensional visualization by photon counting computational integral imaging," Opt. Exp. 16, 4426-4436 (2008).

2006 (2)

F. Okano, J. Arai, K. Mitani, M. Okui, "Real-time integral imaging based on extremely high resolution video system," Proc. IEEE 94, 490-501 (2006).

A. Stern, B. Javidi, "3D image sensing, visualization, processing using integral imaging," Proc. IEEE 94, 591-608 (2006).

2005 (1)

S. Yeom, B. Javidi, E. Watson, "Photon counting passive 3D image sensing for automatic target recognition," Opt. Exp. 13, 9310-9330 (2005).

2004 (1)

R. Martinez-Cuenca, G. Saavedra, M. Martinez-Corral, B. Javidi, "Enhanced depth of field integral imaging with sensor resolution constraints," Opt. Exp. 12, 5237-5242 (2004).

2002 (1)

2001 (2)

S. Manolache, A. Aggoun, M. McCornick, N. Davies, S. Y. Kung, "Analytical model of a three-dimensional integral image recording system that uses circular- and hexagonal-based spherical surface microlenses," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 18, 1814-1821 (2001).

H. Arimoto, B. Javidi, "Integral three-dimensional imaging with computed reconstruction," Opt. Lett. 26, 157-159 (2001).

1999 (1)

V. Y. Panin, G. L. Zeng, G. T. Gullberg, "Total variation regulated EM algorithm," IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 46, 32202-2210 (1999).

1998 (2)

H. Hoshino, F. Okano, H. Isono, I. Yuyama, "Analysis of resolution limitation of integral photography," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 15, 2059-2065 (1998).

M. Guillanume, P. Melon, P. Refregier, "Maximum-likelihood estimation of an astronomical image from a sequence at low photon levels," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 15, 2841-2848 (1998).

1993 (1)

1990 (1)

P. J. Green, "Bayesian reconstructions from emission tomography data using a modified EM algorithm," IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 9, 84-93 (1990).

1988 (1)

1978 (1)

Y. Igarishi, H. Murata, M. Ueda, "3D display system using a computer-generated integral photograph," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 17, 1683-1684 (1978).

1968 (1)

C. B. Burckhardt, "Optimum parameters and resolution limitation of integral photography," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 58, 71-76 (1968).

1931 (1)

H. E. Ives, "Optical properties of a lippmann lenticuled sheet," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 21, 171-176 (1931).

1908 (1)

G. Lippmann, "La Photographie Integrale," Comptes-Rendus Acad. Sci. 146, 446-451 (1908).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Comptes-Rendus Acad. Sci. (1)

G. Lippmann, "La Photographie Integrale," Comptes-Rendus Acad. Sci. 146, 446-451 (1908).

IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. (1)

P. J. Green, "Bayesian reconstructions from emission tomography data using a modified EM algorithm," IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 9, 84-93 (1990).

IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (1)

V. Y. Panin, G. L. Zeng, G. T. Gullberg, "Total variation regulated EM algorithm," IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 46, 32202-2210 (1999).

Inverse Probl. (1)

M. Bertero, P. Boccacci, G. Desidera, G. Vicidomini, "Image deblurring with Poisson data: From cells to galaxies," Inverse Probl. 25, 123006 (2009).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A (1)

M. Guillanume, P. Melon, P. Refregier, "Maximum-likelihood estimation of an astronomical image from a sequence at low photon levels," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 15, 2841-2848 (1998).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. (1)

C. B. Burckhardt, "Optimum parameters and resolution limitation of integral photography," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 58, 71-76 (1968).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A (1)

X. Xiao, B. Javidi, "3D photon counting integral imaging with unknown sensor positions," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 29, 767-771 (2012).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. (1)

H. E. Ives, "Optical properties of a lippmann lenticuled sheet," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 21, 171-176 (1931).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A (2)

H. Hoshino, F. Okano, H. Isono, I. Yuyama, "Analysis of resolution limitation of integral photography," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 15, 2059-2065 (1998).

S. Manolache, A. Aggoun, M. McCornick, N. Davies, S. Y. Kung, "Analytical model of a three-dimensional integral image recording system that uses circular- and hexagonal-based spherical surface microlenses," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 18, 1814-1821 (2001).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Igarishi, H. Murata, M. Ueda, "3D display system using a computer-generated integral photograph," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 17, 1683-1684 (1978).

Opt. Exp. (4)

R. Martinez-Cuenca, G. Saavedra, M. Martinez-Corral, B. Javidi, "Enhanced depth of field integral imaging with sensor resolution constraints," Opt. Exp. 12, 5237-5242 (2004).

S. Yeom, B. Javidi, E. Watson, "Photon counting passive 3D image sensing for automatic target recognition," Opt. Exp. 13, 9310-9330 (2005).

B. Tavakoli, B. Javidi, E. Watson, "Three dimensional visualization by photon counting computational integral imaging," Opt. Exp. 16, 4426-4436 (2008).

M. DaneshPanah, B. Javidi, E. Watson, "Three dimensional object recognition with photon counting imagery in the presence of noise," Opt. Exp. 18, 26450-26460 (2010).

Opt. Lett. (1)

H. Arimoto, B. Javidi, "Integral three-dimensional imaging with computed reconstruction," Opt. Lett. 26, 157-159 (2001).

Opt. Exp. (1)

D. Aloni, A. Stern, B. Javidi, "Three-dimensional photon counting integral imaging reconstruction using penalized maximum likelihood expectation maximization," Opt. Exp. 19, 19681-19687 (2011).

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. IEEE (3)

A. Stern, B. Javidi, "3D image sensing, visualization, processing using integral imaging," Proc. IEEE 94, 591-608 (2006).

R. Martinez-Cuenca, G. Saavedra, M. Martinez-Corral, B. Javidi, "Progress in 3-D multiperspective display by integral imaging," Proc. IEEE 97, 1067-1077 (2009).

F. Okano, J. Arai, K. Mitani, M. Okui, "Real-time integral imaging based on extremely high resolution video system," Proc. IEEE 94, 490-501 (2006).

Other (3)

Three Dimensional Imaging, Visualization, Display (Springer, 2009).

T. Okoshi, Three-Dimensional Imaging Technique (Academic, 1976).

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, 1985).

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