Abstract

Reduced depth of field is a severe limitation in microscopy since, at high magnification, only a portion of the imaged volume along the optical axis is in good focus at once. We demonstrate that, adopting a numerical quadratic deformed diffraction grating into the reconstruction process of digital holograms, it is possible to image three planes at different depths simultaneously, gaining flexibility dispensing with a physical grating. Moreover, multiplexed holograms recorded with two different wavelengths can be obtained in focus simultaneously by a single reconstruction. Description of the method and applications for macroscopic and microscopic biological samples are reported.

© 2011 IEEE

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  1. H. Zhao, Q. Li, H. Feng, "Improved logarithmic phase mask to extend the depth of field of an incoherent imaging system," Opt. Lett. 33, 1171-1173 (2008) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-33-11-1171.
  2. S. Bagheri, B. Javidi, "Extension of depth of field using amplitude and phase modulation of the pupil function," Opt. Lett. 33, 757-759 (2008) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-33-7-757.
  3. C. Iemmi, J. Campos, J. C. Escalera, O. López-Coronado, R. Gimeno, M. J. Yzuel, "Depth of focus increase by multiplexing programmable diffractive lenses," Opt. Express 14, 10207-10219 (2006) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-22-10207.
  4. R. J. Pieper, A. Korpel, "Image processing for extended depth of field," Appl. Opt. 22, 1449-1453 (1983).
  5. G. Mikula, Z. Jaroszewicz, A. Kolodziejczyk, K. Petelczyc, M. Sypek, "Imaging with extended focal depth by means of lenses with radial and angular modulation," Opt. Express 15, 9184-9193 (2007) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-15-9184.
  6. E. R. Dowski Jr., W. T. Cathey, "Extended depth of field through wavefront coding," Appl. Opt. 34, 1859-1866 (1995).
  7. G. Pedrini, F. Zhang, W. Osten, "Digital holographic microscopy in the deep (193 nm) ultraviolet," Appl. Opt. 46, 7829-7835 (2007) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-46-32-7829.
  8. E. Allaria, S. Brugioni, S. De Nicola, P. Ferraro, S. Grilli, R. Meucci, "Digital holography at 10.6 $\mu$m," Opt. Commun. 215, 257-262 (2003).
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  10. P. Ferraro, M. Paturzo, P. Memmolo, A. Finizio, "Controlling depth of focus in 3D image reconstructions by flexible and adaptive deformation of digital holograms," Opt. Lett. 34, 2787-2789 (2009) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-34-18-2787.
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  13. S. J. Jeong, C. K. Hong, "Pixel-size-maintained image reconstruction of digital holograms on arbitrarily tilted planes by the angular spectrum method," Appl. Opt. 47, 3064-3071 (2008).
  14. C. P. McElhinney, B. M. Hennelly, T. J. Naughton, "Extended focused imaging for digital holograms of macroscopic three-dimensional objects," Appl. Opt. 47, D71-D79 (2008).
  15. K. Matsushima, "Formulation of the rotational transformation of wave fields and their application to digital holography," Appl. Opt. 47, D110-D116 (2008).
  16. T. Ikeda, G. Popescu, R. R. Dasari, Michael, S. Feld, "Hilbert phase microscopy for investigating fast dynamics in transparent systems," Opt. Lett. 30, 1165-1167 (2005) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-30-10-1165.
  17. W. E. Ortyn, D. J. Perry, V. Venkatachalam, L. Liang, B. E. Hall, K. Frost, D. A. Basiji, "Extended depth of field imaging for high speed cell analysis," Cytometry A 71A, 215-231 (2007) http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cyto.a.20370.
  18. V. Westphal, S. O. Rizzoli, M. A. Lauterbach, D. Kamin, R. Jahn, S. W. Hell, "Video-rate far-field optical nanoscopy dissects synaptic vesicle movement," Science 320, 246-249 (2008).
  19. J. Rosen, G. Brooker, "Non-scanning motionless fluorescence three-dimensional holographic microscopy," Nat. Photon. 2, 190-195 (2008).
  20. W. Xu, M. H. Jericho, H. J. Kreuzer, I. A. Meinertzhagen, "Tracking particles in four dimensions with inline holographic microscopy," Opt. Lett. 28, 164-166 (2003).
  21. L. Holtzer, T. Meckel, T. Schmidt, "Nanometric three-dimensional tracking of individual quantum dots in cells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 053902-053904 (2007).
  22. P. J. Verveer, J. Swoger, F. Pampaloni, K. Greger, M. Marcello, E. H. K. Stelzer, "High-resolution threedimensional imaging of large specimens with light sheet-based microscopy," Nat. Methods 4, 311-313 (2007).
  23. C. Do, B. Javidi, "Multifocus holographic 3D image fusion using independent component analysis," J. Display Technol. 3, 326-332 (2007).
  24. W. Chen, C. Quan, C. J. Tay, "Extended depth of focus in a particle field measurement using a single-shot digital hologram," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 201103- (2009).
  25. P. M. Blanchard, A. H. Greenaway, "Simultaneous multiplane imaging with a distorted diffraction grating," Appl. Opt. 38, 6692-6699 (1999) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-38-32-6692.
  26. J. A. Ferrari, E. Garbusi, E. M. Frins, "Linear focusing by a plane grating with curved grooves," Appl. Opt. 43, 5350-5355 (2004) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-43-28-5350.
  27. S. De Nicola, P. Ferraro, A. Finizio, G. Pierattini, "Reflective grating interferometer: A folded reversal wave-front interferometer," Appl. Opt. 38, 4845-4849 (1999) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-38-22-4845.
  28. P. A. Dalgarno, H. I. C. Dalgarno, A. Putoud, R. Lambert, L. Paterson, D. C. Logan, D. P. Towers, R. J. Warburton, A. H. Greenaway, "Multiplane imaging and three dimensional nanoscale particle tracking in biological microscopy," Opt. Express 18, 877-884 (2010) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-2-877.
  29. C. Maurer, S. Khan, S. Fassl, S. Bernet, M. Ritsch-Marte, "Depth of field multiplexing in microscopy," Opt. Express 18, 3023-3034 (2010) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-3-3023.
  30. P. Ferraro, S. De Nicola, G. Coppola, A. Finizio, D. Alfieri, G. Pierattini, "Controlling image size as a function of distance and wavelength in Fresnel-transform reconstruction of digital holograms," Opt. Lett. 29, 854-856 (2004) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-29-8-854.
  31. P. Picart, D. Mounier, J. M. Desse, "High-resolution digital two-color holographic metrology," Opt. Lett. 33, 276-278 (2008) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-33-3-276.
  32. M. Paturzo, P. Memmolo, L. Miccio, A. Finizio, P. Ferraro, A. Tulino, B. Javidi, "Numerical multiplexing and demultiplexing of digital holographic information for remote reconstruction in amplitude and phase," Opt. Lett. 33, 2629-2631 (2008) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-33-22-2629.
  33. M. Paturzo, P. Memmolo, A. Tulino, A. Finizio, P. Ferraro, "Investigation of angular multiplexing and de-multiplexing of digital holograms recorded in microscope configuration," Opt. Express 17, 8709-8718 (2009) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-11-8709.

2010 (2)

2009 (4)

2008 (10)

M. Antkowiak, N. Callens, C. Yourassowsky, F. Dubois, "Extended focused imaging of a microparticle field with digital holographic microscopy," Opt. Lett. 33, 1626-1628 (2008).

S. J. Jeong, C. K. Hong, "Pixel-size-maintained image reconstruction of digital holograms on arbitrarily tilted planes by the angular spectrum method," Appl. Opt. 47, 3064-3071 (2008).

C. P. McElhinney, B. M. Hennelly, T. J. Naughton, "Extended focused imaging for digital holograms of macroscopic three-dimensional objects," Appl. Opt. 47, D71-D79 (2008).

K. Matsushima, "Formulation of the rotational transformation of wave fields and their application to digital holography," Appl. Opt. 47, D110-D116 (2008).

V. Westphal, S. O. Rizzoli, M. A. Lauterbach, D. Kamin, R. Jahn, S. W. Hell, "Video-rate far-field optical nanoscopy dissects synaptic vesicle movement," Science 320, 246-249 (2008).

J. Rosen, G. Brooker, "Non-scanning motionless fluorescence three-dimensional holographic microscopy," Nat. Photon. 2, 190-195 (2008).

H. Zhao, Q. Li, H. Feng, "Improved logarithmic phase mask to extend the depth of field of an incoherent imaging system," Opt. Lett. 33, 1171-1173 (2008) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-33-11-1171.

S. Bagheri, B. Javidi, "Extension of depth of field using amplitude and phase modulation of the pupil function," Opt. Lett. 33, 757-759 (2008) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-33-7-757.

P. Picart, D. Mounier, J. M. Desse, "High-resolution digital two-color holographic metrology," Opt. Lett. 33, 276-278 (2008) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-33-3-276.

M. Paturzo, P. Memmolo, L. Miccio, A. Finizio, P. Ferraro, A. Tulino, B. Javidi, "Numerical multiplexing and demultiplexing of digital holographic information for remote reconstruction in amplitude and phase," Opt. Lett. 33, 2629-2631 (2008) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-33-22-2629.

2007 (6)

L. Holtzer, T. Meckel, T. Schmidt, "Nanometric three-dimensional tracking of individual quantum dots in cells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 053902-053904 (2007).

P. J. Verveer, J. Swoger, F. Pampaloni, K. Greger, M. Marcello, E. H. K. Stelzer, "High-resolution threedimensional imaging of large specimens with light sheet-based microscopy," Nat. Methods 4, 311-313 (2007).

C. Do, B. Javidi, "Multifocus holographic 3D image fusion using independent component analysis," J. Display Technol. 3, 326-332 (2007).

G. Mikula, Z. Jaroszewicz, A. Kolodziejczyk, K. Petelczyc, M. Sypek, "Imaging with extended focal depth by means of lenses with radial and angular modulation," Opt. Express 15, 9184-9193 (2007) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-15-9184.

G. Pedrini, F. Zhang, W. Osten, "Digital holographic microscopy in the deep (193 nm) ultraviolet," Appl. Opt. 46, 7829-7835 (2007) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-46-32-7829.

W. E. Ortyn, D. J. Perry, V. Venkatachalam, L. Liang, B. E. Hall, K. Frost, D. A. Basiji, "Extended depth of field imaging for high speed cell analysis," Cytometry A 71A, 215-231 (2007) http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cyto.a.20370.

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

2004 (2)

2003 (2)

W. Xu, M. H. Jericho, H. J. Kreuzer, I. A. Meinertzhagen, "Tracking particles in four dimensions with inline holographic microscopy," Opt. Lett. 28, 164-166 (2003).

E. Allaria, S. Brugioni, S. De Nicola, P. Ferraro, S. Grilli, R. Meucci, "Digital holography at 10.6 $\mu$m," Opt. Commun. 215, 257-262 (2003).

1999 (2)

1995 (1)

1983 (1)

Appl. Opt. (9)

R. J. Pieper, A. Korpel, "Image processing for extended depth of field," Appl. Opt. 22, 1449-1453 (1983).

E. R. Dowski Jr., W. T. Cathey, "Extended depth of field through wavefront coding," Appl. Opt. 34, 1859-1866 (1995).

G. Pedrini, F. Zhang, W. Osten, "Digital holographic microscopy in the deep (193 nm) ultraviolet," Appl. Opt. 46, 7829-7835 (2007) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-46-32-7829.

S. J. Jeong, C. K. Hong, "Pixel-size-maintained image reconstruction of digital holograms on arbitrarily tilted planes by the angular spectrum method," Appl. Opt. 47, 3064-3071 (2008).

C. P. McElhinney, B. M. Hennelly, T. J. Naughton, "Extended focused imaging for digital holograms of macroscopic three-dimensional objects," Appl. Opt. 47, D71-D79 (2008).

K. Matsushima, "Formulation of the rotational transformation of wave fields and their application to digital holography," Appl. Opt. 47, D110-D116 (2008).

P. M. Blanchard, A. H. Greenaway, "Simultaneous multiplane imaging with a distorted diffraction grating," Appl. Opt. 38, 6692-6699 (1999) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-38-32-6692.

J. A. Ferrari, E. Garbusi, E. M. Frins, "Linear focusing by a plane grating with curved grooves," Appl. Opt. 43, 5350-5355 (2004) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-43-28-5350.

S. De Nicola, P. Ferraro, A. Finizio, G. Pierattini, "Reflective grating interferometer: A folded reversal wave-front interferometer," Appl. Opt. 38, 4845-4849 (1999) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-38-22-4845.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

L. Holtzer, T. Meckel, T. Schmidt, "Nanometric three-dimensional tracking of individual quantum dots in cells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 053902-053904 (2007).

W. Chen, C. Quan, C. J. Tay, "Extended depth of focus in a particle field measurement using a single-shot digital hologram," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 201103- (2009).

Cytometry A (1)

W. E. Ortyn, D. J. Perry, V. Venkatachalam, L. Liang, B. E. Hall, K. Frost, D. A. Basiji, "Extended depth of field imaging for high speed cell analysis," Cytometry A 71A, 215-231 (2007) http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cyto.a.20370.

J. Display Technol. (1)

Nat. Methods (1)

P. J. Verveer, J. Swoger, F. Pampaloni, K. Greger, M. Marcello, E. H. K. Stelzer, "High-resolution threedimensional imaging of large specimens with light sheet-based microscopy," Nat. Methods 4, 311-313 (2007).

Nat. Photon. (1)

J. Rosen, G. Brooker, "Non-scanning motionless fluorescence three-dimensional holographic microscopy," Nat. Photon. 2, 190-195 (2008).

Opt. Commun. (1)

E. Allaria, S. Brugioni, S. De Nicola, P. Ferraro, S. Grilli, R. Meucci, "Digital holography at 10.6 $\mu$m," Opt. Commun. 215, 257-262 (2003).

Opt. Express (7)

P. Ferraro, S. Grilli, D. Alfieri, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, G. Pierattini, B. Javidi, G. Coppola, V. Striano, "Extended focused image in microscopy by digital holography," Opt. Express 13, 6738-6749 (2005) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-18-6738.

G. Mikula, Z. Jaroszewicz, A. Kolodziejczyk, K. Petelczyc, M. Sypek, "Imaging with extended focal depth by means of lenses with radial and angular modulation," Opt. Express 15, 9184-9193 (2007) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-15-9184.

M. Paturzo, P. Ferraro, "Creating an extended focus image of a tilted object in Fourier digital holography," Opt. Express 17, 20546-20552 (2009) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-22-20546.

C. Iemmi, J. Campos, J. C. Escalera, O. López-Coronado, R. Gimeno, M. J. Yzuel, "Depth of focus increase by multiplexing programmable diffractive lenses," Opt. Express 14, 10207-10219 (2006) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-22-10207.

M. Paturzo, P. Memmolo, A. Tulino, A. Finizio, P. Ferraro, "Investigation of angular multiplexing and de-multiplexing of digital holograms recorded in microscope configuration," Opt. Express 17, 8709-8718 (2009) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-11-8709.

P. A. Dalgarno, H. I. C. Dalgarno, A. Putoud, R. Lambert, L. Paterson, D. C. Logan, D. P. Towers, R. J. Warburton, A. H. Greenaway, "Multiplane imaging and three dimensional nanoscale particle tracking in biological microscopy," Opt. Express 18, 877-884 (2010) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-2-877.

C. Maurer, S. Khan, S. Fassl, S. Bernet, M. Ritsch-Marte, "Depth of field multiplexing in microscopy," Opt. Express 18, 3023-3034 (2010) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-3-3023.

Opt. Lett. (9)

P. Ferraro, S. De Nicola, G. Coppola, A. Finizio, D. Alfieri, G. Pierattini, "Controlling image size as a function of distance and wavelength in Fresnel-transform reconstruction of digital holograms," Opt. Lett. 29, 854-856 (2004) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-29-8-854.

P. Picart, D. Mounier, J. M. Desse, "High-resolution digital two-color holographic metrology," Opt. Lett. 33, 276-278 (2008) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-33-3-276.

M. Paturzo, P. Memmolo, L. Miccio, A. Finizio, P. Ferraro, A. Tulino, B. Javidi, "Numerical multiplexing and demultiplexing of digital holographic information for remote reconstruction in amplitude and phase," Opt. Lett. 33, 2629-2631 (2008) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-33-22-2629.

W. Xu, M. H. Jericho, H. J. Kreuzer, I. A. Meinertzhagen, "Tracking particles in four dimensions with inline holographic microscopy," Opt. Lett. 28, 164-166 (2003).

M. Antkowiak, N. Callens, C. Yourassowsky, F. Dubois, "Extended focused imaging of a microparticle field with digital holographic microscopy," Opt. Lett. 33, 1626-1628 (2008).

T. Ikeda, G. Popescu, R. R. Dasari, Michael, S. Feld, "Hilbert phase microscopy for investigating fast dynamics in transparent systems," Opt. Lett. 30, 1165-1167 (2005) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-30-10-1165.

H. Zhao, Q. Li, H. Feng, "Improved logarithmic phase mask to extend the depth of field of an incoherent imaging system," Opt. Lett. 33, 1171-1173 (2008) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-33-11-1171.

S. Bagheri, B. Javidi, "Extension of depth of field using amplitude and phase modulation of the pupil function," Opt. Lett. 33, 757-759 (2008) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-33-7-757.

P. Ferraro, M. Paturzo, P. Memmolo, A. Finizio, "Controlling depth of focus in 3D image reconstructions by flexible and adaptive deformation of digital holograms," Opt. Lett. 34, 2787-2789 (2009) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-34-18-2787.

Science (1)

V. Westphal, S. O. Rizzoli, M. A. Lauterbach, D. Kamin, R. Jahn, S. W. Hell, "Video-rate far-field optical nanoscopy dissects synaptic vesicle movement," Science 320, 246-249 (2008).

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