Abstract

Recently, an analysis of current scanned-beam laser projection systems was presented and showed that the maximum achievable Class 2 eye-safe luminous flux levels are fundamentally limited by the nature of the projection architecture.In this paper, an improved estimate for the maximum Class 2 eye-safe luminous flux is derived by considering unidirectional and bidirectional scan patterns. It is shown that, due to pulse spacing conditions at the edge of the projected image, the maximum Class 2 eye-safe luminous flux could be significantly lower when employing a bidirectional scan pattern than for the unidirectional case.

© 2012 IEEE

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  10. U. Steegmueller, M. Kuehnelt, H. Unold, T. Schwarz, R. Schulz, S. Illek, I. Pietzonka, "Green laser modules to fit laser projection out of your pocket (invited paper)," Proc. SPIE (2008) pp. 687 117-1-687 117-1.
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2011 (2)

E. Buckley, "Real-time error diffusion processor for increasing contrast ratio in holographic projection," J. Display Technol. 7, 70-76 (2011).

E. Buckley, "Scaling laws for pico-projector laser safety," J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 19, 1-2 (2011).

2010 (3)

J. Lincoln, "The latest video projectors can fit inside tiny cameras or cellphones yet still produce big pictures [little gizmo, big picture]," IEEE Spectrum 47, 41-45 (2010).

E. Buckley, "Eye safety analysis of current laser-based scanned-beam projection systems," J. Soc. Inf. Display 18, 944-951 (2010).

E. Buckley, "Eye safety analysis of current laser-based LCOS projection systems," J. Soc. Inf. Display 18, 1-7 (2010).

2009 (1)

M. Freeman, M. Champion, S. Madhavan, "Scanned laser pico-projectors: Seeing the big picture (with a small device)," Opt. Photon. News 20, 28-34 (2009).

2006 (1)

A. Yalcinkaya, H. Urey, D. Brown, T. Montague, R. Sprague, "Two-axis electromagnetic microscanner for high resolution displays," J. Microelectromech. Syst. 15, 786-794 (2006).

IEEE Spectrum (1)

J. Lincoln, "The latest video projectors can fit inside tiny cameras or cellphones yet still produce big pictures [little gizmo, big picture]," IEEE Spectrum 47, 41-45 (2010).

J. Soc. Inf. Display (1)

E. Buckley, "Eye safety analysis of current laser-based scanned-beam projection systems," J. Soc. Inf. Display 18, 944-951 (2010).

J. Display Technol. (1)

J. Microelectromech. Syst. (1)

A. Yalcinkaya, H. Urey, D. Brown, T. Montague, R. Sprague, "Two-axis electromagnetic microscanner for high resolution displays," J. Microelectromech. Syst. 15, 786-794 (2006).

J. Soc. Inf. Display (1)

E. Buckley, "Eye safety analysis of current laser-based LCOS projection systems," J. Soc. Inf. Display 18, 1-7 (2010).

J. Soc. Inf. Disp. (1)

E. Buckley, "Scaling laws for pico-projector laser safety," J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 19, 1-2 (2011).

Opt. Photon. News (1)

M. Freeman, M. Champion, S. Madhavan, "Scanned laser pico-projectors: Seeing the big picture (with a small device)," Opt. Photon. News 20, 28-34 (2009).

Trans. Opt. Soc. London (1)

T. Smith, J. Guild, "The CIE colorimetric standards and their use," Trans. Opt. Soc. London 33, 73-134 (1931–32).

Other (16)

A. R. Henderson, K. Schulmeister, Laser Safety (Taylor and Francis, 2004).

U. Steegmueller, M. Kuehnelt, H. Unold, T. Schwarz, R. Schulz, S. Illek, I. Pietzonka, "Green laser modules to fit laser projection out of your pocket (invited paper)," Proc. SPIE (2008) pp. 687 117-1-687 117-1.

J. Tauscher, W. O. Davis, D. Brown, M. Ellis, Y. Ma, M. E. Sherwood, D. Bowman, M. P. Helsel, S. Lee, J. W. Coy, "Evolution of MEMS scanning mirrors for laser projection in compact consumer electronics," Proc. SPIE (2010) pp. 75 940A-1-75 940A-12.

AAXA technologies"Press release," (2010) http://www.aaxatech.com/news/l1_laser_pico_projector.html.

Microvision Inc."ShowWX laser pico projector specifications," (2010) http://www.microvision.com/showwx/specs.html.

Light Blue Optics Inc."Light Touch™ specifications," (2010) http://www.lightblueoptics.com/products/light-touch/specifications/.

E. Buckley, "Speckle-reduced holographic laser projector," Proc. Int. Display Workshop (2008) pp. 187-188.

J. Yan, S. Luanava, V. Casasanta, "Magnetic actuation for MEMS scanners for retinal scanning displays," Proc. SPIE (2003).

H. Urey, D. W. Wine, T. D. Osborn, "Optical performance requirements for MEMS-scanner based microdisplays," Proc. SPIE (2000).

M. K. Brown, R. J. Jackson, M. Champion, Phase locked resonant scanning display projection U.S. Patent Appl. 2011/0 001 888A1 (2009).

E. Buckley, A. Corbett, P. Surman, I. Sexton, "Multi-viewer autostereoscopic display with dynamically-addressable holographic backlight," Proc. SID Symp. (2008) pp. 340-344.

Safety of Laser Products—Part 1: Equipment Classification, Requirements and User's Guide STANDARD NUMBER??British Standards Inst. (2007).

K. Schulmeister, B. Seiser, J. Husinsky, M. Jean, B. Fekete, L. Farmer, "Damage thresholds for scanned exposure of the retina," Proc. ILSC (2009) pp. 79-83.

A. R. Henderson, K. Schulmeister, Laser Safety (Taylor and Francis, 2004).

Safety of Laser Products—Part 1: Equipment Classification, Requirements and User's Guide STANDARD NUMBER??British Standards Inst. (1994).

Proc. Commission Int. de l'Eclairage (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1924).

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