Abstract

Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin-film transistors (TFTs) are widely used as controlling devices for picture pixels in liquid crystal displays. In addition to flat panel display applications, a significant research effort focuses on the extension of this technology to circuitry on flexible substrates to build flexible sensor systems. This study investigates the effect of anneal time on the performance of the a-Si:H TFTs on Polyethylene naphthalate (PEN). Off-current is reduced by two orders of magnitude for 48-hours annealed TFT, and the sub-threshold slope become steeper with longer annealing. For positive gate-bias-stress, Δ<i>V<sub>t</sub></i> values are positive and exhibit a power-law time dependence (PLTD). The 48-hour annealed TFTs, however, display a turnaround phenomenon (TP) at longer stress times. For negative gate-bias-stress, TFTs annealed for > 24 hours possess a smaller positive Δ<i>V<sub>t</sub></i>. They do not follow a PLTD and the TP is observed at longer stress times. The observed Δ<i>V<sub>t</sub></i> is explained in terms of the shift in the electron and hole transfer characteristics.

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  1. J. T. Rahn, F. Lemmi, J. P. Lu, P. Mei, R. B. Apte, R. A. Street, R. Lujan, R. L. Weisfield, J. A. Heanue, "High resolution X-ray imaging using amorphous silicon flat-panel arrays," IEEE. Tran. Nuclear Sci. 55, 2457- (1999).
  2. N. Ibaraki, "a-Si TFT technologies for large-size and high-pixel-density AM-LCDs," Proc. Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. (1994) pp. 749.
  3. B. Gnade, M. Quevedo, D. R. Allee, S. Venugopal, C. Balanis, T. Jackson, H. McHugh, K. Baugh, E. Forsythe, D. Morton, "Flexible integrated sensor systems," Special Op. Forces Ind. Conf. (2009).
  4. H. Gleskova, S. Wagner, "DC-gate-bias stressing of a-Si:H TFTs fabricated at 150$^{\circ}$C on polyimide foil," IEEE Tran. Electron Devices 48, 1667 (2001).
  5. W. S. Wong, R. Lujan, J. H. Daniel, S. Limb, "Digital lithography for large-area electronics on flexible substrates," J. Non-Crystal. Sol. 352, 1981 (2006).
  6. C. Chiang, J. Kanicki, K. Takechi, "Electrical instability of hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin-film-transistors for active-matrix liquid-crystal displays," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 4704 (1998).
  7. D. R. Allee, L. T. Clark, B. D. Vogt, R. Shringarpure, S. M. Venugopal, S. G. Uppili, K. Koftanoglu, H. Shivalingaiah, Z. P. Li, J. J. R. Fernando, E. J. Bawolek, S. O'Rourke, "Degradation effects in a-Si:H thin film transistors and their impact on circuit performance," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 56, 1166 (2009).
  8. T. Hasumi, S. Takasugi, K. Kanoh, Y. Kobayashi, "New OLED pixel circuit and driving methods to suppress hreshold voltage shift of a-Si:H TFT," SID'06 Dig. (2006) pp. 1547.
  9. M. J. Powell, "Charge trapping instabilities in amorphous silicon-silicon nitride thin-film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 597 (1983).
  10. A. R. Hepburn, J. M. Marshall, C. Main, M. J. Powell, C. van Berkel, "Metastable defects in amorphous-silicon thin-film-transistors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 2215 (1986).
  11. M. J. Powell, C. van Berkel, I. D. Frech, D. H. Nichoils, "Bias dependence of instability mechanisms in amorphous silicon thin-film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1242 (1987).
  12. S. Nishizaki, K. Ohdaira, H. Matsumura, "Study on stability of amorphous silicon thin-film transistors prepared by catalytic chemical vapor deposition," Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 8700 (2008).
  13. H. N. Chern, C. L. Lee, T. F. Lei, "Improvement of polysilicon oxide characteristics by flourine incorporation," IEEE. Electron Device Lett. 15, 181 (1994).
  14. L. Wang, J. Zhu, C. Liu, G. Liu, X. Shao, D. Yan, "Improvement of sub-threshold current models for a-Si:H thin-film transistors," Solid-State Electron. 51, 703 (2007).
  15. S. Musa, "Active-matrix liquid crystal displays," Sci. Amer. 277, 87 (1997).
  16. M. J. Powell, C. van Berkel, J. R. Hughes, "Time and temperature dependence of instability mechanisms in amorphous silicon thin-film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1323 (1989).
  17. C. van Berkel, M. J. Powell, "Resolution of amorphous silicon thin-film transistor instability mechanisms using ambipolar transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1094 (1987).
  18. M. J. Powell, C. van Berkel, A. R. Franklin, S. C. Deane, W. I. Milne, "Defect pool in amorphous-silicon thin-film transistors," Phys. Rev. B 45, 4160 (1992).

2009

D. R. Allee, L. T. Clark, B. D. Vogt, R. Shringarpure, S. M. Venugopal, S. G. Uppili, K. Koftanoglu, H. Shivalingaiah, Z. P. Li, J. J. R. Fernando, E. J. Bawolek, S. O'Rourke, "Degradation effects in a-Si:H thin film transistors and their impact on circuit performance," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 56, 1166 (2009).

2008

S. Nishizaki, K. Ohdaira, H. Matsumura, "Study on stability of amorphous silicon thin-film transistors prepared by catalytic chemical vapor deposition," Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 8700 (2008).

2007

L. Wang, J. Zhu, C. Liu, G. Liu, X. Shao, D. Yan, "Improvement of sub-threshold current models for a-Si:H thin-film transistors," Solid-State Electron. 51, 703 (2007).

2006

W. S. Wong, R. Lujan, J. H. Daniel, S. Limb, "Digital lithography for large-area electronics on flexible substrates," J. Non-Crystal. Sol. 352, 1981 (2006).

2001

H. Gleskova, S. Wagner, "DC-gate-bias stressing of a-Si:H TFTs fabricated at 150$^{\circ}$C on polyimide foil," IEEE Tran. Electron Devices 48, 1667 (2001).

1999

J. T. Rahn, F. Lemmi, J. P. Lu, P. Mei, R. B. Apte, R. A. Street, R. Lujan, R. L. Weisfield, J. A. Heanue, "High resolution X-ray imaging using amorphous silicon flat-panel arrays," IEEE. Tran. Nuclear Sci. 55, 2457- (1999).

1998

C. Chiang, J. Kanicki, K. Takechi, "Electrical instability of hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin-film-transistors for active-matrix liquid-crystal displays," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 4704 (1998).

1997

S. Musa, "Active-matrix liquid crystal displays," Sci. Amer. 277, 87 (1997).

1994

H. N. Chern, C. L. Lee, T. F. Lei, "Improvement of polysilicon oxide characteristics by flourine incorporation," IEEE. Electron Device Lett. 15, 181 (1994).

1992

M. J. Powell, C. van Berkel, A. R. Franklin, S. C. Deane, W. I. Milne, "Defect pool in amorphous-silicon thin-film transistors," Phys. Rev. B 45, 4160 (1992).

1989

M. J. Powell, C. van Berkel, J. R. Hughes, "Time and temperature dependence of instability mechanisms in amorphous silicon thin-film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1323 (1989).

1987

C. van Berkel, M. J. Powell, "Resolution of amorphous silicon thin-film transistor instability mechanisms using ambipolar transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1094 (1987).

M. J. Powell, C. van Berkel, I. D. Frech, D. H. Nichoils, "Bias dependence of instability mechanisms in amorphous silicon thin-film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1242 (1987).

1986

A. R. Hepburn, J. M. Marshall, C. Main, M. J. Powell, C. van Berkel, "Metastable defects in amorphous-silicon thin-film-transistors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 2215 (1986).

1983

M. J. Powell, "Charge trapping instabilities in amorphous silicon-silicon nitride thin-film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 597 (1983).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. J. Powell, "Charge trapping instabilities in amorphous silicon-silicon nitride thin-film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 597 (1983).

M. J. Powell, C. van Berkel, I. D. Frech, D. H. Nichoils, "Bias dependence of instability mechanisms in amorphous silicon thin-film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1242 (1987).

M. J. Powell, C. van Berkel, J. R. Hughes, "Time and temperature dependence of instability mechanisms in amorphous silicon thin-film transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1323 (1989).

C. van Berkel, M. J. Powell, "Resolution of amorphous silicon thin-film transistor instability mechanisms using ambipolar transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1094 (1987).

IEEE Tran. Electron Devices

H. Gleskova, S. Wagner, "DC-gate-bias stressing of a-Si:H TFTs fabricated at 150$^{\circ}$C on polyimide foil," IEEE Tran. Electron Devices 48, 1667 (2001).

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices

D. R. Allee, L. T. Clark, B. D. Vogt, R. Shringarpure, S. M. Venugopal, S. G. Uppili, K. Koftanoglu, H. Shivalingaiah, Z. P. Li, J. J. R. Fernando, E. J. Bawolek, S. O'Rourke, "Degradation effects in a-Si:H thin film transistors and their impact on circuit performance," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 56, 1166 (2009).

IEEE. Electron Device Lett.

H. N. Chern, C. L. Lee, T. F. Lei, "Improvement of polysilicon oxide characteristics by flourine incorporation," IEEE. Electron Device Lett. 15, 181 (1994).

IEEE. Tran. Nuclear Sci.

J. T. Rahn, F. Lemmi, J. P. Lu, P. Mei, R. B. Apte, R. A. Street, R. Lujan, R. L. Weisfield, J. A. Heanue, "High resolution X-ray imaging using amorphous silicon flat-panel arrays," IEEE. Tran. Nuclear Sci. 55, 2457- (1999).

J. Non-Crystal. Sol.

W. S. Wong, R. Lujan, J. H. Daniel, S. Limb, "Digital lithography for large-area electronics on flexible substrates," J. Non-Crystal. Sol. 352, 1981 (2006).

Jap. J. Appl. Phys.

S. Nishizaki, K. Ohdaira, H. Matsumura, "Study on stability of amorphous silicon thin-film transistors prepared by catalytic chemical vapor deposition," Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 8700 (2008).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

C. Chiang, J. Kanicki, K. Takechi, "Electrical instability of hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin-film-transistors for active-matrix liquid-crystal displays," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 4704 (1998).

Phys. Rev. B

M. J. Powell, C. van Berkel, A. R. Franklin, S. C. Deane, W. I. Milne, "Defect pool in amorphous-silicon thin-film transistors," Phys. Rev. B 45, 4160 (1992).

Phys. Rev. Lett.

A. R. Hepburn, J. M. Marshall, C. Main, M. J. Powell, C. van Berkel, "Metastable defects in amorphous-silicon thin-film-transistors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 2215 (1986).

Sci. Amer.

S. Musa, "Active-matrix liquid crystal displays," Sci. Amer. 277, 87 (1997).

Solid-State Electron.

L. Wang, J. Zhu, C. Liu, G. Liu, X. Shao, D. Yan, "Improvement of sub-threshold current models for a-Si:H thin-film transistors," Solid-State Electron. 51, 703 (2007).

Other

T. Hasumi, S. Takasugi, K. Kanoh, Y. Kobayashi, "New OLED pixel circuit and driving methods to suppress hreshold voltage shift of a-Si:H TFT," SID'06 Dig. (2006) pp. 1547.

N. Ibaraki, "a-Si TFT technologies for large-size and high-pixel-density AM-LCDs," Proc. Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. (1994) pp. 749.

B. Gnade, M. Quevedo, D. R. Allee, S. Venugopal, C. Balanis, T. Jackson, H. McHugh, K. Baugh, E. Forsythe, D. Morton, "Flexible integrated sensor systems," Special Op. Forces Ind. Conf. (2009).

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