Abstract

A short, but finite, exposure aperture time is necessary for an imager to photoelectrically accumulate converted electrons in a temporal sample. As the output is the electrical signal averaged over the exposure time, motion blur in images of moving objects can occur. In current assessments of the quality of television images, the observer's static visual acuity (SVA) must be screened before the subjective evaluation. However, in the subjective evaluation of moving image sharpness, an observer's evaluation may not be correlated with their SVA but instead with their dynamic visual acuity (DVA). In the present work, we show that the evaluation of moving-picture sharpness was not correlated with SVA but instead with DVA for a visual target with a spatial frequency corresponding to a decimal-scale SVA of 0.8 (DVA 0.8). Our results show that viewers with good DVA tend to provide a harsher assessment (i.e., a lower score) of the sharpness of images of moving objects, suggesting that DVA screening is essential before assessment of the sharpness of television images. We also propose an SVA screening threshold value of 0.8, because the maximum DVA is almost equal to SVA when the viewed object is not in motion.

© 2012 IEEE

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References

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  17. M. Saffir, "A comparative study of scales constructed by three psychophysical methods," Psychometrika 2, 179-198 (1937).
  18. K. Fliegel, "Modeling and measurement of image sensor characteristics," Radioeng. 13, 27-34 (2004).
  19. B. Brown, "Resolution thresholds for moving targets at the fovea and in the peripheral retina," Vision Res. 12, 293-304 (1972).

2010

M. Emoto, "Dynamic visual acuity (DVA) binocular summation and DVA performance factors," J. Display Technol. 6, 199-206 (2010).

2007

T. Ueda, Y. Nawa, "Effect of pupil size on dynamic visual acuity," Perceptual and Motor Skills 104, 267-272 (2007).

2006

T. Ueda, "Change in dynamic visual acuity (DVA) by pupil dilation," Human Factors 48, 651-655 (2006).

2004

K. Fliegel, "Modeling and measurement of image sensor characteristics," Radioeng. 13, 27-34 (2004).

2003

M. Sugawara, M. Kanazawa, K. Mitani, H. Shimamoto, T. Yamashita, F. Okano, "Ultrahigh-definition video system with 4000 scanning lines," SMPTE Motion Imag. 112, 339-346 (2003).

1996

G. M. Long, D. M. Johnson, "A comparison between methods for assessing the resolution of moving targets (dynamic visual acuity)," Perception 25, 1389-l399 (1996).

1994

H. Ishigaki, M. Miyao, "Implications for dynamic visual acuity with changes in age and sex," Perceptual and Motor Skills 78, 363-369 (1994).

1985

K. Matsumoto, T. Nakamura, A. Yusa, S. Nagai, "A new MOS phototransistor operating in a non-destructive readout mode," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 24, L323-L325 (1985).

1977

H. R. Taylor, "Applying new design principles to the construction of an Illiterate E chart," Amer. J. Optometry and Physiolog. Opt. 55, 348-351 (1977).

1972

B. Brown, "Resolution thresholds for moving targets at the fovea and in the peripheral retina," Vision Res. 12, 293-304 (1972).

1970

W. S. Boyle, G. E. Smith, "Charge coupled semiconductor devices," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 49, 587-593 (1970).

1937

M. Saffir, "A comparative study of scales constructed by three psychophysical methods," Psychometrika 2, 179-198 (1937).

Amer. J. Optometry and Physiolog. Opt.

H. R. Taylor, "Applying new design principles to the construction of an Illiterate E chart," Amer. J. Optometry and Physiolog. Opt. 55, 348-351 (1977).

Bell Syst. Tech. J.

W. S. Boyle, G. E. Smith, "Charge coupled semiconductor devices," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 49, 587-593 (1970).

Human Factors

T. Ueda, "Change in dynamic visual acuity (DVA) by pupil dilation," Human Factors 48, 651-655 (2006).

J. Display Technol.

M. Emoto, "Dynamic visual acuity (DVA) binocular summation and DVA performance factors," J. Display Technol. 6, 199-206 (2010).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

K. Matsumoto, T. Nakamura, A. Yusa, S. Nagai, "A new MOS phototransistor operating in a non-destructive readout mode," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 24, L323-L325 (1985).

Perception

G. M. Long, D. M. Johnson, "A comparison between methods for assessing the resolution of moving targets (dynamic visual acuity)," Perception 25, 1389-l399 (1996).

Perceptual and Motor Skills

H. Ishigaki, M. Miyao, "Implications for dynamic visual acuity with changes in age and sex," Perceptual and Motor Skills 78, 363-369 (1994).

Perceptual and Motor Skills

T. Ueda, Y. Nawa, "Effect of pupil size on dynamic visual acuity," Perceptual and Motor Skills 104, 267-272 (2007).

Psychometrika

M. Saffir, "A comparative study of scales constructed by three psychophysical methods," Psychometrika 2, 179-198 (1937).

Radioeng.

K. Fliegel, "Modeling and measurement of image sensor characteristics," Radioeng. 13, 27-34 (2004).

SMPTE Motion Imag.

M. Sugawara, M. Kanazawa, K. Mitani, H. Shimamoto, T. Yamashita, F. Okano, "Ultrahigh-definition video system with 4000 scanning lines," SMPTE Motion Imag. 112, 339-346 (2003).

Vision Res.

B. Brown, "Resolution thresholds for moving targets at the fovea and in the peripheral retina," Vision Res. 12, 293-304 (1972).

Other

Ophthalmic Optics Visual Acuity Testing Standard Optotype and Its Presentation ISO 8596ISO (2009).

Test Materials to be Used in Subjective Assessment Rec. ITU-R BT. 1210-1Radiocommunication Sector (ITU-R)International Telecommunication Union (1997).

Subjective Assessment Methods for Image Quality in High-Definition Television Rec. ITU-R BT. 710-4Radiocommunication Sector (ITU-R)International Telecommunication Union (1998).

Image Safety, Reducing the Incidence of Undesirable Biomedical Effects Caused by Visual Image Sequences ISO IWA 3:2005ISO (2005).

Parameter Values for the HDTV Standards for Production and International Programme Exchange Rec. ITU-R BT. 709-05Radiocommunication Sector (ITU-R)International Telecommunication Union (2002).

Conventional Television Systems Rec. ITU-R BT. 470-6Radiocommunication Sector (ITU-R)International Telecommunication Union (1998).

Methodology for the Subjective Assessment of the Quality of Television Pictures Rec. ITU-R BT. 500-12Radiocommunication Sector (ITU-R)International Telecommunication Union (2009).

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