Abstract

Mixed-oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs) have been extensively researched due to their improved stability under electrical bias stress compared to amorphous-silicon TFTs. However, there are many challenges before they can reach the manufacturing stage. At the Flexible Display Center (FDC), Arizona State University, Tempe, we are developing a low temperature indium–zinc–oxide (IZO) TFT process suitable for flexible substrates such as polyethylene naphthalate (PEN). We report the effect of bias stress on the performance of these IZO TFTs and compare it with a-Si:H TFTs. We also report the design and fabrication of a 3.8-in QVGA electrophoretic display on PEN substrate using IZO TFT backplane.

© 2011 IEEE

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  2. Zinc Oxide Bulk, Thin Films and Nanostructures (Elsevier, 2006).
  3. D. Heineck, B. R. McFarlane, J. Wager, "Zinc tin oxide thin-film-transistor enhancement/depletion inverter," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30, 514-516 (2009).
  4. U. Ozgur, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Dogan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, H. Morkoc, "A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 041301 (2005).
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  6. R. Hoffman, T. Emery, B. Yeh, T. Koch, W. Jackson, "Zinc indium oxide thin-film transistors for active-matrix display backplane," Proc. Soc. Inf. Display (2009).
  7. P. Görrn, P. Hölzer, T. Riedl, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, S. Kipp, "Stability of transparent zinc tin oxide transistors under bias stress," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 063502 (2007).
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  12. H. Ohara, T. Sasaki, K. Noda, S. Ito, M. Y. Sasaki, "4.0 in. QVGA AMOLED display ysing in-ga-zn-oxide TFTs with a novel passivation layer," Soc. Inf. Display 284-287 (2009) http://link.aip.org/link/?DTPSDS/40/284/1.
  13. A. Suresh, J. F. Muth, "Bias stress instability of indium gallium zinc oxide channel based transparent thin film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 033502.1-033502.3 (2008).
  14. R. B. M. Cross, M. M. DeSouza, "Investigating the stability of thin film transistors with zinc oxide as the channel layer," Proc. IEEE Int. Reliability Physics Symp. (2007) pp. 467-471.
  15. J. F. Wagner, D. A. Keszler, R. E. Presley, Transparent Electronics (Springer-Verlag, 2008).
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  17. M. J. Powell, B. C. Easton, D. H. Nicholls, "Annealing and light induced change in the field effect conductance of amorphous silicon," J. Appl. Phys. 53, 5068-5078 (1982).
  18. S. M. O'Rourke, S. M. Venugopal, G. B. Raupp, D. R. Allee, S. Ageno, E. J. Bawolek, D. E. Loy, J. P. Kaminski, C. Moyer, B. O'Brien, K. Long, M. Marrs, D. Bottesch, J. Dailey, J. Trujillo, R. Cordova, M. Richards, D. Toy, N. Colaneri, "Active matrix electrophoretic displays on temporary bonded stainless steel substrates with 180 $^{\circ}{\hbox{C}}$ a-Si:H TFTs," SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers (2008) pp. 422.
  19. D. Loy, Y. K. Lee, C. Bell, M. Richards, E. Bawolek, S. Ageno, C. Moyer, M. Marrs, S. M. Venugopal, J. Kaminski, N. Colaneri, S. M. O'Rourke, J. Silvernail, K. Rajan, R. Ma, M. Hack, J. J. Brown, E. Forsythe, D. Morton, "Active matrix PHOLED displays on temporary bonded polyethylene naphthalate substrates with 180 C a-Si:H TFTs," SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers (2009) pp. 988-991.

2009 (7)

D. Heineck, B. R. McFarlane, J. Wager, "Zinc tin oxide thin-film-transistor enhancement/depletion inverter," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30, 514-516 (2009).

D. R. Allee, L. T. Clark, B. D. Vogt, R. Shringarpure , S. M. Venugopal, S. G. Uppili, K. Kaftanoglu, H. Shivalingaiah, Z. P. Li, J. J. Ravindra Fernando, E. J. Bawolek, S. O'Rourke, "Degradation effects in a-Si:H thin film transistors and their impact on circuit performance," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 56, 1166-1176 (2009).

R. Hoffman, T. Emery, B. Yeh, T. Koch, W. Jackson, "Zinc indium oxide thin-film transistors for active-matrix display backplane," Proc. Soc. Inf. Display (2009).

M. Ryu, K. Park, J. Seon, J. Park, I. Kee, Y. Lee, "AMOLED driven by solution processed oxide semiconductor TFT," Society for Information Display 188-190 (2009) http://link.aip.org/link/?DTPSDS/40/188/1 Retrieved from.

H. Ohara, T. Sasaki, K. Noda, S. Ito, M. Y. Sasaki, "4.0 in. QVGA AMOLED display ysing in-ga-zn-oxide TFTs with a novel passivation layer," Soc. Inf. Display 284-287 (2009) http://link.aip.org/link/?DTPSDS/40/284/1.

M. E. Lopes, H. L. Gomes, M. C. R. Medeiros, P. Barquinha, L. Pereira, E. Fortunato, R. Martins, I. Ferreira, "Gate-bias stress in amorphous oxide semiconductors thin-film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 063502 (2009).

A. J. Flewitt, J. D. Dutson, P. Beecher, D. Paul, S. J. Wakeham, M. E. Vickers, C. Ducati, S. P. Speakman, W. I. Milne, M. J. Thwaites, "Stability of thin film transistors incorporating a zinc oxide or indium zinc oxide channel deposited by a high rate sputtering process," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24, (2009).

2008 (1)

A. Suresh, J. F. Muth, "Bias stress instability of indium gallium zinc oxide channel based transparent thin film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 033502.1-033502.3 (2008).

2007 (1)

P. Görrn, P. Hölzer, T. Riedl, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, S. Kipp, "Stability of transparent zinc tin oxide transistors under bias stress," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 063502 (2007).

2006 (1)

P. Görrn, M. Sander, J. Meyer, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. K. T. Riedl, "Towards see-through displays: Fully transparent thin-film transistors driving transparent organic light-emitting diodes," Adv. Mater. 18, 738-741 (2006).

2005 (1)

U. Ozgur, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Dogan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, H. Morkoc, "A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 041301 (2005).

1992 (1)

M. J. Powell, C. van Berkel, A. R. Franklin, S. C. Deane, W. J. Milne, "Defect pool in amorphous silicon thin film transistors," Phy. Rev. B Condens. Matter 45, 4160-4170 (1992).

1982 (1)

M. J. Powell, B. C. Easton, D. H. Nicholls, "Annealing and light induced change in the field effect conductance of amorphous silicon," J. Appl. Phys. 53, 5068-5078 (1982).

Adv. Mater. (1)

P. Görrn, M. Sander, J. Meyer, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. K. T. Riedl, "Towards see-through displays: Fully transparent thin-film transistors driving transparent organic light-emitting diodes," Adv. Mater. 18, 738-741 (2006).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

A. Suresh, J. F. Muth, "Bias stress instability of indium gallium zinc oxide channel based transparent thin film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 033502.1-033502.3 (2008).

P. Görrn, P. Hölzer, T. Riedl, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, S. Kipp, "Stability of transparent zinc tin oxide transistors under bias stress," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 063502 (2007).

M. E. Lopes, H. L. Gomes, M. C. R. Medeiros, P. Barquinha, L. Pereira, E. Fortunato, R. Martins, I. Ferreira, "Gate-bias stress in amorphous oxide semiconductors thin-film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 063502 (2009).

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (1)

D. Heineck, B. R. McFarlane, J. Wager, "Zinc tin oxide thin-film-transistor enhancement/depletion inverter," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30, 514-516 (2009).

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (1)

D. R. Allee, L. T. Clark, B. D. Vogt, R. Shringarpure , S. M. Venugopal, S. G. Uppili, K. Kaftanoglu, H. Shivalingaiah, Z. P. Li, J. J. Ravindra Fernando, E. J. Bawolek, S. O'Rourke, "Degradation effects in a-Si:H thin film transistors and their impact on circuit performance," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 56, 1166-1176 (2009).

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

U. Ozgur, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Dogan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, H. Morkoc, "A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 041301 (2005).

M. J. Powell, B. C. Easton, D. H. Nicholls, "Annealing and light induced change in the field effect conductance of amorphous silicon," J. Appl. Phys. 53, 5068-5078 (1982).

Phy. Rev. B Condens. Matter (1)

M. J. Powell, C. van Berkel, A. R. Franklin, S. C. Deane, W. J. Milne, "Defect pool in amorphous silicon thin film transistors," Phy. Rev. B Condens. Matter 45, 4160-4170 (1992).

Proc. Soc. Inf. Display (1)

R. Hoffman, T. Emery, B. Yeh, T. Koch, W. Jackson, "Zinc indium oxide thin-film transistors for active-matrix display backplane," Proc. Soc. Inf. Display (2009).

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

A. J. Flewitt, J. D. Dutson, P. Beecher, D. Paul, S. J. Wakeham, M. E. Vickers, C. Ducati, S. P. Speakman, W. I. Milne, M. J. Thwaites, "Stability of thin film transistors incorporating a zinc oxide or indium zinc oxide channel deposited by a high rate sputtering process," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24, (2009).

Soc. Inf. Display (1)

H. Ohara, T. Sasaki, K. Noda, S. Ito, M. Y. Sasaki, "4.0 in. QVGA AMOLED display ysing in-ga-zn-oxide TFTs with a novel passivation layer," Soc. Inf. Display 284-287 (2009) http://link.aip.org/link/?DTPSDS/40/284/1.

Society for Information Display (1)

M. Ryu, K. Park, J. Seon, J. Park, I. Kee, Y. Lee, "AMOLED driven by solution processed oxide semiconductor TFT," Society for Information Display 188-190 (2009) http://link.aip.org/link/?DTPSDS/40/188/1 Retrieved from.

Other (6)

R. B. M. Cross, M. M. DeSouza, "Investigating the stability of thin film transistors with zinc oxide as the channel layer," Proc. IEEE Int. Reliability Physics Symp. (2007) pp. 467-471.

J. F. Wagner, D. A. Keszler, R. E. Presley, Transparent Electronics (Springer-Verlag, 2008).

S. M. O'Rourke, S. M. Venugopal, G. B. Raupp, D. R. Allee, S. Ageno, E. J. Bawolek, D. E. Loy, J. P. Kaminski, C. Moyer, B. O'Brien, K. Long, M. Marrs, D. Bottesch, J. Dailey, J. Trujillo, R. Cordova, M. Richards, D. Toy, N. Colaneri, "Active matrix electrophoretic displays on temporary bonded stainless steel substrates with 180 $^{\circ}{\hbox{C}}$ a-Si:H TFTs," SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers (2008) pp. 422.

D. Loy, Y. K. Lee, C. Bell, M. Richards, E. Bawolek, S. Ageno, C. Moyer, M. Marrs, S. M. Venugopal, J. Kaminski, N. Colaneri, S. M. O'Rourke, J. Silvernail, K. Rajan, R. Ma, M. Hack, J. J. Brown, E. Forsythe, D. Morton, "Active matrix PHOLED displays on temporary bonded polyethylene naphthalate substrates with 180 C a-Si:H TFTs," SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers (2009) pp. 988-991.

Thin Film Transistors Materials and Processes, Volume 1: Amorphous Silicon Thin Film Transistors (Kluwer Academic, 2004).

Zinc Oxide Bulk, Thin Films and Nanostructures (Elsevier, 2006).

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