Abstract

The stamping process of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold on the Ag electrode was demonstrated, for use as the anode of a top-emission organic light-emitting device (OLED) and the cathode of an organic photovoltaic (OPV) device stacked underneath. Such SAMs reduce the barrier for hole injection from the Ag to the hole-transport layer of OLED. The PDMS mold coated with SAMs can be used repeatedly, for more than nine times. In this tandem device, the power conversation efficiency under OPV-mode operation and the current efficiency under OLED-mode operation were nearly identical to those in individual devices without compromise.

© 2011 IEEE

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  26. S. Aratani, M. Adachi, M. Shimizu, T. Sugita, T. Shibasaki, K. Shimazaki, "Collimated light source using patterned organic light-emitting diodes and microlens," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49, (2010) Art. ID 042101.
  27. Y. Lao, B. Sun, K. Zhou, J. Heikenfeld, "Ultra-high transmission electrowetting displays enabled by integrated reflectors," J. Display Technol. 4, 120-122 (2008).
  28. J. H. Lee, X. Zhu, Y. H. Lin, W. K. Choi, T. C. Lin, S. C. Hsu, H. Y. Lin, S. T. Wu, "High ambient-contrast-ratio display using tandem reflective liquid crystal display and organic light-emitting device," Opt. Exp. 13, 9431-9438 (2005).
  29. K.-Y. Wu, S.-Y. Yu, Y.-T. Tao, "Continuous modulation of electrode work function with mixed self-assembled monolayers and its effect in charge injection," Langmuir 25, 6232-6238 (2009).
  30. V. Shrotriya, "Accurate measurement and characterization of organic solar cells," Adv. Funct. Mater. 16, 2016-2023 (2006).
  31. C. L. Lin, H. W. Lin, C. C. Wu, "Examining microcavity organic light-emitting devices having two metal mirrors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 021101 (2005).
  32. Y. S. Tsai, S. H. Wang, F. S. Juang, S. W. Chang, C. H. Chen, M. H. Chung, T. E. Hsieh, M. O. Liu, T. C. Liao, "Easy process and performance improvement for top-emission organic light-emitting diodes by using UV glue as the insulation layer on copper substrate," J. Display Technol. 6, 279-283 (2010).
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  34. J.-M. Moon, J.-H. Bae, J.-A. Jeong, S.-W. Jeong, N.-J. Park, H.-K. Kim, J.-W. Kang, J.-J. Kim, M.-S. Yi, "Enhancement of hole injection using ozone treated Ag nanodots dispersed on indium tin oxide anode for organic light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, (2007) Art. ID 163516.

2010 (3)

C. F. Lin, S. W. Liu, W. F. Hsu, M. Zhang, T. L. Chiu, Y. Wu, J. H. Lee, "Modification of silver anode and cathode for top-illuminated organic photovoltaic device," J. Phys. D, Appl. Phys. 43, 395101 (2010).

S. Aratani, M. Adachi, M. Shimizu, T. Sugita, T. Shibasaki, K. Shimazaki, "Collimated light source using patterned organic light-emitting diodes and microlens," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49, (2010) Art. ID 042101.

Y. S. Tsai, S. H. Wang, F. S. Juang, S. W. Chang, C. H. Chen, M. H. Chung, T. E. Hsieh, M. O. Liu, T. C. Liao, "Easy process and performance improvement for top-emission organic light-emitting diodes by using UV glue as the insulation layer on copper substrate," J. Display Technol. 6, 279-283 (2010).

2009 (7)

C. H. Yu, T. F. Lei, J. L. Liao, J. Y. Yan, J. C. Ho, "Performance of organic thin-film transistors controlled by electrode and device structures," J. Display Technol. 5, 198-201 (2009).

H. S. Choi, S. Pieh, C. J. Sung, H. K. Kim, M. S. Kim, C. W. Han, Y. H. Tak, "Optimization of 2-stack WOLED structure with consideration on color gamut and power consumption," J. Display Technol. 5, 546 (2009).

H. M. Zhang, W. C. H. Choy, Y. F. Dai, D. G. Ma, "The structural composite effect of Au-WO3-Al interconnecting electrode on performance of each unit in stacked OLEDs," Org. Electron. 10, 402-407 (2009).

K.-Y. Wu, S.-Y. Yu, Y.-T. Tao, "Continuous modulation of electrode work function with mixed self-assembled monolayers and its effect in charge injection," Langmuir 25, 6232-6238 (2009).

T. L. Chiu, K. H. Chuang, C. F. Lin, Y. H. Ho, J. H. Lee, C. C. Chao, M. K. Leung, D. H. Wan, C. Y. Li, H. L. Chen, "Low reflection and photo-sensitive organic light-emitting device with perylene diimide and double-metal structure," Thin Solid Films 517, 3712-3716 (2009).

F. Wang, X. Qiao, T. Xiong, D. Ma, "Tungsten oxide doped N,N[sup [prime]]-di(naphthalen-1-yl)-N,N[sup [prime]]-diphenyl-benzidine as hole injection layer for high performance organic light-emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 105, (2009) Art. ID 084518.

B. X. Mi, Z. Q. Gao, K. W. Cheah, C. H. Chen, "Organic light-emitting diodes using 3,6-difluoro-2,5,7,7,8,8-hexacyanoquinodimethane as p-type dopant," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, (2009) Art. ID 073507.

2008 (6)

L. S. Liao, K. P. Klubek, "Power efficiency improvement in a tandem organic light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, (2008) Art. ID 223311.

F. Huang, P.-I. Shih, M. S. Liu, C.-F. Shu, A. K.-Y. Jen, "Lithium salt doped conjugated polymers as electron transporting materials for highly efficient blue polymer light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, (2008) Art. ID 243302.

Y. Zhang, F. Huang, Y. Chi, A. K.-Y. Jen, "Highly efficient white polymer light-emitting diodes based on nanometer-scale control of the electron injection layer morphology through solvent processing," Adv. Mater. 20, 1565-1570 (2008).

T. Matsushima, C. Adachi, "Enhanced hole injection and transport in molybdenum-dioxide-doped organic hole-transporting layers," J. Appl. Phys. 103, (2008) Art. ID 034501.

H. M. Zhang, W. C. H. Choy, "Independently controllable stacked OLEDs with high efficiency by using semitransparent Al/WO 3 /Ag intermediate connecting layer," J. Phys. D, Appl. Phys. 41, (2008) Art. ID 105108.

Y. Lao, B. Sun, K. Zhou, J. Heikenfeld, "Ultra-high transmission electrowetting displays enabled by integrated reflectors," J. Display Technol. 4, 120-122 (2008).

2007 (4)

J.-M. Moon, J.-H. Bae, J.-A. Jeong, S.-W. Jeong, N.-J. Park, H.-K. Kim, J.-W. Kang, J.-J. Kim, M.-S. Yi, "Enhancement of hole injection using ozone treated Ag nanodots dispersed on indium tin oxide anode for organic light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, (2007) Art. ID 163516.

C. J. Yang, T. Y. Cho, C.-L. Lin, C. C. Wu, "Organic light-emitting devices integrated with solar cells: High contrast and energy recycling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, (2007) Art. ID 173507.

H. Okada, S. Naka, Y. Matsushita, H. Shimada, J. Yanagi, M. Shibata, H. Onnagawa, "Organic bifunctional devices with emission and sensing abilities," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 1328-1332 (2007).

D.-S. Leem, H.-D. Park, J.-W. Wang, J.-H. Lee, J.-W. Kim, J.-J. Kim, "Low driving voltage and high stability organic light-emitting diodes with rhenium oxide-doped hole transporting layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, (2007) Art. ID 011113.

2006 (1)

V. Shrotriya, "Accurate measurement and characterization of organic solar cells," Adv. Funct. Mater. 16, 2016-2023 (2006).

2005 (2)

C. L. Lin, H. W. Lin, C. C. Wu, "Examining microcavity organic light-emitting devices having two metal mirrors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 021101 (2005).

J. H. Lee, X. Zhu, Y. H. Lin, W. K. Choi, T. C. Lin, S. C. Hsu, H. Y. Lin, S. T. Wu, "High ambient-contrast-ratio display using tandem reflective liquid crystal display and organic light-emitting device," Opt. Exp. 13, 9431-9438 (2005).

2004 (3)

J. X. Tang, Y. Q. Li, R. Zheng, L. S. Hung, "Anode/organic interface modification by plasma polymerized fluorocarbon films," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 4397 (2004).

G. H. Gelinck, H. E. A. Huitema, E. Van Veenendaal, E. Cantatore, L. Schrijnemakers, J. B. P. H. van der Putten, T. C. T. Geuns, M. Beenhakkers, J. B. Giesbers, B.-H. Huisman, E. J. Meijer, E. M. Benito, F. J. Touwslager, A. W. Marsman, B. van Rens, D. M. de Leeuw, "Flexible active-matrix displays and shift registers based on solution-processed organic transistors," Nat. Mater. 3, 106-110 (2004).

L. S. Liao, K. P. Klubek, C. W. Tang, "High-efficiency tandem organic light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 167 (2004).

2003 (1)

C.-W. Chen, P.-Y. Hsieh, H.-H. Chiang, C.-L. Lin, H.-M. Wu, C.-C. Wu, "Top-emitting organic light-emitting devices using surface-modified Ag anode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5127-5129 (2003).

2000 (1)

P. Peumans, V. Bulovic, S. R. Forrest, "Efficient photon harvesting at high optical intensities in ultrathin organic double-heterostructure photovoltaic diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2650- (2000).

1998 (3)

H. Sirringhaus, N. Tessler, R. Friend, "Integrated optoelectronic devices based on conjugated polymers," Science 280, 1741-1744 (1998).

M. Pfeiffer, A. Beyer, T. Fritz, K. Leo, "Controlled doping of phthalocyanine layers by cosublimation with acceptor molecules: A systematic Seebeck and conductivity study," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3202-3204 (1998).

J. Blochwitz, M. Pfeiffer, T. Fritz, K. Leo, "Low voltage organic light emitting diodes featuring doped phthalocyanine as hole transport material," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 729-731 (1998).

1995 (1)

D. B. Romero, M. Schaer, L. Zuppiroli, B. Cesar, B. Francois, "Effects of doping in polymer light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1659-1961 (1995).

1987 (1)

C. W. Tang, S. A. VanSlyke, "Organic electroluminescent diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 913-915 (1987).

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

V. Shrotriya, "Accurate measurement and characterization of organic solar cells," Adv. Funct. Mater. 16, 2016-2023 (2006).

Adv. Mater. (1)

Y. Zhang, F. Huang, Y. Chi, A. K.-Y. Jen, "Highly efficient white polymer light-emitting diodes based on nanometer-scale control of the electron injection layer morphology through solvent processing," Adv. Mater. 20, 1565-1570 (2008).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (14)

C.-W. Chen, P.-Y. Hsieh, H.-H. Chiang, C.-L. Lin, H.-M. Wu, C.-C. Wu, "Top-emitting organic light-emitting devices using surface-modified Ag anode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5127-5129 (2003).

D.-S. Leem, H.-D. Park, J.-W. Wang, J.-H. Lee, J.-W. Kim, J.-J. Kim, "Low driving voltage and high stability organic light-emitting diodes with rhenium oxide-doped hole transporting layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, (2007) Art. ID 011113.

B. X. Mi, Z. Q. Gao, K. W. Cheah, C. H. Chen, "Organic light-emitting diodes using 3,6-difluoro-2,5,7,7,8,8-hexacyanoquinodimethane as p-type dopant," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, (2009) Art. ID 073507.

D. B. Romero, M. Schaer, L. Zuppiroli, B. Cesar, B. Francois, "Effects of doping in polymer light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1659-1961 (1995).

J. Blochwitz, M. Pfeiffer, T. Fritz, K. Leo, "Low voltage organic light emitting diodes featuring doped phthalocyanine as hole transport material," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 729-731 (1998).

L. S. Liao, K. P. Klubek, "Power efficiency improvement in a tandem organic light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, (2008) Art. ID 223311.

F. Huang, P.-I. Shih, M. S. Liu, C.-F. Shu, A. K.-Y. Jen, "Lithium salt doped conjugated polymers as electron transporting materials for highly efficient blue polymer light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, (2008) Art. ID 243302.

P. Peumans, V. Bulovic, S. R. Forrest, "Efficient photon harvesting at high optical intensities in ultrathin organic double-heterostructure photovoltaic diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2650- (2000).

C. J. Yang, T. Y. Cho, C.-L. Lin, C. C. Wu, "Organic light-emitting devices integrated with solar cells: High contrast and energy recycling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, (2007) Art. ID 173507.

L. S. Liao, K. P. Klubek, C. W. Tang, "High-efficiency tandem organic light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 167 (2004).

C. L. Lin, H. W. Lin, C. C. Wu, "Examining microcavity organic light-emitting devices having two metal mirrors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 021101 (2005).

C. W. Tang, S. A. VanSlyke, "Organic electroluminescent diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 913-915 (1987).

M. Pfeiffer, A. Beyer, T. Fritz, K. Leo, "Controlled doping of phthalocyanine layers by cosublimation with acceptor molecules: A systematic Seebeck and conductivity study," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3202-3204 (1998).

J.-M. Moon, J.-H. Bae, J.-A. Jeong, S.-W. Jeong, N.-J. Park, H.-K. Kim, J.-W. Kang, J.-J. Kim, M.-S. Yi, "Enhancement of hole injection using ozone treated Ag nanodots dispersed on indium tin oxide anode for organic light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, (2007) Art. ID 163516.

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

J. X. Tang, Y. Q. Li, R. Zheng, L. S. Hung, "Anode/organic interface modification by plasma polymerized fluorocarbon films," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 4397 (2004).

T. Matsushima, C. Adachi, "Enhanced hole injection and transport in molybdenum-dioxide-doped organic hole-transporting layers," J. Appl. Phys. 103, (2008) Art. ID 034501.

F. Wang, X. Qiao, T. Xiong, D. Ma, "Tungsten oxide doped N,N[sup [prime]]-di(naphthalen-1-yl)-N,N[sup [prime]]-diphenyl-benzidine as hole injection layer for high performance organic light-emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 105, (2009) Art. ID 084518.

J. Display Technol. (4)

J. Phys. D, Appl. Phys. (2)

H. M. Zhang, W. C. H. Choy, "Independently controllable stacked OLEDs with high efficiency by using semitransparent Al/WO 3 /Ag intermediate connecting layer," J. Phys. D, Appl. Phys. 41, (2008) Art. ID 105108.

C. F. Lin, S. W. Liu, W. F. Hsu, M. Zhang, T. L. Chiu, Y. Wu, J. H. Lee, "Modification of silver anode and cathode for top-illuminated organic photovoltaic device," J. Phys. D, Appl. Phys. 43, 395101 (2010).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

S. Aratani, M. Adachi, M. Shimizu, T. Sugita, T. Shibasaki, K. Shimazaki, "Collimated light source using patterned organic light-emitting diodes and microlens," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49, (2010) Art. ID 042101.

H. Okada, S. Naka, Y. Matsushita, H. Shimada, J. Yanagi, M. Shibata, H. Onnagawa, "Organic bifunctional devices with emission and sensing abilities," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 1328-1332 (2007).

Langmuir (1)

K.-Y. Wu, S.-Y. Yu, Y.-T. Tao, "Continuous modulation of electrode work function with mixed self-assembled monolayers and its effect in charge injection," Langmuir 25, 6232-6238 (2009).

Nat. Mater. (1)

G. H. Gelinck, H. E. A. Huitema, E. Van Veenendaal, E. Cantatore, L. Schrijnemakers, J. B. P. H. van der Putten, T. C. T. Geuns, M. Beenhakkers, J. B. Giesbers, B.-H. Huisman, E. J. Meijer, E. M. Benito, F. J. Touwslager, A. W. Marsman, B. van Rens, D. M. de Leeuw, "Flexible active-matrix displays and shift registers based on solution-processed organic transistors," Nat. Mater. 3, 106-110 (2004).

Opt. Exp. (1)

J. H. Lee, X. Zhu, Y. H. Lin, W. K. Choi, T. C. Lin, S. C. Hsu, H. Y. Lin, S. T. Wu, "High ambient-contrast-ratio display using tandem reflective liquid crystal display and organic light-emitting device," Opt. Exp. 13, 9431-9438 (2005).

Org. Electron. (1)

H. M. Zhang, W. C. H. Choy, Y. F. Dai, D. G. Ma, "The structural composite effect of Au-WO3-Al interconnecting electrode on performance of each unit in stacked OLEDs," Org. Electron. 10, 402-407 (2009).

Science (1)

H. Sirringhaus, N. Tessler, R. Friend, "Integrated optoelectronic devices based on conjugated polymers," Science 280, 1741-1744 (1998).

Thin Solid Films (1)

T. L. Chiu, K. H. Chuang, C. F. Lin, Y. H. Ho, J. H. Lee, C. C. Chao, M. K. Leung, D. H. Wan, C. Y. Li, H. L. Chen, "Low reflection and photo-sensitive organic light-emitting device with perylene diimide and double-metal structure," Thin Solid Films 517, 3712-3716 (2009).

Other (1)

T. Matsumoto, T. Nakada, J. Endo, K. Mori, N. Kavamura, A. Yokoi, J. Kido, "Organic EL device having charge generation layer," SID 03 Dig. (2003) pp. 979-981.

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