Abstract

The possibility to directly pattern indium–tin–oxide (ITO) layers at ambient conditions by printing has many benefits. Printing, being an additive process, would greatly reduce the amount of energy, labor and material used by the current manufacturing processes to deposit and pattern ITO. In this work, gravure printability of ITO nanoparticles on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) was studied. A wide range of sheet resistivites and film thicknesses was obtained by varying the specifications of the gravure cells. From the regression analysis of the results, a good estimation of sheet resistivity of the printed films at different gravure cell volumes and aspect ratios (AR) was achieved. The films also showed transparency above 95% in the visible light region. In addition, printed ITO films were assessed for mechanical flexibility and the results compared to commercially available sputtered ITO films on PET. The electrical performance of printed ITO layers was not deteriorated with bending in contrast to the sputtered films. Therefore, printed ITO films can be of great benefit for applications in flexible electronics such as organic photovoltaics (OPV), liquid crystal displays (LCD), organic light-emitting diodes (OLED), touch screens, biosensors and utilization in the field of energy efficiency, especially in buildings.

© 2012 IEEE

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  2. F. Krebs, Polymer Photovoltaics: A Practical Approach (SPIE Press, 2008) pp. 266-268.
  3. K. Pichler, Transparent electrode: optoelectronic apparatus and devices U.S. Patent 10/403 997 (2003).
  4. C. J. Brabec, V. Dyakonov, U. Scherf, Organic Photovoltaics: Materials, Device Physics, and Manufacturing Technologies (Wiley-VCH, 2008) pp. 401-403.
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  7. B. Jensen, F. Krebs, "High-conductivity large-area semi-transparent electrodes for polymer photovoltaics by silk screen printing and vapour-phase deposition," Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells 90, 123-132 (2006).
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  17. J. Rigney, "Materials & processes for high speed printing for electronic components," Proc. IS&T NIP20: Int. Conf. on Digital Printing Technol. (2004) pp. 275-278.
  18. E. Hrehorova, M. Rebros, A. Pekarovicova, D. Fleming, V. Bliznyuk, "Characterization of conductive polymer inks based on PEDOT: PSS," TAGA Journal 4, 219-231 (2008).
  19. M. Bohan, T. Claypole, D. Gethin, "The effect of process parameters on product quality of rotogravure printing," J. Eng. Manufact. 214, 205-219 (2000).
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  22. N. Kapur, "A parametric study of direct gravure coating," Chemical Engineering Science 58, 2875-2882 (2003).
  23. J. Puetz, S. Heusing, M. Moro, C. Ahlstedt, M. Aegerter, "Gravure printing of transparent conducting ITO coatings for display applications," Proc. SPIE Adv. in Opt. Thin Films II. (2005) pp. 405-412.
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  25. G. Gruner, "Two-dimensional carbon nanotube networks: A transparent electronic material," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 905 (2006) pp. 05.1-05.11.

2010

D. Sung, A. Vornbrock, "Scaling and optimization of gravure-printed silver nanoparticle lines for printed electronics," IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Technol. 33, 105-114 (2010).

2009

C. Girotto, B. Rand, S. Steudel, J. Genoe, P. Heremans, "Nanoparticle-based, spray-coated silver top contacts for efficient polymer solar cells," Organic Electron. 10, 735-740 (2009).

F. Krebs, "Fabrication and processing of polymer solar cells: A review of printing and coating techniques," Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells 93, 394-412 (2009).

2008

J. Puetz, M. Aegerter, "Direct gravure printing of indium tin oxide nanoparticle patterns on polymer foils," Thin Solid Films 516, 4495-4501 (2008).

E. Hrehorova, M. Rebros, A. Pekarovicova, D. Fleming, V. Bliznyuk, "Characterization of conductive polymer inks based on PEDOT: PSS," TAGA Journal 4, 219-231 (2008).

2007

M. Gross, A. Winnacker, P. Wellmann, "Electrical, optical and morphological properties of nanoparticle indium-tin-oxide layers gross," Thin Solid Films 515, 8567-8572 (2007).

C. Granqvist, "Transparent conductors as solar energy materials: A panoramic review," Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells 91, 1529-1598 (2007).

C. Lungenschmied, G. Dennler, H. Neugebauer, S. Sariciftci, M. Glatthaar, T. Meyer, A. Meyer, "Flexible, long-lived, large-area, organic solar cells," Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells 91, 379-384 (2007).

2006

B. Jensen, F. Krebs, "High-conductivity large-area semi-transparent electrodes for polymer photovoltaics by silk screen printing and vapour-phase deposition," Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells 90, 123-132 (2006).

2004

H. Spanggaard, F. Krebs, "A brief history of the development of organic and polymeric photovoltaics," Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells 83, 125-146 (2004).

N. Saran, K. Parikh, D. Suh, E. Munoz, H. Kolla, S. Manohar, "Fabrication and characterization of thin films of single walled carbon nanotube bundles on flexible substrates," J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 126, 4462-4463 (2004).

2003

N. Kapur, "A parametric study of direct gravure coating," Chemical Engineering Science 58, 2875-2882 (2003).

2002

J. Herrero, C. Guillen, "Transparent films on polymers for photovoltaic applications," Vacuum 67, 611-616 (2002).

2000

M. Bohan, T. Claypole, D. Gethin, "The effect of process parameters on product quality of rotogravure printing," J. Eng. Manufact. 214, 205-219 (2000).

1999

O. Yavas, C. Ochiai, M. Takai, "Substrate-assisted laser patterning of indium tin oxide thin films," Appl. Phys. A 69, S875-S878 (1999).

1998

R. Tahar, T. Ban, Y. Ohya, Y. Takahashi, "Tin doped indium oxide thin films: Electrical properties," J. Appl.Phys. 83, 2631-2645 (1998).

Appl. Phys. A

O. Yavas, C. Ochiai, M. Takai, "Substrate-assisted laser patterning of indium tin oxide thin films," Appl. Phys. A 69, S875-S878 (1999).

Chemical Engineering Science

N. Kapur, "A parametric study of direct gravure coating," Chemical Engineering Science 58, 2875-2882 (2003).

IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Technol.

D. Sung, A. Vornbrock, "Scaling and optimization of gravure-printed silver nanoparticle lines for printed electronics," IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Technol. 33, 105-114 (2010).

J. Eng. Manufact.

M. Bohan, T. Claypole, D. Gethin, "The effect of process parameters on product quality of rotogravure printing," J. Eng. Manufact. 214, 205-219 (2000).

J. Amer. Chem. Soc.

N. Saran, K. Parikh, D. Suh, E. Munoz, H. Kolla, S. Manohar, "Fabrication and characterization of thin films of single walled carbon nanotube bundles on flexible substrates," J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 126, 4462-4463 (2004).

J. Appl.Phys.

R. Tahar, T. Ban, Y. Ohya, Y. Takahashi, "Tin doped indium oxide thin films: Electrical properties," J. Appl.Phys. 83, 2631-2645 (1998).

Organic Electron.

C. Girotto, B. Rand, S. Steudel, J. Genoe, P. Heremans, "Nanoparticle-based, spray-coated silver top contacts for efficient polymer solar cells," Organic Electron. 10, 735-740 (2009).

Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells

C. Granqvist, "Transparent conductors as solar energy materials: A panoramic review," Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells 91, 1529-1598 (2007).

Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells

H. Spanggaard, F. Krebs, "A brief history of the development of organic and polymeric photovoltaics," Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells 83, 125-146 (2004).

Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells

C. Lungenschmied, G. Dennler, H. Neugebauer, S. Sariciftci, M. Glatthaar, T. Meyer, A. Meyer, "Flexible, long-lived, large-area, organic solar cells," Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells 91, 379-384 (2007).

F. Krebs, "Fabrication and processing of polymer solar cells: A review of printing and coating techniques," Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells 93, 394-412 (2009).

B. Jensen, F. Krebs, "High-conductivity large-area semi-transparent electrodes for polymer photovoltaics by silk screen printing and vapour-phase deposition," Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells 90, 123-132 (2006).

TAGA Journal

E. Hrehorova, M. Rebros, A. Pekarovicova, D. Fleming, V. Bliznyuk, "Characterization of conductive polymer inks based on PEDOT: PSS," TAGA Journal 4, 219-231 (2008).

Thin Solid Films

J. Puetz, M. Aegerter, "Direct gravure printing of indium tin oxide nanoparticle patterns on polymer foils," Thin Solid Films 516, 4495-4501 (2008).

M. Gross, A. Winnacker, P. Wellmann, "Electrical, optical and morphological properties of nanoparticle indium-tin-oxide layers gross," Thin Solid Films 515, 8567-8572 (2007).

Vacuum

J. Herrero, C. Guillen, "Transparent films on polymers for photovoltaic applications," Vacuum 67, 611-616 (2002).

Other

F. Krebs, Polymer Photovoltaics: A Practical Approach (SPIE Press, 2008) pp. 266-268.

K. Pichler, Transparent electrode: optoelectronic apparatus and devices U.S. Patent 10/403 997 (2003).

C. J. Brabec, V. Dyakonov, U. Scherf, Organic Photovoltaics: Materials, Device Physics, and Manufacturing Technologies (Wiley-VCH, 2008) pp. 401-403.

J. Rigney, "Materials & processes for high speed printing for electronic components," Proc. IS&T NIP20: Int. Conf. on Digital Printing Technol. (2004) pp. 275-278.

J. Neff, Investigation of the effects of process parameters on performance of gravure printed ITO on flexible substrates Masters thesis Georgia Inst. Technol.Atlanta (2009).

G. Gruner, "Two-dimensional carbon nanotube networks: A transparent electronic material," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 905 (2006) pp. 05.1-05.11.

H. Kipphan, Handbook of Print Media: Technologies and Production Methods (Springer, 2001) pp. 206-447.

A. Vornbrock, Roll Printed Electronics: Development and Scaling of Gravure Printing Techniques Ph.D. dissertation Dept. EECS University of CaliforniaBerkeley (2009).

J. Puetz, S. Heusing, M. Moro, C. Ahlstedt, M. Aegerter, "Gravure printing of transparent conducting ITO coatings for display applications," Proc. SPIE Adv. in Opt. Thin Films II. (2005) pp. 405-412.

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