Abstract

Thin-films of copper oxide (Cu<sub>x</sub>O) were sputtered from a metallic copper (Cu) target and studied as a function of oxygen partial pressure (O<sub>PP</sub>). A metallic Cu film with cubic structure obtained from 0% O<sub>PP</sub> has been transformed to cubic Cu<sub>2</sub>O phase for the increase in O<sub>PP</sub> to 9% but then changed to monoclinic CuO phase (for O<sub>PP</sub> ≥ 25%). The variation in crystallite size (calculated from x-ray diffraction data) was further substantiated by the variation in grain size (surface microstructures). The Cu<sub>x</sub>O films produced with O<sub>PP</sub> ranging between 9% and 75% showed p-type behavior, which were successfully applied to produce thin-film transistors.

© 2011 IEEE

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  1. P. Barquinha, L. Pereira, G. Goncalves, R. Martins, E. Fortunato, "The effect of deposition conditions and annealing on the performance of high-mobility GIZO TFTs," Electrochem. Solid State Lett. 11, H248-H251 (2008).
  2. P. Barquinha, L. Pereira, G. Goncalves, R. Martins, D. Kuscer, M. Kosec, E. Fortunato, "Performance and stability of low temperature transparent thin-film transistors using amorphous multicomponent dielectrics," J. Electrochem. Soc. 156, H824-H831 (2009).
  3. T. Kamiya, K. Nomura, H. Hosono, "Present status of amorphous In–Ga–Zn–O thin-film transistors," Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 11, (2010) 23 pp..
  4. J. S. Park, W.-J. Maeng, H.-S. Kim, J.-S. Park, "Review of recent developments in amorphous oxide semiconductor thin-film transistor devices," Thin Solid Films .
  5. J.-Y. Kwon, D.-J. Lee, K.-B. Kim, "Review paper: Transparent amorphous oxide semiconductor thin film transistor," Electron. Mater. Lett. 7, 1-11 (2011).
  6. E. Fortunato, V. Figueiredo, P. Barquinha, E. Elamurugu, R. Barros, G. Goncalves, S. H. K. Park, C. S. Hwang, R. Martins, "Thin-film transistors based on p-type ${\hbox{Cu}}_{2}{\hbox{O}}$ thin films produced at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 1-3 (2010).
  7. K. Matsuzaki, K. Nomura, H. Yanagi, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Epitaxial growth of high mobility ${\hbox{Cu}}_{2}{\hbox{O}}$ thin films and application to p-channel thin film transistor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 1-3 (2008).
  8. K. Matsuzaki, K. Nomura, H. Yanagi, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Effects of post-annealing on (110) ${\hbox{Cu}}_{2}{\hbox{O}}$ epitaxial films and origin of low mobility in ${\hbox{Cu}}_{2}{\hbox{O}}$ thin-film transistor," Phys. Status Solidi a-Appl. Mater. Sci. 206, 2192-2197 (2009).
  9. X. A. Zou, G. J. Fang, L. Y. Yuan, M. Y. Li, W. J. Guan, X. Z. Zhao, "Top-gate low-threshold voltage p-${\hbox{Cu}}_{2}{\hbox{O}}$ thin-film transistor grown on ${\hbox{SiO}}_{2}/{\hbox{Si}}$ substrate using a high-kappa HfON gate dielectric," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31, 827-829 (2010).
  10. V. Figueiredo, E. Elangovan, G. Goncalves, N. Franco, E. Alves, S. H. K. Park, R. Martins, E. Fortunato, "Electrical, structural and optical characterization of copper oxide thin films as a function of post annealing temperature," Phys. Status Solidi a-Appl. Mater. Sci. 206, 2143-2148 (2009).
  11. S. Y. Sung, S. Y. Kim, K. M. Jo, J. H. Lee, J. J. Kim, S. G. Kim, K. H. Chai, S. J. Pearton, D. P. Norton, Y. W. Heo, "Fabrication of p-channel thin-film transistors using CuO active layers deposited at low temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, (2010).
  12. E. Fortunato, R. Barros, P. Barquinha, V. Figueiredo, S. H. K. Park, C. S. Hwang, R. Martins, "Transparent p-type ${\hbox{Sn}}{\hbox{O}}_{x}$ thin film transistors produced by reactive RF magnetron sputtering followed by low temperature annealing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, (2010).
  13. H. Yabuta, N. Kaji, R. Hayashi, H. Kumomi, K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Sputtering formation of p-type ${\hbox{Sn}}{\hbox{O}}$ thin-film transistors on glass toward oxide complimentary circuits," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, (2010).
  14. H. Raebiger, S. Lany, A. Zunger, "Origins of the p-type nature and cation deficiency in ${\hbox{Cu}}_{2}{\hbox{O}}$  and related materials," Phys. Rev. B 76, (2007).
  15. M. Nolan, S. D. Elliott, "The p-type conduction mechanism in Cu2O: A first principles study," Phys. Chemistry Chem. Phys. 8, 5350-5358 (2006).
  16. Y. Nakano, S. Saeki, T. Morikawa, "Optical bandgap widening of p-type ${\hbox{Cu}}_{2}{\hbox{O}}$ films by nitrogen doping," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 1-3 (2009).
  17. A. Mittiga, E. Salza, F. Sarto, M. Tucci, R. Vasanthi, "Heterojunction solar cell with 2% efficiency based on a ${\hbox{Cu}}_{2}{\hbox{O}}$  substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, (2006).
  18. B. S. Li, K. Akimoto, A. Shen, "Growth of ${\hbox{Cu}}_{2}{\hbox{O}}$  thin films with high hole mobility by introducing a low-temperature buffer layer," J. Cryst. Growth 311, 1102-1105 (2009).
  19. M. K. Wu, J. R. Ashburn, C. J. Torng, P. H. Hor, R. L. Meng, L. Gao, Z. J. Huang, Y. Q. Wang, C. W. Chu, "Superconductivity at 93-K in a new mixed-phase Y–Ba–Cu–O compound system at ambient pressure," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 908-910 (1987).
  20. G. Avgouropoulos, T. Ioannides, C. Papadopoulou, J. Batista, S. Hocevar, H. K. Matralis, "A comparative study of ${\hbox{Pt}}/\gamma{\hbox{–}}{\hbox{Al}}_{2}{\hbox{O}}_{3}$, ${\hbox{Au}}/\alpha{\hbox{–}}{\hbox{Fe}}_{2}{\hbox{O}}_{3}$ and ${\hbox{CuO}}{\hbox{–}}{\hbox{CeO}}_{2}$ catalysts for the selective oxidation of carbon monoxide in excess hydrogen," Catalysis Today 75, 157-167 (2002).
  21. X. P. Gao, J. L. Bao, G. L. Pan, H. Y. Zhu, P. X. Huang, F. Wu, D. Y. Song, "Preparation and electrochemical performance of polycrystalline and single crystalline CuO nanorods as anode materials for Li ion battery," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 5547-5551 (2004).
  22. Planar Systems, Inc.EspooFinland“ITO/ATO-Coated Glass Substrates From Planar Systems, Inc.,” (2004).
  23. B. D. Cullity, Elements of X-Ray Diffraction (Addison-Wesley, 1977).
  24. F. P. Koffyberg, F. A. Benko, "A photo-electrochemical determination of the position of the conduction and valence band edges of p-type CuO," J. Appl. Phys. 53, 1173-1177 (1982).
  25. A. Parretta, M. K. Jayaraj, A. Di Nocera, S. Loreti, L. Quercia, A. Agati, "Electrical and optical properties of copper oxide films prepared by reactive RF magnetron sputtering," Phys. Status Solidi (a) 155, 399-404 (1996).
  26. V. Figueiredo, E. Elangovan, G. Goncalves, P. Barquinha, L. Pereira, N. Franco, E. Alves, R. Martins, E. Fortunato, "Effect of post-annealing on the properties of copper oxide thin films obtained from the oxidation of evaporated metallic copper," Appl. Surface Sci. 254, 3949-3954 (2008).
  27. N. F. Mott, "Metal-insulator transition," Rev. Modern Physics 40, 677 (1968).

2011

J.-Y. Kwon, D.-J. Lee, K.-B. Kim, "Review paper: Transparent amorphous oxide semiconductor thin film transistor," Electron. Mater. Lett. 7, 1-11 (2011).

2010

E. Fortunato, V. Figueiredo, P. Barquinha, E. Elamurugu, R. Barros, G. Goncalves, S. H. K. Park, C. S. Hwang, R. Martins, "Thin-film transistors based on p-type ${\hbox{Cu}}_{2}{\hbox{O}}$ thin films produced at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 1-3 (2010).

T. Kamiya, K. Nomura, H. Hosono, "Present status of amorphous In–Ga–Zn–O thin-film transistors," Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 11, (2010) 23 pp..

X. A. Zou, G. J. Fang, L. Y. Yuan, M. Y. Li, W. J. Guan, X. Z. Zhao, "Top-gate low-threshold voltage p-${\hbox{Cu}}_{2}{\hbox{O}}$ thin-film transistor grown on ${\hbox{SiO}}_{2}/{\hbox{Si}}$ substrate using a high-kappa HfON gate dielectric," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31, 827-829 (2010).

S. Y. Sung, S. Y. Kim, K. M. Jo, J. H. Lee, J. J. Kim, S. G. Kim, K. H. Chai, S. J. Pearton, D. P. Norton, Y. W. Heo, "Fabrication of p-channel thin-film transistors using CuO active layers deposited at low temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, (2010).

E. Fortunato, R. Barros, P. Barquinha, V. Figueiredo, S. H. K. Park, C. S. Hwang, R. Martins, "Transparent p-type ${\hbox{Sn}}{\hbox{O}}_{x}$ thin film transistors produced by reactive RF magnetron sputtering followed by low temperature annealing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, (2010).

H. Yabuta, N. Kaji, R. Hayashi, H. Kumomi, K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Sputtering formation of p-type ${\hbox{Sn}}{\hbox{O}}$ thin-film transistors on glass toward oxide complimentary circuits," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, (2010).

2009

Y. Nakano, S. Saeki, T. Morikawa, "Optical bandgap widening of p-type ${\hbox{Cu}}_{2}{\hbox{O}}$ films by nitrogen doping," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 1-3 (2009).

B. S. Li, K. Akimoto, A. Shen, "Growth of ${\hbox{Cu}}_{2}{\hbox{O}}$  thin films with high hole mobility by introducing a low-temperature buffer layer," J. Cryst. Growth 311, 1102-1105 (2009).

V. Figueiredo, E. Elangovan, G. Goncalves, N. Franco, E. Alves, S. H. K. Park, R. Martins, E. Fortunato, "Electrical, structural and optical characterization of copper oxide thin films as a function of post annealing temperature," Phys. Status Solidi a-Appl. Mater. Sci. 206, 2143-2148 (2009).

K. Matsuzaki, K. Nomura, H. Yanagi, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Effects of post-annealing on (110) ${\hbox{Cu}}_{2}{\hbox{O}}$ epitaxial films and origin of low mobility in ${\hbox{Cu}}_{2}{\hbox{O}}$ thin-film transistor," Phys. Status Solidi a-Appl. Mater. Sci. 206, 2192-2197 (2009).

P. Barquinha, L. Pereira, G. Goncalves, R. Martins, D. Kuscer, M. Kosec, E. Fortunato, "Performance and stability of low temperature transparent thin-film transistors using amorphous multicomponent dielectrics," J. Electrochem. Soc. 156, H824-H831 (2009).

2008

P. Barquinha, L. Pereira, G. Goncalves, R. Martins, E. Fortunato, "The effect of deposition conditions and annealing on the performance of high-mobility GIZO TFTs," Electrochem. Solid State Lett. 11, H248-H251 (2008).

K. Matsuzaki, K. Nomura, H. Yanagi, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Epitaxial growth of high mobility ${\hbox{Cu}}_{2}{\hbox{O}}$ thin films and application to p-channel thin film transistor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 1-3 (2008).

V. Figueiredo, E. Elangovan, G. Goncalves, P. Barquinha, L. Pereira, N. Franco, E. Alves, R. Martins, E. Fortunato, "Effect of post-annealing on the properties of copper oxide thin films obtained from the oxidation of evaporated metallic copper," Appl. Surface Sci. 254, 3949-3954 (2008).

2007

H. Raebiger, S. Lany, A. Zunger, "Origins of the p-type nature and cation deficiency in ${\hbox{Cu}}_{2}{\hbox{O}}$  and related materials," Phys. Rev. B 76, (2007).

2006

M. Nolan, S. D. Elliott, "The p-type conduction mechanism in Cu2O: A first principles study," Phys. Chemistry Chem. Phys. 8, 5350-5358 (2006).

A. Mittiga, E. Salza, F. Sarto, M. Tucci, R. Vasanthi, "Heterojunction solar cell with 2% efficiency based on a ${\hbox{Cu}}_{2}{\hbox{O}}$  substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, (2006).

2004

X. P. Gao, J. L. Bao, G. L. Pan, H. Y. Zhu, P. X. Huang, F. Wu, D. Y. Song, "Preparation and electrochemical performance of polycrystalline and single crystalline CuO nanorods as anode materials for Li ion battery," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 5547-5551 (2004).

2002

G. Avgouropoulos, T. Ioannides, C. Papadopoulou, J. Batista, S. Hocevar, H. K. Matralis, "A comparative study of ${\hbox{Pt}}/\gamma{\hbox{–}}{\hbox{Al}}_{2}{\hbox{O}}_{3}$, ${\hbox{Au}}/\alpha{\hbox{–}}{\hbox{Fe}}_{2}{\hbox{O}}_{3}$ and ${\hbox{CuO}}{\hbox{–}}{\hbox{CeO}}_{2}$ catalysts for the selective oxidation of carbon monoxide in excess hydrogen," Catalysis Today 75, 157-167 (2002).

1996

A. Parretta, M. K. Jayaraj, A. Di Nocera, S. Loreti, L. Quercia, A. Agati, "Electrical and optical properties of copper oxide films prepared by reactive RF magnetron sputtering," Phys. Status Solidi (a) 155, 399-404 (1996).

1987

M. K. Wu, J. R. Ashburn, C. J. Torng, P. H. Hor, R. L. Meng, L. Gao, Z. J. Huang, Y. Q. Wang, C. W. Chu, "Superconductivity at 93-K in a new mixed-phase Y–Ba–Cu–O compound system at ambient pressure," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 908-910 (1987).

1982

F. P. Koffyberg, F. A. Benko, "A photo-electrochemical determination of the position of the conduction and valence band edges of p-type CuO," J. Appl. Phys. 53, 1173-1177 (1982).

1968

N. F. Mott, "Metal-insulator transition," Rev. Modern Physics 40, 677 (1968).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

E. Fortunato, V. Figueiredo, P. Barquinha, E. Elamurugu, R. Barros, G. Goncalves, S. H. K. Park, C. S. Hwang, R. Martins, "Thin-film transistors based on p-type ${\hbox{Cu}}_{2}{\hbox{O}}$ thin films produced at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 1-3 (2010).

K. Matsuzaki, K. Nomura, H. Yanagi, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Epitaxial growth of high mobility ${\hbox{Cu}}_{2}{\hbox{O}}$ thin films and application to p-channel thin film transistor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 1-3 (2008).

S. Y. Sung, S. Y. Kim, K. M. Jo, J. H. Lee, J. J. Kim, S. G. Kim, K. H. Chai, S. J. Pearton, D. P. Norton, Y. W. Heo, "Fabrication of p-channel thin-film transistors using CuO active layers deposited at low temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, (2010).

E. Fortunato, R. Barros, P. Barquinha, V. Figueiredo, S. H. K. Park, C. S. Hwang, R. Martins, "Transparent p-type ${\hbox{Sn}}{\hbox{O}}_{x}$ thin film transistors produced by reactive RF magnetron sputtering followed by low temperature annealing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, (2010).

H. Yabuta, N. Kaji, R. Hayashi, H. Kumomi, K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Sputtering formation of p-type ${\hbox{Sn}}{\hbox{O}}$ thin-film transistors on glass toward oxide complimentary circuits," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, (2010).

Y. Nakano, S. Saeki, T. Morikawa, "Optical bandgap widening of p-type ${\hbox{Cu}}_{2}{\hbox{O}}$ films by nitrogen doping," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 1-3 (2009).

A. Mittiga, E. Salza, F. Sarto, M. Tucci, R. Vasanthi, "Heterojunction solar cell with 2% efficiency based on a ${\hbox{Cu}}_{2}{\hbox{O}}$  substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, (2006).

Appl. Surface Sci.

V. Figueiredo, E. Elangovan, G. Goncalves, P. Barquinha, L. Pereira, N. Franco, E. Alves, R. Martins, E. Fortunato, "Effect of post-annealing on the properties of copper oxide thin films obtained from the oxidation of evaporated metallic copper," Appl. Surface Sci. 254, 3949-3954 (2008).

Catalysis Today

G. Avgouropoulos, T. Ioannides, C. Papadopoulou, J. Batista, S. Hocevar, H. K. Matralis, "A comparative study of ${\hbox{Pt}}/\gamma{\hbox{–}}{\hbox{Al}}_{2}{\hbox{O}}_{3}$, ${\hbox{Au}}/\alpha{\hbox{–}}{\hbox{Fe}}_{2}{\hbox{O}}_{3}$ and ${\hbox{CuO}}{\hbox{–}}{\hbox{CeO}}_{2}$ catalysts for the selective oxidation of carbon monoxide in excess hydrogen," Catalysis Today 75, 157-167 (2002).

Electrochem. Solid State Lett.

P. Barquinha, L. Pereira, G. Goncalves, R. Martins, E. Fortunato, "The effect of deposition conditions and annealing on the performance of high-mobility GIZO TFTs," Electrochem. Solid State Lett. 11, H248-H251 (2008).

Electron. Mater. Lett.

J.-Y. Kwon, D.-J. Lee, K.-B. Kim, "Review paper: Transparent amorphous oxide semiconductor thin film transistor," Electron. Mater. Lett. 7, 1-11 (2011).

IEEE Electron Device Lett.

X. A. Zou, G. J. Fang, L. Y. Yuan, M. Y. Li, W. J. Guan, X. Z. Zhao, "Top-gate low-threshold voltage p-${\hbox{Cu}}_{2}{\hbox{O}}$ thin-film transistor grown on ${\hbox{SiO}}_{2}/{\hbox{Si}}$ substrate using a high-kappa HfON gate dielectric," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31, 827-829 (2010).

J. Appl. Phys.

F. P. Koffyberg, F. A. Benko, "A photo-electrochemical determination of the position of the conduction and valence band edges of p-type CuO," J. Appl. Phys. 53, 1173-1177 (1982).

J. Cryst. Growth

B. S. Li, K. Akimoto, A. Shen, "Growth of ${\hbox{Cu}}_{2}{\hbox{O}}$  thin films with high hole mobility by introducing a low-temperature buffer layer," J. Cryst. Growth 311, 1102-1105 (2009).

J. Electrochem. Soc.

P. Barquinha, L. Pereira, G. Goncalves, R. Martins, D. Kuscer, M. Kosec, E. Fortunato, "Performance and stability of low temperature transparent thin-film transistors using amorphous multicomponent dielectrics," J. Electrochem. Soc. 156, H824-H831 (2009).

J. Phys. Chem. B

X. P. Gao, J. L. Bao, G. L. Pan, H. Y. Zhu, P. X. Huang, F. Wu, D. Y. Song, "Preparation and electrochemical performance of polycrystalline and single crystalline CuO nanorods as anode materials for Li ion battery," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 5547-5551 (2004).

Phys. Chemistry Chem. Phys.

M. Nolan, S. D. Elliott, "The p-type conduction mechanism in Cu2O: A first principles study," Phys. Chemistry Chem. Phys. 8, 5350-5358 (2006).

Phys. Rev. B

H. Raebiger, S. Lany, A. Zunger, "Origins of the p-type nature and cation deficiency in ${\hbox{Cu}}_{2}{\hbox{O}}$  and related materials," Phys. Rev. B 76, (2007).

Phys. Rev. Lett.

M. K. Wu, J. R. Ashburn, C. J. Torng, P. H. Hor, R. L. Meng, L. Gao, Z. J. Huang, Y. Q. Wang, C. W. Chu, "Superconductivity at 93-K in a new mixed-phase Y–Ba–Cu–O compound system at ambient pressure," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 908-910 (1987).

Phys. Status Solidi (a)

A. Parretta, M. K. Jayaraj, A. Di Nocera, S. Loreti, L. Quercia, A. Agati, "Electrical and optical properties of copper oxide films prepared by reactive RF magnetron sputtering," Phys. Status Solidi (a) 155, 399-404 (1996).

Phys. Status Solidi a-Appl. Mater. Sci.

V. Figueiredo, E. Elangovan, G. Goncalves, N. Franco, E. Alves, S. H. K. Park, R. Martins, E. Fortunato, "Electrical, structural and optical characterization of copper oxide thin films as a function of post annealing temperature," Phys. Status Solidi a-Appl. Mater. Sci. 206, 2143-2148 (2009).

K. Matsuzaki, K. Nomura, H. Yanagi, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, "Effects of post-annealing on (110) ${\hbox{Cu}}_{2}{\hbox{O}}$ epitaxial films and origin of low mobility in ${\hbox{Cu}}_{2}{\hbox{O}}$ thin-film transistor," Phys. Status Solidi a-Appl. Mater. Sci. 206, 2192-2197 (2009).

Rev. Modern Physics

N. F. Mott, "Metal-insulator transition," Rev. Modern Physics 40, 677 (1968).

Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater.

T. Kamiya, K. Nomura, H. Hosono, "Present status of amorphous In–Ga–Zn–O thin-film transistors," Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 11, (2010) 23 pp..

Thin Solid Films

J. S. Park, W.-J. Maeng, H.-S. Kim, J.-S. Park, "Review of recent developments in amorphous oxide semiconductor thin-film transistor devices," Thin Solid Films .

Other

Planar Systems, Inc.EspooFinland“ITO/ATO-Coated Glass Substrates From Planar Systems, Inc.,” (2004).

B. D. Cullity, Elements of X-Ray Diffraction (Addison-Wesley, 1977).

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