Abstract

We have proposed an “Illumination Watermarking” technology with which the images of objects without copyright protection can contain invisible digital watermarking. This technology uses spatially modulated illumination possibly using an orthogonal transform, such as discrete cosine transform (DCT), as the method of embedding watermarks, and it can be applied to objects that do not have electronically embedded watermarking such as pictures painted by artists. We conducted a new series of experiments where one-bit binary data were embedded in one block that consisted of 8$\times$8 pixels using the phase of the highest frequency component generated by a Walsh–Hadamard transform (WHT) as well as DCT. The experimental results revealed that embedded data could be read out with almost 100% accuracy in both cases, where the embedded watermarked image could hardly be observed. We also found that the influence of JPEG compression, which is commonly used in digital cameras, was very small.

© 2010 IEEE

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  1. I. J. Cox, J. Kilian, F. T. Leighton, T. Shamoon, "Secure spread spectrum watermarking for multimedia," IEEE Trans. Image Process. 6, 1673-1687 (1997).
  2. M. D. Swanson, M. Kobayashi, A. H. Tewfik, "Multimedia data-embedding and watermarking technologies," Proc. IEEE 86, 1064-1087 (1998).
  3. M. Hartung, M. Kutter, "Multimedia watermarking techniques," Proc. IEEE 87, 1079-1107 (1999).
  4. G. C. Langelaar, I. Setyawan, R. L. Lagendij, "Watermarking digital image and video data," IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 17, 20-46 (2000).
  5. Z. Liu, Multimedia Watermarking Techniques and Applications (Auerbach, 2006) pp. 289-305.
  6. J. Haitsma, T. Kalker, "A watermarking scheme for digital cinema," ICIP2001 2, 487-489 (2001).
  7. Digital Cinema Initiatives“Digital Cinema System Specification V1.2,” (2008).
  8. S. Goshi, H. Nakamura, H. Ito, R. Fujii, M. Suzuki, S. Takai, Y. Tani, "A new watermark surviving after re-shooting the images displayed on a screen," KES2005, LNAI3682 1099-1107 (2005).
  9. K. Okihara, Y. Inazumi, H. Kinoshita, "A watermark method that improve the relationship between of the number of embedded bits and image degradation," Illumin. Eng. Inst. Jpn. (IEIJ) 58, 1465-1467 (2004).
  10. T. Mizumoto, K. Matsui, "Robustness investigation of DCT digital watermark for printing and scanning," Trans. IEICE (A) J85-A, 451-459 (2002).
  11. M. Ejima, A. Miyazaki, "Digital watermark technique for hard copy image," Trans. IEICE (A) J82-A, 1156-1159 (1999).
  12. Y. Horiuchi, M. Muneyasu, "Information embedding to the printing images based on DCT," Proc. ITC-CSCC2004 (2004).
  13. K. Uehira, M. Suzuki, "Digital watermarking technique using brightness-modulated light," Proc. ICME2008 (2008) pp. 257-260.
  14. Y. Ishikawa, K. Uehira, K. Yanaka, "Illumination watermarking technique using orthogonal transforms," Proc. IAS2009 (2009) pp. 257-260.

2005

S. Goshi, H. Nakamura, H. Ito, R. Fujii, M. Suzuki, S. Takai, Y. Tani, "A new watermark surviving after re-shooting the images displayed on a screen," KES2005, LNAI3682 1099-1107 (2005).

2004

K. Okihara, Y. Inazumi, H. Kinoshita, "A watermark method that improve the relationship between of the number of embedded bits and image degradation," Illumin. Eng. Inst. Jpn. (IEIJ) 58, 1465-1467 (2004).

2002

T. Mizumoto, K. Matsui, "Robustness investigation of DCT digital watermark for printing and scanning," Trans. IEICE (A) J85-A, 451-459 (2002).

2001

J. Haitsma, T. Kalker, "A watermarking scheme for digital cinema," ICIP2001 2, 487-489 (2001).

2000

G. C. Langelaar, I. Setyawan, R. L. Lagendij, "Watermarking digital image and video data," IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 17, 20-46 (2000).

1999

M. Hartung, M. Kutter, "Multimedia watermarking techniques," Proc. IEEE 87, 1079-1107 (1999).

M. Ejima, A. Miyazaki, "Digital watermark technique for hard copy image," Trans. IEICE (A) J82-A, 1156-1159 (1999).

1998

M. D. Swanson, M. Kobayashi, A. H. Tewfik, "Multimedia data-embedding and watermarking technologies," Proc. IEEE 86, 1064-1087 (1998).

1997

I. J. Cox, J. Kilian, F. T. Leighton, T. Shamoon, "Secure spread spectrum watermarking for multimedia," IEEE Trans. Image Process. 6, 1673-1687 (1997).

ICIP2001

J. Haitsma, T. Kalker, "A watermarking scheme for digital cinema," ICIP2001 2, 487-489 (2001).

IEEE Signal Process. Mag.

G. C. Langelaar, I. Setyawan, R. L. Lagendij, "Watermarking digital image and video data," IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 17, 20-46 (2000).

IEEE Trans. Image Process.

I. J. Cox, J. Kilian, F. T. Leighton, T. Shamoon, "Secure spread spectrum watermarking for multimedia," IEEE Trans. Image Process. 6, 1673-1687 (1997).

Illumin. Eng. Inst. Jpn. (IEIJ)

K. Okihara, Y. Inazumi, H. Kinoshita, "A watermark method that improve the relationship between of the number of embedded bits and image degradation," Illumin. Eng. Inst. Jpn. (IEIJ) 58, 1465-1467 (2004).

KES2005, LNAI3682

S. Goshi, H. Nakamura, H. Ito, R. Fujii, M. Suzuki, S. Takai, Y. Tani, "A new watermark surviving after re-shooting the images displayed on a screen," KES2005, LNAI3682 1099-1107 (2005).

Proc. IEEE

M. D. Swanson, M. Kobayashi, A. H. Tewfik, "Multimedia data-embedding and watermarking technologies," Proc. IEEE 86, 1064-1087 (1998).

M. Hartung, M. Kutter, "Multimedia watermarking techniques," Proc. IEEE 87, 1079-1107 (1999).

Trans. IEICE (A)

T. Mizumoto, K. Matsui, "Robustness investigation of DCT digital watermark for printing and scanning," Trans. IEICE (A) J85-A, 451-459 (2002).

M. Ejima, A. Miyazaki, "Digital watermark technique for hard copy image," Trans. IEICE (A) J82-A, 1156-1159 (1999).

Other

Y. Horiuchi, M. Muneyasu, "Information embedding to the printing images based on DCT," Proc. ITC-CSCC2004 (2004).

K. Uehira, M. Suzuki, "Digital watermarking technique using brightness-modulated light," Proc. ICME2008 (2008) pp. 257-260.

Y. Ishikawa, K. Uehira, K. Yanaka, "Illumination watermarking technique using orthogonal transforms," Proc. IAS2009 (2009) pp. 257-260.

Z. Liu, Multimedia Watermarking Techniques and Applications (Auerbach, 2006) pp. 289-305.

Digital Cinema Initiatives“Digital Cinema System Specification V1.2,” (2008).

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