Abstract

The rapid progress in laser light source development, particularly in the gallium-nitride material system, means that a wide range of wavelengths are now available for pico-projection applications intended to deliver 20 lm or less. In principle, this affords designers of pico-projection systems great flexibility in choosing laser wavelengths to optimize specific performance metrics. With the proliferation of laser-based pico-projectors, however, it has become clear that current laser safety regulations and their wavelength-dependent classification criteria play a fundamental role in determining the brightness roadmaps of scanned-beam and liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS) pico-projection systems. In this paper, it is shown that it is possible to choose laser wavelengths to simultaneously maximize eye-safe luminous flux and color gamut, but that the resultant values are significantly different for Class 2 and Class 1 eye-safe projection systems.

© 2011 IEEE

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References

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2010 (5)

A. Avramescu, T. Lermer, J. Muller, S. Tautz, D. Queren, S. Lutgen, U. Strauss, "InGaN laser diodes with 50 mW output power emitting at 515 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 071103-071103-3 (2010).

H. Ohta, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, "Future of group-iii nitride semiconductor green laser diodes invited," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, B45-B49 (2010).

A. Shchegrov, J. Khaydarov, S. Essaian, G. Nemet, S. Soghomonyan, H. Danielyan, A. Poghosyan, G. Gabrielyan, "Green laser sources optimized for highly efficient microdisplay-based field-sequential mobile projectors," J. Soc. Inf. Display 18, 589-595 (2010).

E. Buckley, "Eye safety analysis of current laser-based LCOS projection systems," J. Soc. Inf. Display 18, 1-7 (2010).

E. Buckley, "Eye safety analysis of current laser-based scanned-beam projection systems," J. Soc. Inf. Display 18, 944-951 (2010).

2009 (4)

K. Okamoto, J. Kashigawi, T. Tanaka, M. Kubota, "Nonpolar m-plane InGaN multiple quantum well laser diodes with a lasing wavelength of 499.8 nm," Appl. Phys Lett. 4, 071105-1-071105-3 (2009).

Y. Enya, Y. Yoshizumi, T. Kyono, K. Akita, M. Ueno, M. Adachi, T. Sumitomo, S. Tokuyama, T. Ikegami, K. Katayama, T. Nakamura, "531 nm green lasing of InGaN based laser diodes on semi-polar [20–21] free-standing GaN substrates," Appl. Phys Express 2, 082101-1-082101-3 (2009).

T. Miyoshi, S. Masui, T. Okada, T. Yanamoto, T. Kozaki, S. Nagahama, T. Mukai, "510–515 nm InGaN-based green laser diodes on C-plane GaN substrate," Appl. Phys. Express 2, 062201-062204 (2009).

Y. Yoshizumi, M. Adachi, Y. Enya, T. Kyono, S. Tokuyama, T. Sumitomo, K. Akita, T. Ikegami, M. Ueno, K. Katayama, T. Nakamura, "Continuous-wave operation of 520 nm green InGaN-based laser diodes on semi-polar 2021 GaN substrates," Appl. Phys. Express 2, 092101-092104 (2009).

Appl. Phys Express (1)

Y. Enya, Y. Yoshizumi, T. Kyono, K. Akita, M. Ueno, M. Adachi, T. Sumitomo, S. Tokuyama, T. Ikegami, K. Katayama, T. Nakamura, "531 nm green lasing of InGaN based laser diodes on semi-polar [20–21] free-standing GaN substrates," Appl. Phys Express 2, 082101-1-082101-3 (2009).

Appl. Phys Lett. (1)

K. Okamoto, J. Kashigawi, T. Tanaka, M. Kubota, "Nonpolar m-plane InGaN multiple quantum well laser diodes with a lasing wavelength of 499.8 nm," Appl. Phys Lett. 4, 071105-1-071105-3 (2009).

Appl. Phys. Express (2)

T. Miyoshi, S. Masui, T. Okada, T. Yanamoto, T. Kozaki, S. Nagahama, T. Mukai, "510–515 nm InGaN-based green laser diodes on C-plane GaN substrate," Appl. Phys. Express 2, 062201-062204 (2009).

Y. Yoshizumi, M. Adachi, Y. Enya, T. Kyono, S. Tokuyama, T. Sumitomo, K. Akita, T. Ikegami, M. Ueno, K. Katayama, T. Nakamura, "Continuous-wave operation of 520 nm green InGaN-based laser diodes on semi-polar 2021 GaN substrates," Appl. Phys. Express 2, 092101-092104 (2009).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Avramescu, T. Lermer, J. Muller, S. Tautz, D. Queren, S. Lutgen, U. Strauss, "InGaN laser diodes with 50 mW output power emitting at 515 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 071103-071103-3 (2010).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Soc. Inf. Display (3)

A. Shchegrov, J. Khaydarov, S. Essaian, G. Nemet, S. Soghomonyan, H. Danielyan, A. Poghosyan, G. Gabrielyan, "Green laser sources optimized for highly efficient microdisplay-based field-sequential mobile projectors," J. Soc. Inf. Display 18, 589-595 (2010).

E. Buckley, "Eye safety analysis of current laser-based LCOS projection systems," J. Soc. Inf. Display 18, 1-7 (2010).

E. Buckley, "Eye safety analysis of current laser-based scanned-beam projection systems," J. Soc. Inf. Display 18, 944-951 (2010).

Trans. Opt. Soc. London (1)

T. Smith, J. Guild, "The CIE colorimetric standards and their use," Trans. Opt. Soc. London 73-134 1931-32.

Other (12)

Proc. Commission Int. l'Eclairage (1924).

R. W. G. Hunt, Measuring Colour (Fountain Press, 1998) pp. 61.

Sony Corp.“The science of the laser projector,” (2009) http://www.sonyinsider.com/2009/10/12/the-science-of-the-laser-projector/.

U. Steegmueller, M. Kuehnelt, H. Unold, T. Schwarz, R. Schulz, S. Illek, I. Pietzonka, "Green laser modules to fit laser projection out of your pocket (invited paper)," Proc. SPIE (2008) pp. 687117-1-687117-1.

V. Bhatia, S. Gregorski, D. Pikula, S. Chaparala, D. Loeber, J. Gollier, "Efficient and compact green laser incorporating adaptive optics for wide operating temperature range," Proc. SID Symp. (2008).

Microvision Inc.“ShowWX laser pico projector specifications,” (2010) http://www.microvision.com/showwx/specs.html.

Light Blue Optics Inc.“Light Touch specifications,” (2010) http://www.lightblueoptics.com/products/light-touch/specifications/.

Aaxa Technologies“Press release,” (2010) http://www.aaxatech.com/news/l1_laser_pico_projector.html.

Opnext“HL6364DG/65DG datasheet,” (2006) http://www.photonic-products.com/products/laserdiodes_visible/opnext/hl6364dg_65dg.pdf.

T. Nishida, N. Shimada, K. Ono, T. Yagi, A. Shima, "Highly reliable 637–639 nm red high-power LDs for displays," Proc. SPIE (2010).

OSRAM Opto Semiconductor“Blue laser diode PL T4 NSB datasheet,” (2009) http://catalog.osram-os.com/catalogue/catalogue.do?act=downloadFile&favOid=020000000003f8b4000200b6.

Nichia“Blue laser diode NDHB510APA datasheet,” http://www.nichia.co.jp/specification/en/product/ld/NDHB510APA-E.pdf.

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