Abstract

Roll-to-roll (R2R) flexible electronics manufacturing technologies can enable continuous production of flexible electronic devices with a potential significant cost reduction. One of the critical applications of R2R flexible electronic technologies is the manufacturing of flexible display backplanes. In the manufacturing process, multi-layer device registration and overlay alignment is critical. Typically used flexible polymer substrates, though, compared with conventional glass substrates, have relatively large dimensional instability. From the authors' previous work, baseline data using a R2R photolithography system has been reported for fabrication, registration and overlay of micron-sized patterns on both unsupported discrete plastic substrates and carried by a web. Micron-sized features with 1micron overlay accuracy have been achieved on unsupported discrete 5 mil (125 micron) thick substrates of Dupont Melinex® ST507 polyethylene terephthalate (PET) coated with photoresist , . In this paper, a vector model based on experimental results is designed to investigate and map the substrate deformation and overlay alignment in a R2R photolithography process. The vector model quantifies the significance of distortion offsets caused by elastic deformation in the overlay process on R2R based substrates. Furthermore, the relationship between the placement of the alignment fiducials and the local overlay offsets is also initially investigated. Finally, the overlay alignment processes and registration capability are applied to dimensionally stable flexible glass substrates.

© 2010 IEEE

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  1. H. Zhang, M. Poliks, B. Sammakia, "Precision overlay registration of micron sized features on unsupported flexible films," Proc. Flexible Electron. & Displays Conf. Tech. (2009).
  2. H. Zhang, M. Poliks, B. Sammakia, "Mapping of the overlay alignment for micron sized features on unsupported plastic and roll to roll processed films," Proc. Flexible Electroni. & Displays Conf. Tech. (2010).
  3. K. Allen, "Reel to reel: Prospects for flexible displays," Proc. IEEE 93, 1394-1399 (2005).
  4. T. Schneider, D. J. Davis, S. Franklin, N. Venkataraman, D. McDaniel, F. Nicholson, E. Montbach, A. Khan, J. W. Doane, "New developments in flexible cholesteric liquid crystal displays," Proc. SPIE (2007).
  5. H. Zhang, W. Wang, C. Sun, H. Gu, Y. Chen, "Monochrome and area color Microcup® EPDS by roll-to-roll manufacturing," Int. Congr. Imag. Sci. (ICIS'06) (2006) pp. 362-365.
  6. G. P. Crawford, Flexible Flat Panel Displays (Wiley, 2005).
  7. W. A. MacDonald, "Engineered films for display technologies," J. Mater. Chem. 14, 4-10 (2004).
  8. B. A. MacDonald, K. Rollins, R. Eveson, K. Rakos, B. A. Rustin, M. Handa, "New developments in polyester film for flexible electronics," Proc. Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. (2003) pp. 283-290.
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  12. G. B. Raupp, S. M. O'Rourke, C. Moyer, B. P. O'Brien, S. K. Ageno, D. E. Loy, E. J. Bawolek, D. R. Allee, S. M. Venugopal, J. Kaminski, D. Bottesch, J. Dailey, K. Long, M. Marrs, N. R. Munizza, H. Haverinen, N. Colaneri, "Low-temperature amorphous-silicon backplane technology development for flexible displays in a manufacturing pilot-line environment," J. Inf. Displays 15, 445-454 (2007).
  13. C. Strohhofer, G. Klink, M. Feil, A. Drost, D. Bollmann, D. Hemmetzberger, K. Bock, "Roll-to-roll microfabrication of polymer microsystems," Meas. Control 40, 80-83 (2007).
  14. H.-J. Kim, M. Almanza-Workman, A. Chaiken, W. Jackson, A. Jeans, O. Kwon, H. Luo, P. Mei, H. Perlov, C. Taussig, F. Jeffrey, S. Braymen, J. Hauschildt, "Roll-to-roll fabrication of active-matrix backplanes using self-aligned imprint lithography (SAIL)," Proc. Int. Meeting on Inf. Displays (2006) pp. 1539-1543.
  15. I.-C. Cheng, A. Kattamis, K. Long, J. Sturm, S. Wagner, "Stress control for overlay registration in a-Si:H TFTs on flexible organicpolymer- foil substrates," J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 13, 563-568 (2005).
  16. H. Gleskova, I.-C. Cheng, A. Kattamis, S. Wagner, Z. Suo, "Overlay alignment in a-Si:H TFTs fabricated on foil substrates," ECS Trans. 3, 249-253 (2006).
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  18. Azores Corp.WilmingtonMA“Azores 6600 system specification,” (2006) private communication.
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  21. L. J. Lauchlan, D. Nyyssonen, N. Sullivan, Handbook of Microlithography, Micromachining, and Microfabrication pp. 475-596.

2007 (2)

G. B. Raupp, S. M. O'Rourke, C. Moyer, B. P. O'Brien, S. K. Ageno, D. E. Loy, E. J. Bawolek, D. R. Allee, S. M. Venugopal, J. Kaminski, D. Bottesch, J. Dailey, K. Long, M. Marrs, N. R. Munizza, H. Haverinen, N. Colaneri, "Low-temperature amorphous-silicon backplane technology development for flexible displays in a manufacturing pilot-line environment," J. Inf. Displays 15, 445-454 (2007).

C. Strohhofer, G. Klink, M. Feil, A. Drost, D. Bollmann, D. Hemmetzberger, K. Bock, "Roll-to-roll microfabrication of polymer microsystems," Meas. Control 40, 80-83 (2007).

2006 (2)

H. Gleskova, I.-C. Cheng, A. Kattamis, S. Wagner, Z. Suo, "Overlay alignment in a-Si:H TFTs fabricated on foil substrates," ECS Trans. 3, 249-253 (2006).

M. N. Troccoli, A. J. Roudbari, T.-K. Chuang, M. K. Hatalis, "Polysilicon TFT circuits on flexible stainless steel foils," Solid-State Electron. 50, 1080-7 (2006).

2005 (3)

K. Jain, M. Klosner, M. Zemel, S. Raghunandan, "Flexible electronics and displays: High-resolution, roll-to-roll, projection lithography and photoablation processing technologies for high-throughput production," Proc. IEEE 93, (2005).

I.-C. Cheng, A. Kattamis, K. Long, J. Sturm, S. Wagner, "Stress control for overlay registration in a-Si:H TFTs on flexible organicpolymer- foil substrates," J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 13, 563-568 (2005).

K. Allen, "Reel to reel: Prospects for flexible displays," Proc. IEEE 93, 1394-1399 (2005).

2004 (1)

W. A. MacDonald, "Engineered films for display technologies," J. Mater. Chem. 14, 4-10 (2004).

2002 (1)

M. Wu, X. Bo, J. C. Sturm, S. Wagner, "Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor thin-film transistors circuits from a high-temperature polycrystalline silicon process on steel foil substrates," IEEE Trans Electron Devices 49, 1993-2000 (2002).

1999 (1)

Z. Suo, E. Y. Ma, H. Gleskova, S. Wagner, "Mechanics of rollable and foldable film-on-foil electronics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1177 (1999).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Z. Suo, E. Y. Ma, H. Gleskova, S. Wagner, "Mechanics of rollable and foldable film-on-foil electronics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1177 (1999).

ECS Trans. (1)

H. Gleskova, I.-C. Cheng, A. Kattamis, S. Wagner, Z. Suo, "Overlay alignment in a-Si:H TFTs fabricated on foil substrates," ECS Trans. 3, 249-253 (2006).

IEEE Trans Electron Devices (1)

M. Wu, X. Bo, J. C. Sturm, S. Wagner, "Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor thin-film transistors circuits from a high-temperature polycrystalline silicon process on steel foil substrates," IEEE Trans Electron Devices 49, 1993-2000 (2002).

J. Inf. Displays (1)

G. B. Raupp, S. M. O'Rourke, C. Moyer, B. P. O'Brien, S. K. Ageno, D. E. Loy, E. J. Bawolek, D. R. Allee, S. M. Venugopal, J. Kaminski, D. Bottesch, J. Dailey, K. Long, M. Marrs, N. R. Munizza, H. Haverinen, N. Colaneri, "Low-temperature amorphous-silicon backplane technology development for flexible displays in a manufacturing pilot-line environment," J. Inf. Displays 15, 445-454 (2007).

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

W. A. MacDonald, "Engineered films for display technologies," J. Mater. Chem. 14, 4-10 (2004).

J. Soc. Inf. Disp. (1)

I.-C. Cheng, A. Kattamis, K. Long, J. Sturm, S. Wagner, "Stress control for overlay registration in a-Si:H TFTs on flexible organicpolymer- foil substrates," J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 13, 563-568 (2005).

Meas. Control (1)

C. Strohhofer, G. Klink, M. Feil, A. Drost, D. Bollmann, D. Hemmetzberger, K. Bock, "Roll-to-roll microfabrication of polymer microsystems," Meas. Control 40, 80-83 (2007).

Proc. IEEE (2)

K. Allen, "Reel to reel: Prospects for flexible displays," Proc. IEEE 93, 1394-1399 (2005).

K. Jain, M. Klosner, M. Zemel, S. Raghunandan, "Flexible electronics and displays: High-resolution, roll-to-roll, projection lithography and photoablation processing technologies for high-throughput production," Proc. IEEE 93, (2005).

Solid-State Electron. (1)

M. N. Troccoli, A. J. Roudbari, T.-K. Chuang, M. K. Hatalis, "Polysilicon TFT circuits on flexible stainless steel foils," Solid-State Electron. 50, 1080-7 (2006).

Other (11)

H.-J. Kim, M. Almanza-Workman, A. Chaiken, W. Jackson, A. Jeans, O. Kwon, H. Luo, P. Mei, H. Perlov, C. Taussig, F. Jeffrey, S. Braymen, J. Hauschildt, "Roll-to-roll fabrication of active-matrix backplanes using self-aligned imprint lithography (SAIL)," Proc. Int. Meeting on Inf. Displays (2006) pp. 1539-1543.

Azores Corp.WilmingtonMA“Azores 6600 system specification,” (2006) private communication.

T. Schneider, D. J. Davis, S. Franklin, N. Venkataraman, D. McDaniel, F. Nicholson, E. Montbach, A. Khan, J. W. Doane, "New developments in flexible cholesteric liquid crystal displays," Proc. SPIE (2007).

H. Zhang, W. Wang, C. Sun, H. Gu, Y. Chen, "Monochrome and area color Microcup® EPDS by roll-to-roll manufacturing," Int. Congr. Imag. Sci. (ICIS'06) (2006) pp. 362-365.

G. P. Crawford, Flexible Flat Panel Displays (Wiley, 2005).

B. A. MacDonald, K. Rollins, R. Eveson, K. Rakos, B. A. Rustin, M. Handa, "New developments in polyester film for flexible electronics," Proc. Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. (2003) pp. 283-290.

A. Z. Kattamis, N. Giebenk, I.-C. Cheng, S. Wagner, Y. Hong, V. Canella, S. R. Forrest, "AMOLED backplanes of amorphous silicon on steel foils," Proc IDRC (2006) pp. 108-111.

H. Zhang, M. Poliks, B. Sammakia, "Precision overlay registration of micron sized features on unsupported flexible films," Proc. Flexible Electron. & Displays Conf. Tech. (2009).

H. Zhang, M. Poliks, B. Sammakia, "Mapping of the overlay alignment for micron sized features on unsupported plastic and roll to roll processed films," Proc. Flexible Electroni. & Displays Conf. Tech. (2010).

Semiconductor Industry Assoc.San JoseCA“Lithography”, The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors,” (2001).

L. J. Lauchlan, D. Nyyssonen, N. Sullivan, Handbook of Microlithography, Micromachining, and Microfabrication pp. 475-596.

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